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Promoting Transfer through Case-Based Reasoning: Rituals and Practices in Learning by Design

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Instructional Design; Kolodner; Germany. 2. Learning by Design ... Instructional Design; Kolodner; Germany. 20. How did we get to all this? 5/02/01 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Promoting Transfer through Case-Based Reasoning: Rituals and Practices in Learning by Design


1
Promoting Transfer through Case-Based Reasoning
Rituals and Practices in Learning by Design
Classrooms
  • Janet L. Kolodner
  • College of Computing
  • Georgia Institute of Technology
  • Atlanta, GA, USA
  • (and the Learning by Design project team)

2
Learning by Design
  • A project-based inquiry approach to science
    education for middle school
  • Students learn science concepts and practices in
    the context of attempting to achieve design
    challenges.
  • Highly collaborative
  • A variety of practices and scaffolding tools are
    embedded in the approach to promote the kinds of
    experiences and reflection that promote transfer.

3
Science Practices
  • Understanding a problem and what might need to be
    investigated
  • Investigation with a purpose experimentation,
    modeling, learning from cases, library lookup,
    ...
  • Informed decision making, reporting on and
    justifying conclusions
  • Iteration towards understanding
  • Explaining scientifically
  • Teamwork, collaboration across teams, giving
    credit

4
Our Units
  • Physical Science
  • Apollo 13 introduction to practices of design
    and science
  • Vehicles in Motion motion and forces
  • Machines that Help simple machines and
    mechanical advantage
  • Earth Science
  • Digging In -- launcher unit
  • Managing Erosion erosion and accretion
  • Tunneling through Georgia geology, rocks and
    minerals, rock formations, underground water
  • Looking for a publisher

5
Novel Features
  • Ritualized classroom activities matched to
    science practices
  • Design diary pages matched to activities provide
    scaffolding for performance and reflection
  • Software scaffolding matched to activities and
    presentations promotes summary and interpretation
  • Launcher units introduce practices and culture
  • Orchestration such that students need each
    others' results
  • Lots of presentations to promote good kinds of
    reflection
  • Highly iterative to promote explanation and
    iterative refinement of conceptions

6
LBD's Community Rituals
  • Gallery walk -- scaffolds explanation
  • Pin-up session -- scaffolds justification
  • Results presentation -- scaffolds justification
    and data interpretation
  • Design rules of thumb generation-- scaffolds data
    interpretation
  • Messing About and Whiteboarding -- scaffold
    question asking

7
Novel Features
  • Ritualized classroom activities matched to
    science practices
  • Design diary pages matched to activities provide
    scaffolding for performance and reflection
  • Software scaffolding matched to activities and
    presentations promotes summary and interpretation
  • Launcher units introduce practices and culture
  • Orchestration such that students need each
    others results
  • Lots of presentations to promote good kinds of
    reflection
  • Highly iterative to promote explanation and
    iterative refinement of conceptions

8
Two Design Diary Pages
9
SMILE
  • Design discussions
  • Investigation planning and presentation
  • Design plans and decisions (pin-up)
  • Design experiences (gallery walks)
  • Summary authoring
  • Goals, plans, results, science used
  • Two most important iterations
  • Lessons learned and how they might be used

10
Our Experiment
  • Your question
  • Your hypothesis
  • How you will test it
  • Your procedure
  • Variable you will vary
  • Values you will give it
  • Properties you will hold constant
  • Data
  • Interpretation of results
  • Rule of thumb
  • Scaffolding is of three kinds
  • structuring with a leading question or topic
  • hints
  • examples

11
Describe a design iteration
  • Describe your design iteration. Be sure to tell
    us what is different this time and why.
  • Describe what you expected to happen when you
    implemented this design.
  • Describe scientifically the positive aspects of
    this design. Tell why these aspects were
    positive, using scientific vocabulary. Make sure
    to specify the constraints you took into account
    and the criteria your design achieved.
  • Describe scientifically the negative aspects of
    this design. Tell why these aspects were
    negative, using scientific vocabulary.
  • Describe the parts of the challenge that were not
    solved.
  • What, if anything, needed to be changed?
  • Anything else?

12
Lessons Learned
  • Choose one of the things you learned and describe
    it. Be as specific as possible. Explain so that
    someone who doesn't yet know what you know could
    understand.
  • Describe the experience when you learned it.
  • Describe another situation when you have
    experienced this.
  • Explain why what you learned might be important
    to someone else. When and how might they use it?
  • Describe a situation in the future in which you
    might use what you have learned again.

