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Vertebrate Evolution and Diversity

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Class Amphibia - amphibians - salamanders, frogs, caecilians (legless animals that burrow) ... Most amphibians rely heavily on moist skin to carry out gas ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Vertebrate Evolution and Diversity


1
Vertebrate Evolution and Diversity
  • Chapter 34

2
  • Vertebrates belong to phylum Chordata.
  • Includes 3 subphyla, vertebrates and 2 phyla of
    invertebrates, urochordates and cephalochordates.
  • 4 characteristics notochord dorsal, hollow
    nerve cord pharyngeal slits and muscular,
    postanal tail.

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  • Notochord, present in all chordate embryos -
    flexible rod between digestive tube and nerve
    cord.
  • Dorsal, hollow nerve cord develops in vertebrate
    embryo from plate of ectoderm that rolls into
    tube dorsal to notochord - can develop into
    spinal cord.

5
http//www-biol.paisley.ac.uk/courses/tatner/biome
dia/jpegs/hypchrdb.jpg
6
  • Pharyngeal gill slits connect pharynx, just
    posterior to mouth, to outside of animal.
  • Most chordates have muscular tail extending
    posterior to anus.

7
http//science.kennesaw.edu/biophys/biodiversity/a
nimalia/cephal.gif
8
Tunicates
  • Sessile marine animals that adhere to rocks,
    docks, and boats.
  • Invertebrates - urochordates.
  • Chordate characteristics are present as larva.
  • Suspension-feeders.

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http//www.aboututila.com/Reviews/Charlie-Johnson/
Photos/Bluebell-Tunicates.jpg
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Lancets
  • Cephalochordates - have chordate characteristics
    in adult.
  • Suspension-feeders.

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Lancet
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Vertebrates
  • Neural crest, pronounced cephalization, vertebral
    column, closed circulatory system - subphylum
    Vertebrata.
  • Neural crests start of formation of cranium
    cephalization - collection of nervous tissue that
    forms brain.

16
http//bio1151.nicerweb.com/doc/class/bio1151/Lock
ed/media/ch34/34_07NeuralCrest_L.jpg
17
  • Have appendicular skeleton, supporting 2 pairs of
    appendages (fins, legs, or arms).
  • Can be made of either bone, cartilage, or both.

18
http//sciencecity.oupchina.com.hk/biology/student
/glossary/img/appendicular_skeleton.jpg
19
Jawless vertebrate
  • 2 classes of jawless vertebrates still living
    Class Myxini (hagfish) and Class
    Cephalaspidomorphi (lampreys).
  • Hagfish - skeletons made of cartilage making them
    flexible, but no backbone.

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Hagfish
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  • Lampreys - parasites with cartilage skeletons.
  • Lack backbone - have notochord.

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Jawed fish
  • Jawed fish broken into 2 classes (extant).
  • Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes sharks,
    rays), Osteichthyes (bony fishes ray-finned
    fishes, lobe-finned fishes, lungfishes).

24
http//palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles/Fossilgro
ups/Chondrichthyes/megalodon.jpg
25
  • Chondrichthyes - skeleton made of cartilage.
  • Cartilaginous skeleton usually replaced by bone
    chondrichthyes - process prevented.
  • Fertilize internally some lay eggs (oviparous),
    few give birth to live young (viviparous)

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  • Osteichthyes - bony fish - endoskeleton made of
    bone.
  • Bony fish have swim bladder not found in
    cartilaginous fish - helps control buoyancy of
    fish.
  • Bony fish actually broken down into 3 groups
    ray-finned fishes, lobe-finned fishes,
    lungfishes.

28
Ray-finned fishes
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Lobe-finned fish
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http//www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Sciences/Zoolo
gy/Biologicaldiverstity/AnimalsIII/coelacanth.jpg
Lungfish
31
Tetrapods
  • Tetrapods -land animals - walk on all fours -
    transition from water animals to land animals -
    amphibians.

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  • Class Amphibia - amphibians - salamanders, frogs,
    caecilians (legless animals that burrow)
  • Fertilization external - lay eggs.
  • Most amphibians rely heavily on moist skin to
    carry out gas exchange with environment - still
    tied to water.
  • Some adult frogs have lungs.

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Caecilian
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Amniotes
  • Mammals, birds, reptiles, including turtles,
    lizards, snakes, crocodiles.
  • Transition to land - adaptations were needed
    amniotic egg, waterproof skin, increasing use of
    rib cage to ventilate lungs.

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http//content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en-comm
ons/thumb/f/fc/250px-Tortoise-Hatchling.jpg
39
  • Amniotic eggs of most amniotes have shell that
    retains water - can be laid in dry place.
  • Inside shell of amniotic egg - several
    extraembryonic membranes that function in gas
    exchange, waste storage, and transfer of stored
    nutrients to embryo.

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Reptiles
  • Class Reptilia divided into 4 orders.
  • Reptiles - several adaptations for terrestrial
    life not found in amphibians - leathery skin to
    prevent dehydration, lungs.
  • Fertilization internal, eggs laid (amniotic eggs)

42
http//www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/caer/ce/eek/critter
/reptile/images/turtleHatching.jpg
43
  • Reptiles - ectotherms - cannot maintain own
    internal temperature (cold-blooded).
  • Turtles return to water to lay eggs have not
    evolved since 1st appearance.
  • Lizards - most numerous reptiles.

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  • Snakes - limbless reptiles - still have pelvic
    bones - evidence that they evolved from reptiles
    with legs.
  • Crocodiles and alligators - largest living
    reptiles.
  • Breathe through their nostrils that are pointed
    upward out of water.

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Birds
  • Birds - class Aves - broken down into 28 orders
    (few flightless birds)
  • Birds evolved to have hollow bones to allow for
    flight and feathers.
  • Modern birds - toothless - grind food in muscular
    gizzard near stomach.

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  • Large brains of birds (proportionately larger
    than reptiles or amphibians) support very complex
    behavior.
  • Birds - endotherms - metabolism allows them to
    regulate internal temperature.

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Mammals
  • Mammals - class Mammalia - identified by mammary
    glands.
  • Most mammals give birth to live young after
    internal fertilization.
  • Nutrition done via placenta.
  • Most mammals capable of learning due to larger
    brains.

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  • Monotremes - duck-billed platypus and echindas -
    lay eggs that have yolks to support embryo.
  • Marsupials - born early in development crawl into
    pouch in mother to complete development.
  • Eutherians - placental mammals.

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http//cache.eb.com/eb/image?id94548rendTypeId4
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Echinda
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http//marsupials.org/koalaalb.jpg
59
Opposum
60
http//www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/mammal/eutheria/rat.j
pg
61
  • Primates - most advanced of eutherians.
  • Opposable thumb characteristic of most advanced
    primates.
  • Divided into 2 groups prosimians (lemurs),
    anthropoids (apes, humans).

62
http//www.dumondconservancy.org/dc2005/images/web
/troy20originals/lemur8.jpg
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http//www.dkimages.com/discover/previews/920/5504
8736.JPG
64
  • New World monkeys - arboreal (live in trees) -
    tails used for grasping.

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  • Hominoid - great apes and humans collectively.
  • Hominid - group closely related to humans.
  • Human evolution included many adaptations -
    larger brains, ability to stand upright.

67
http//www.nhc.ed.ac.uk/images/vertebrates/primate
s/HominoidSkulls.jpg
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