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Artificial Intelligence: Human vs. Machine

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'My mind is going...' Memory is at the core of our being (and a computer's) ... Several hundred miles over varied terrain. First challenge (2004) 142 miles ' ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Artificial Intelligence: Human vs. Machine


1
Artificial Intelligence Human vs. Machine
  • Professor Marie desJardins
  • CMSC 100
  • Fall 2008

2
Memory is at the Core (Literally)
  • Remember Hal?
  • Open the pod bay door, Hal.
  • My mind is going...
  • Memory is at the core of our being (and a
    computers)
  • ...but our memories look very different!

The first magnetic core memory www.columbia.edu/a
cis/history
thebrain.mcgill.ca
3
Overview
  • What is AI? (and why is it so cool?)
  • AI Past and Present
  • History of AI
  • AI Today
  • Computational vs. Biological Memory
  • The Skeptics Speak

4
What is AI?
5
AI A Vision
  • Could an intelligent agent living on your home
    computer manage your email, coordinate your work
    and social activities, help plan your vacations
    even watch your house while you take those well
    planned vacations?

6
Main Goals of AI
  • Represent and store knowledge
  • Retrieve and reason about knowledge
  • Behave intelligently in complex environments
  • Develop interesting and useful applications
  • Interact with people, agents, and the environment

7
Foundations of AI
Computer Science Engineering
Mathematics
Philosophy
AI
Biology
Economics
Psychology
Linguistics
Cognitive Science
8
Big Questions
  • Can machines think?
  • If so, how?
  • If not, why not?
  • What does this say about human beings?
  • What does this say about the mind?
  • And if we can make machines think, should we?

9
Why AI?
  • Engineering To get machines to do a wider
    variety of useful things
  • e.g., understand spoken natural language,
    recognize individual people in visual scenes,
    find the best travel plan for your vacation, etc.
  • Cognitive Science As a way to understand how
    natural minds and mental phenomena work
  • e.g., memory, learning, language, visual
    perception, etc.
  • Philosophy As a way to explore some basic and
    interesting (and important) philosophical
    questions
  • e.g., the mind body problem, what is
    consciousness, etc.

10
History of AI
11
History
12
Early AI Eliza
  • ELIZA A program that simulated a psychotherapist
    interacting with a patient and successfully
    passed the Turing Test
  • Implemented at MIT during 1964-1966 by Joel
    Weizenbaum
  • First script was DOCTOR
  • Simple pattern-matching
  • Each pattern had an associated reply which might
    include bits of the input (after simple
    transformations (my ? your)
  • Weizenbaum was shocked at reactions
  • Psychiatrists thought it had potential
  • People unequivocally anthropomorphized
  • Let me tell you my problems...
  • Many thought it solved the natural language
    problem!!

13
Eliza Speaks
  • I am the psychotherapist. Please, describe your
    problems.
  • i'm having a hard time with my students
  • Why do you say that?
  • well, they keep asking me for money
  • Maybe your plans have something to do with this.
  • what plans?
  • Is it because of your life that you say what
    plans?
  • No, it's because I didn't know what you were
    talking about
  • Is it because you didn't know what I was talking
    about that you came to me?
  • no, it's because i wanted to see if you could
    pass the turing test
  • Does it bother you that you wanted to see if I
    could really pass the turing test?
  • ..
  • How do you reconcile problems at school?
  • This is a waste of time. Good bye
  • My secretary will send you a bill.

14
Early AI Parry
  • Kenneth Colby modeled a paranoid using the same
    techniques as Eliza, around 1968
  • PARRY has basic emotions. If it gets angry, its
    replies become more hostile
  • In a Turing test, expert psychiatrists were
    unable to distinguish PARRYs ramblings from
    those of real paranoids

15
PARRY Speaks
  • Good afternoon. My name is Doctor Jones.
  • Pleased to meet you.
  • How are you?
  • All right I guess.
  • Could you tell me your name?
  • Pat Smith.
  • I though you might have some problems.
  • I've been upset lately.
  • By what?
  • People get on my nerves sometimes.
  • Tell me more.
  • Do you know anything about bookies?
  • ...

16
Please tell me this isn't AI!
  • P I don't understand your motives.
  • E Why don't you understand my motives?
  • P Shouldn't I be?
  • E Why do you say that just now?
  • P That's just the way it is.
  • E Suppose that's the way it were not.
  • P So?
  • E I am not sure I understand you fully.
  • P You harp on the same questions too much.
  • E What does that similarity suggest to you?
  • P I don't get you.
  • E Do you wish that you did get I?