13
Novel Features
  • Ritualized classroom activities matched to
    science practices
  • Design diary pages matched to activities provide
    scaffolding for performance and reflection
  • Software scaffolding matched to activities and
    presentations promotes summary and interpretation
  • Launcher units introduce practices and culture
  • Orchestration such that students need each
    others results
  • Lots of presentations to promote good kinds of
    reflection
  • Highly iterative to promote explanation and
    iterative refinement of conceptions

14
Vehicles in Motion
  • Design and build a vehicle that can propel itself
    over several hills and beyond the farther the
    better
  • Coaster Car Challenge
  • Friction and keeping things going
  • Balloon Car Challenge
  • Getting and keeping things going
  • Rubber-band and Falling Weight Challenge
  • Comparing different kinds of propulsion
  • Put it all together

15
LBD's Sequencing
  • Pose design challenge.
  • "Messing about" leads to question posing.
    (Messing About)
  • Investigation following scientific methodology.
    (My Experiment SMILE)
  • Balloon-car challenge
  • W/balloon engines
  • Size of balloons?
  • Length of straw?
  • Diameter of straw?
  • Double balloon?
  • Double engine?
  • Each group chooses a question and designs and
    runs an experiment

16
From Group Work to Class Discussion
  • Sharing results
  • Drawing out design rules of thumb (My Rules of
    Thumb)
  • Why were the results of that run so different?
  • Maybe you didn't blow up the balloons the same
    every time.
  • Two engines are better than one
  • ...

17
Getting to the Science
  • Design planning (SMILE)
  • Pin-up session (Pin-up Notes)
  • Construction and testing (Testing my Design)
  • Gallery Walk (SMILE Gallery Walk Notes)
  • Need for science (My Rules of Thumb)
  • Let's use two engines and double the balloons in
    each because
  • When we did that, the wheels spun out. We don't
    know why.
  • Read text pages about ...

18
Summary Pulling it all together
  • Iterative refinement
  • Final gallery walk
  • Product history (SMILE)
  • Application problems and scenarios
  • Lessons learned (SMILE)
  • Individual and group writeups
  • About science, science practice, collaboration,
    ...

19
More on Sequencing
  • Iteration towards better solutions provides
    opportunities for iteration towards better
    understanding.
  • Sharing experimental results, design ideas, and
    design experiences promotes focus on
    investigative methodologies.
  • Design diary pages and software provide
    scaffolding for doing and reflection in the
    context of ritualized activities.
  • Multiple opportunities for students to engage in
    and learn science process, communication,
    collaboration, planning, reflection, design in
    the process of learning and applying science
    content.

20
(No Transcript)
21
How did we get to all this?
22
LBD's Foundations
  • Case-based reasoning's model of learning from
    experience (Kolodner, Schank, Hammond, )
  • Problem-Based Learning's model of the classroom
    (Barrows, )
  • Communities of Learners (Brown, Campione),
    Constructionism (Papert, Harel, Kafai, ),
    Cognitive Apprenticeship (Collins, Brown, ),
    architecture studio, Decision-Based Design
    (Mistree, ),
  • Transfer literature (as in How People Learn)

23
Transfer
  • The ability to apply something learned in one
    situation in another situation that wasnt
    directly targeted in the learning
  • Example 1 sliding up the driveway (reusing
    knowledge)
  • Example 2 we did a little pin-up
    (participating in practices)

24
Near and Far Transfer (Low-Road and High-Road)
  • Near
  • Measuring water during baking gt measuring
    liquid in a beaker or pipette in chemistry class
  • Really far (between two contexts)
  • Texture of shark skin makes sharks aerodynamic
    gt maybe same texture in bathing costumes will
    make people more aerodynamic

25
What How People Learn Tells Us About Transfer
  • Initial learning is necessary for transfer, and a
    considerable amount is known about the kinds of
    learning experiences that support transfer.
  • Knowledge that is overly contextualized can
    reduce transfer abstract representations of
    knowledge can help promote transfer.
  • Transfer is best viewed as an active, dynamic
    process rather than a passive end-product of a
    particular set of learning experiences.
  • All new learning involves transfer based on
    previous learning, and this fact has important
    implications for the design of instruction that
    helps students learn.

26
What Does This Tell us About Designing Classroom
Practices?
  • Help learners generalize across individual
    experiences and examples.
  • Help learners use what they know.
  • Help learners develop the ability to transfer.
  • Help them practice transferring
  • Make reasoning explicit
  • Give them experience over a variety of situations
  • Here is where Case-Based Reasoning comes into the
    picture.