17
Turing Test
  • Three rooms contain a person, a computer, and an
    interrogator
  • The interrogator can communicate with the other
    two by teleprinter (or, say, AIM)
  • The interrogator tries to determine which is the
    person and which is the machine
  • The machine tries to fool the interrogator into
    believing that it is the person
  • If the machine succeeds, then we conclude that
    the machine can think

18
The Loebner Contest
  • A modern version of the Turing Test, held
    annually, with a 100,000 cash prize
  • Hugh Loebner was once director of UMBCs Academic
    Computing Services (née UCS, lately OIT)
  • http//www.loebner.net/Prizef/loebner-prize.html
  • Participants include a set of humans, a set of
    computers, and a set of judges
  • Scoring
  • Rank from least human to most human
  • Highest median rank wins 2000
  • If better than a human, win 100,000 (Nobody
    yet)
  • 2008 winner Elbot

19
Whats Easy and Whats Hard?
  • Its been easier to mechanize many of the
    high-level tasks we usually associate with
    intelligence in people
  • e.g., symbolic integration, proving theorems,
    playing chess, medical diagnosis
  • Its been very hard to mechanize tasks that lots
    of animals can do
  • walking around without running into things
  • catching prey and avoiding predators
  • interpreting complex sensory information (e.g.,
    visual, aural, )
  • modeling the internal states of other animals
    from their behavior
  • working as a team (e.g., with pack animals)
  • Is there a fundamental difference between the two
    categories?

20
AI Today
21
Who Does AI?
  • Academic researchers (perhaps the most
    Ph.D.-generating area of computer science in
    recent years)
  • Some of the top AI schools CMU, Stanford,
    Berkeley, MIT, UIUC, UMd, U Alberta, UT Austin,
    ... (and, of course, UMBC!)
  • Government and private research labs
  • NASA, NRL, NIST, IBM, ATT, SRI, ISI, MERL, ...
  • Lots of companies!

22
Applications
  • A sample from the 2008 International Conference
    on Innovative Applications of AI
  • Event management (for Olympic equestrian
    competition)
  • Language and culture instruction
  • Public school choice (for parents)
  • Turbulence prediction (for air traffic safety)
  • Heart wall abnormality diagnosis
  • Epilepsy treatment planning
  • Personalization of telecommunications services
  • Earth observation flight planning (for science
    data)
  • Crop selection (for optimal soil planning)

23
What Can AI Systems Do Now?
  • Here are some example applications
  • Computer vision face recognition from a large
    set
  • Robotics autonomous (mostly) automobile
  • Natural language processing simple machine
    translation
  • Expert systems medical diagnosis in a narrow
    domain
  • Spoken language systems 2000 word continuous
    speech
  • Planning and scheduling Hubble Telescope
    experiments
  • Learning text categorization into 1000 topics
  • User modeling Bayesian reasoning in Windows help
    (the infamous paper clip)
  • Games Grand Master level in chess (world
    champion), checkers, backgammon, etc.
    Breaking news (8/7/08) - MoGo beats
    professional Go player

24
Robotics
  • SRI Shakey / planning sri-shakey.ram
  • SRI Flakey / planning control sri-Flakey
  • UMass Thing / learning control umass_thing_irre
    g.mpeg umass_thing_quest.mpeg umass-can-roll.mpeg
  • MIT Cog / reactive behavior mit-cog-saw-30.mov mi
    t-cog-drum-close-15.mov
  • MIT Kismet / affect interaction mit-kismet.mov
    mit-kismet-expressions-dl.mov
  • CMU RoboCup Soccer / teamwork
    coordination cmu_vs_gatech.mpeg

25
DARPA Grand Challenge
  • Completely autonomous vehicles (no human
    guidance)
  • Several hundred miles over varied terrain
  • First challenge (2004) 142 miles
  • winner traveled seven(!) miles
  • Second challenge (2005) 131 miles
  • Winning team (Stanford) completed the course in
    under 7 hours
  • Three other teams completed the course in just
    over 7 hours
  • Onwards and upwards (2007)
  • Urban Challenge
  • Traffic laws, merging, traffic circles, busy
    intersections...
  • Six finishers (best time 2.8 miles in 4 hours)

26
Art NEvAr
  • Use genetic algorithms to evolve aesthetically
    interesting pictures
  • See http//eden.dei.uc.pt/machado/NEvAr

27
ALife Evolutionary Optimization
  • MERL evolving bots

28
Human-Computer Interaction Sketching
  • Step 1 Typing
  • Step 2 Constrained handwriting
  • Step 3 Handwriting
    recognition
  • Step 4 Sketch recognition (doodling)!
  • MIT sketch tablet

29
Driving Adaptive Cruise Control
  • Adaptive cruise control and pre- crash safety
    system (ACC/PCS)
  • Offered by dozens of makers, mostly as an option
    (1500) on high-end models
  • Determines appropriate speed for traffic
    conditions
  • Senses impending collisions and reacts (brakes,
    seatbelts)
  • Latest AI technology automatic parallel parking!