27
A Case-Based Reasoner is Constantly Engaged in
Transfer
  • It applies lessons learned in old situations to
    new ones.
  • Sometimes it succeeds in its endeavors sometimes
    it fails.
  • When it fails, it attempts to explain what was
    responsible for the failure and updates its
    memory accordingly.
  • It learns by adding new cases, re-encoding and
    re-indexing old cases, and abstracting out
    generalizations.

28
Case-Based Reasoning
  • Developed as a way to allow the computer to solve
    complex problems and learn from its experiences.
  • The computer remembers and applies the lessons
    learned in one situation to another, storing its
    experiences in its case library.
  • Much like people ...

29
Our computer models
  • we give our computer programs memories to store
    their experiences
  • we have our programs keep track of their
    experiences in memory, intepret their experiences
    so as to extract lessons that could be learned
    from them and the conditions of applicability for
    those lessons, and encode those experiences based
    on those lessons learned and their conditions of
    applicability
  • we give our programs means of retrieving
    applicable cases from their memories, judging
    which of several potential cases might be most
    applicable in a new situation, and merging,
    adapting, and applying the lessons learned in new
    situations
  • we provide our computer programs with feedback on
    their decisions, helping them explain mistakes
    and/or poor predictions, and helping them revise
    memorys encodings and interpretations as those
    explanations suggest and
  • we have our programs notice similarities and
    general rules and draw abstractions to use for
    more sophisticated encoding.

30
CBR defines transfer as spontaneously reusing
some past experience productively.
  • Three steps involved in reuse
  • remembering (access)
  • deciding on applicability
  • application
  • Getting to productive transfer is a
    developmental process
  • practice and explanation
  • articulation of lessons learned
  • iterative and reflective application of lessons
    learned

31
Our computer implementations provide insights
into the processes involved in "getting to
productive transfer."
  • Remembering
  • Application
  • Learning

32
Remembering (the indexing problem)
  • Depends on the quality of three processes
  • Interpretation at encoding How well and how
    completely the reasoner interpreted the old
    situation
  • Interpretation at retrieval (situation
    assessment) How well and how completely the
    reasoner interprets a new situation
  • Matching How good the reasoner's partial
    matching capabilities are

33
Interpretation -- the better one encodes, the
more chance there is of noticing relevant
similarity
  • Making of connections
  • Extraction of lessons learned
  • Making conditions of applicability of those
    lessons explicit
  • Allows indexing (labeling according to most
    important complexes of descriptors)

34
Implications
  • The better a reasoner can extract lessons and
    conditions of applicability from a situation, the
    better (s)he will see connections between new and
    old situations.
  • Help learners interpret their experiences to
    extract what can be learned from them anticipate
    the kinds of situations in which lessons might be
    applied and abstract across a variety of
    experiences to extract general principles.

35
Application
  • With a description of a problem situation and its
    solution, an old solution can be repeated.
  • If, in addition, the reasoner knows whether the
    solution succeeded when applied, there is a basis
    for deciding whether or not to reuse the old
    situation.
  • If, in addition, the reasoner knows what happened
    as a result of applying the solution, more
    reasoned judgments are possible (e.g., does that
    old result make sense in my new situation?).
  • If, in addition, factors responsible for the
    result (success or failure) are known, judgment
    of applicability is possible.

36
Implications
  • If we help people embellish their understanding
    of what happened in ways that include rich
    connections between goals, actions, and results,
    and if we help them explain the factors
    responsible for what happened, ability to judge
    applicability of whats remembered and to apply
    it will be more likely.

37
What we do in LBD (preview)
  • That students need each others results provides
    reasons for presentations.
  • The need to present coherently encourages rich
    interpretation.
  • The need to give advice to others encourages
    anticipation.
  • Design diary pages and software provide
    scaffolding for that interpretation and reminders
    to anticipate use.
  • The need to understand applicability of the
    advice of peers encourages active listening,
    questioning of peers, and the drawing of lessons
    from presentations.

38
Learning
  • A case-based reasoner learns when it extends its
    knowledge by
  • incorporating new experiences into memory in ways
    that are consistent with what is already in
    memory,
  • re-encoding old experiences to more accurately
    reflect what one can learn from them and their
    applicability, and
  • abstracting out generalizations from experiences.

39
What is required for learning?
  • failure and explanation
  • useful feedback from the world what happens
    when I try it out?
  • the want and ability to explain
  • iteration towards better and better explanations
  • the want to iterate towards better and better
    explanations
  • All of this requires that learners have goals
    they are trying to achieve and that they want to
    achieve and that they have the ability to make
    predictions.

40
How do we help students learn?
  • we ask them to achieve engaging goals that can be
    achieved in ways that provide feedback and that
    require several iterations
  • we help them keep track of their experiences in
    memory, intepret their experiences so as to
    extract lessons that could be learned from them
    and the conditions of applicability for those
    lessons, and encode those experiences based on
    those lessons learned and their conditions of
    applicability
  • we give them practice retrieving applicable cases
    from their memories, judging which of several
    potential cases might be most applicable in a new
    situation, and merging, adapting, and applying
    the lessons learned in new situations
  • we make sure they get feedback on their
    decisions, help them explain mistakes and/or poor
    predictions, and help them revise memorys
    encodings and interpretations as those
    explanations suggest and
  • we have them notice similarities and general
    rules and draw out abstractions to use for more
    sophisticated encoding.

41
(No Transcript)
42
Novel Features
  • Ritualized classroom activities matched to
    science practices
  • Design diary pages matched to activities provide
    scaffolding for performance and reflection
  • Software scaffolding matched to activities and
    presentations promotes summary and interpretation
  • Launcher units introduce practices and culture
  • Orchestration such that students need each
    others results
  • Lots of presentations to promote good kinds of
    reflection
  • Highly iterative to promote explanation and
    iterative refinement of conceptions

43
LBD's Community Rituals
  • Gallery walk -- scaffolds explanation
  • Pin-up session -- scaffolds justification
  • Results presentation -- scaffolds justification
    and data interpretation
  • Design rules of thumb generation-- scaffolds data
    interpretation
  • Messing About and Whiteboarding -- scaffold
    question asking

44
What makes the rituals work
  • A systematic way of carrying out some important
    skill set that
  • systematizes practices to make them methodical
    promotes habits
  • situates practices in several contexts promoting
    adaptability
  • engages students in public practice as
    collaborators affording noticing, asking,
    discussion, productive reflection

45
Show and Tell Rituals
  • Gallery walks (explanation)
  • Pin-up sessions (justification)
  • Results presentation (experimental method)
  • Ritualized public ways of participating in
    science practices
  • Well-articulated expectations
  • Repeatedly practiced and publicly discussed

46
LBDs Connections to CBR
  • The design challenge gives kids goals both
    learning goals and performance goals.
  • Messing about and experimentation with rules of
    thumb as results helps kids make predictions.They
    articulate predictions in pin ups.
  • They discuss results and get help explaining in
    gallery walks, with focus on justification and
    use of evidence.
  • Gallery walks and pin-ups give them the chance to
    vicariously experience and explain a wide range
    of applications of science content and practices
    of scientists.

47
Where's the CBR?
  • Students reason using cases
  • Students collect lots of cases
  • They are helped to index their cases well
  • They expect, try, fail, explain, try again
    iteratively moving toward better solutions and
    better understanding at the same time.
  • They experience and interpret feedback from the
    real world as they run what they design and
    build.

48
What How People Learn Tells Us About Transfer
  • Initial learning is necessary for transfer, and a
    considerable amount is known about the kinds of
    learning experiences that support transfer.
  • Knowledge that is overly contextualized can
    reduce transfer abstract representations of
    knowledge can help promote transfer.
  • Transfer is best viewed as an active, dynamic
    process rather than a passive end-product of a
    particular set of learning experiences.
  • All new learning involves transfer based on
    previous learning, and this fact has important
    implications for the design of instruction that
    helps students learn.

49
How is transfer promoted?
  • Motivating activity keeps students attention
  • Reflection on their experiences in ways that
    promote abstraction from experience, explanation
    of results, comparing and contrasting,
    understanding conditions of applicability
  • Repeated use of concepts repeated practice of
    skills experience with concepts and skills over
    a variety of circumstances
  • Reasons to reflect on their experiences (they
    have to explain to others others need their
    results)
  • Help with reflecting on their experiences, help
    with remembering, help with judging
    applicability, help with application, help with
    explanation

50
Evidence of Transfer
  • Reuse of content
  • bookstand remindings while doing bridge
  • triangle, truss shape, distribution of weight
  • new bridge in neighborhood what kind of bridge
    is it?
  • Water skiing
  • Enculturation into community practices
  • pin up episode
  • community support for doing and learning
  • gallery walks
  • planfulness in post-tests
  • work together in post-tests
  • science fair projects

51
More evidence
  • Students initiate their own use of these
    practices
  • the pin-up session story
  • creating rules of thumb
  • messing about during interviews and performance
    assessments
  • whiteboards science fair projects
  • Students adapt the rituals to later needs
  • e.g., when teacher stops calling gallery walks

52
Evidence from Performance Assessment
53
The Big Design Question How do you get from
what the learning literature says to classroom
design?
  • Find an approach to practice that almost matches
    what you're aiming for
  • ours was Problem-Based Learning
  • Adapt it to your constraints
  • Iterate
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