30
AxonX
  • Smoke and fire monitoring system

31
Rocket Review
  • Automated SAT essay grading system

32
What Cant AI Systems Do (Yet)?
  • Understand natural language robustly (e.g., read
    and understand articles in a newspaper)
  • Surf the web (or a wave)
  • Interpret an arbitrary visual scene
  • Learn a natural language
  • Play Go well v
  • Construct plans in dynamic real-time domains
  • Refocus attention in complex environments
  • Perform life-long learning

Exhibit true autonomy and intelligence!
33
Computational vs. Biological Memory
34
How Does It Work? (Humans)
  • Basic idea
  • Chemical traces in the neurons of the brain
  • Types of memory
  • Primary (short-term)
  • Secondary (long-term)
  • Factors in memory quality
  • Distractions
  • Emotional cues
  • Repetition

35
How Does It Work? (Computers)
  • Basic idea
  • Store information as bits using physical
    processes (stable electronic states, capacitors,
    magnetic polarity, ...)
  • One bit yes or no
  • Types of computer storage
  • Primary storage (RAM or just memory)
  • Secondary storage (hard disks)
  • Tertiary storage (optical jukeboxes)
  • Off-line storage (flash drives)
  • Factors in memory quality
  • Power source (for RAM)
  • Avoiding extreme temperatures

Speed
Size
36
Measuring Memory
  • Remember that one yes/no bit is the basic unit
  • Eight (23) bits one byte
  • 1,024 (210) bytes one kilobyte (1K)
  • 1,024K (220 bytes) one megabyte (1M)
  • 1,024K (230 bytes) one gigabyte (1G)
  • 1,024 (240 bytes) one terabyte (1T)
  • 1,024 (250 bytes) one petabyte (1P)
  • ... 280 bytes one yottabyte (1Y?)

Note that external storage is usually measured
in decimal rather than binary (1000 bytes 1K,
and so on)
37
What Was It Like Then?
  • The PDP-11/70s we used in college had 64K of RAM,
    with hard disks that held less than 1M of memory
  • ... and we had to walk five miles, uphill, in the
    snow, every day! And we had to live in a
    cardboard box in the middle of the road!

38
What Is It Like Now?
  • The PDP-11/70s we used in college had 64K of RAM,
    with hard disks that held less than 1M of memory
  • The cheapest Dell Inspiron laptop has 2G of RAM
    and up to 80G of hard drive storage....
  • ...a factor of 1018 more RAM and 1012 more disk
    space
  • ...and your iPod nano has 8G of blindingly fast
    storage
  • ...so dont come whining to me about how slow
    your computer is!

39
Moores Law
  • Computer memory (and processing speed,
    resolution, and just about everything else)
    increases exponentially

40
Showdown
  • Computer capacity
  • Primary storage 64GB
  • Secondary storage 750GB (1012)
  • Tertiary storage 1PB? (1015)
  • Computer retrieval speed
  • Primary 10-7 sec.
  • Secondary 10-5 sec.
  • Computing capacity 1 petaflop (1015
    floating-point instructions per second), very
    special purpose
  • Digital
  • Extremely reliable
  • Not (usually) parallel
  • Human capacity
  • Primary storage 7 2 chunks
  • Secondary storage 108432 bits?? (or maybe 109
    bits?)
  • Human retrieval speed
  • Primary 10-2 sec
  • Secondary 10-2 sec
  • Computing capacity possibly 100 petaflops, very
    general purpose
  • Analog
  • Moderately reliable
  • Highly parallel

????
More at movementarian.com
41
Its Not Just What You Know
  • Storage
  • Indexing
  • Retrieval
  • Inference
  • Semantics
  • Synthesis
  • ...So far, computers are good at storage, OK at
    indexing and retrieval, and humans win on pretty
    much all of the other dimensions
  • ...but were just getting started
  • Electronic computers were only invented 60 years
    ago!
  • Homo sapiens has had a few hundred thousand years
    to evolve...

42
The Skeptics Speak
43
Mind and Consciousness
  • Many philosophers have wrestled with the
    question
  • Is Artificial Intelligence possible?
  • John Searle most famous AI skeptic
  • Chinese Room argument
  • Is this really intelligence?

?
!
44
What Searle Argues
  • People have beliefs computers and machines
    dont.
  • People have intentionality computers and
    machines dont.
  • Brains have causal properties computers and
    machines dont.
  • Brains have a particular biological and chemical
    structure computers and machines dont.
  • (Philosophers can make claims like People have
    intentionality without ever really saying what
    intentionality is, except (in effect) the
    stuff that people have and computers dont.)

45
Lets Introspect For a Moment...
  • Have you ever learned something by rote that you
    didnt really understand?
  • Were you able to get a good grade on an essay
    where you didnt really know what you were
    talking about?
  • Have you ever convinced somebody you know a lot
    about something you really dont?
  • Are you a Chinese room??
  • What does understanding really mean?
  • What is intentionality? Are human beings the
    only entities that can ever have it?
  • What is consciousness? Why do we have it and
    other animals and inanimate objects dont? (Or
    do they?)

46
Just You Wait...
Give us another 10 years!
or 20...
or 30...
or 50...
47
Thank You!
Any Questions?
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