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SizerWhitney: Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies,10e with Nutrition Connections CDROM and InfoTra

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Diet. Foods a person usually eats and drinks. Food ... How Powerful Is a Nutritious Diet in Preventing Disease? Genetics and Individuality ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SizerWhitney: Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies,10e with Nutrition Connections CDROM and InfoTra


1
Sizer/Whitney Nutrition Concepts and
Controversies,10e (with Nutrition Connections
CD-ROM and InfoTrac)
Your Required Technology Materials
  • You will need this material for
  • tests and quizzes
  • homework and reading assignments

Professor Course/Section
2
Introduction
0
  • Nutrition
  • The study of how food nourishes the body
  • Diet
  • Foods a person usually eats and drinks
  • Food
  • Any substance the body can take in and assimilate
  • Used to enable the body to stay alive and grow
  • A source of nutrients

3
Introduction
0
  • Nutrients
  • Components of food required for the bodys
    functioning
  • Roles
  • Provide energy
  • Building material
  • Maintenance and repair
  • Support growth

4
Introduction
0
  • Nutrients
  • Categories of nutrients
  • Water
  • Carbohydrates
  • Fat
  • Protein
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals

5
A Lifetime of Nourishment
0
  • Well chosen array of foods will prevent
    malnutrition
  • Malnutrition
  • Nutrient deficiencies
  • Nutrient imbalances
  • Nutrient excesses
  • Undernutrition
  • Nutrient or energy deficiency
  • Overnutrition
  • Nutrient or energy excess

6
How Powerful Is a Nutritious Diet in Preventing
Disease?
0
7
Genetics and Individuality
0
  • Completion of the human genome may allow for
  • Greater control over health and disease
  • Allow for an increased understanding of the
    interactions between a persons genetic makeup
    and nutrients in the body

8
Other Lifestyle Choices
0
  • Besides diet, other factors affect health
  • Tobacco use
  • Alcohol use
  • Substance abuse
  • Physical activity
  • Sleep
  • Stress
  • Conditions at home and work

9
The Nutrients in Food
0
  • Water
  • Constantly lost from the body
  • Must constantly be replaced

10
The Nutrients in Food
0
  • Energy-yielding nutrients
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Protein
  • Also provides material that forms the structure
    and the working parts of the body
  • Alcohol
  • Energy-yielding
  • Is a toxin, not a nutrient

11
The Nutrients in Food
0
  • Minerals
  • Do not provide energy to the body
  • A few serve as parts of body structures
  • Ex. Calcium and phosphorus in bone
  • Vitamins
  • Do not provide energy to the body
  • Minerals and vitamins
  • Regulators that assist in all body processes

12
The Nutrients in Food
0
  • Essential nutrients
  • Nutrients that the body either cannot make, or
    cannot make fast enough, from other raw materials
  • Nutrients that must be obtained from food
  • If not, deficiencies will occur

13
The Nutrients in Food
0
  • Essential nutrients
  • Water
  • carbohydrate
  • Some lipids
  • Some parts of protein
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals

14
0
15
The Nutrients in Food
0
  • Dietary supplements
  • Pills, liquids, or powders that contain purified
    nutrients or other ingredients
  • Cannot be used in place of food
  • Food offers more than just the six basic nutrients

16
Can I Live Just on Supplements?
0
  • Elemental diets
  • Diets composed of purified ingredients of known
    chemical composition
  • Intended to supply all essential nutrients to
    people who cannot eat foods

17
Can I Live Just on Supplements?
0
  • Elemental diets have recently been marketed as
    meal replacers or insurance against
    malnutrition
  • Not superior to real foods
  • Essential to help sick people survive but
  • Do not enable people to thrive over long periods
  • Do not support optimal growth and health
  • Can lead to medical complications

18
Can I Live Just on Supplements?
0
  • Digestive tract is a dynamic system that responds
    to the food it receives
  • Including sight, aroma, and taste of food
  • When a person is fed through a vein the digestive
    organs atrophy
  • Lack of digestive tract stimulation
  • May weaken the bodys defenses against certain
    infections

19
  • The intestine releases hormones in response to
    food
  • These hormones send messages to the brain that
    bring the eater a feeling of satisfaction
  • Eating offers both physical and emotional comfort

0
20
Can I Live Just on Supplements?
0
  • Nonnutrients include phytochemicals
  • Nonnutrients compounds in plant-derived foods
    that have biological activity in the body
  • Confer color, taste, etc. on foods
  • Many are thought to affect health by reducing
    disease

21
How, Exactly, Can I Recognize a Nutritious Diet?
0
  • Adequacy
  • The dietary characteristic of providing all of
    the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy in
    amounts sufficient to maintain health and body
    weight
  • Balance a.k.a. proportionality
  • The dietary characteristic of providing foods of
    a number of different types in proportion to each
    other
  • Such that foods rich in some nutrients do not
    crowd out of the diet foods that are rich in
    other nutrients

22
How, Exactly, Can I Recognize a Nutritious Diet?
0
  • Moderation
  • The dietary characteristic of providing
    constituents within set limits
  • Nothing in excess
  • Variety
  • The dietary characteristic of providing a wide
    selection of food

23
Why People Choose Foods
0
  • Cultural and social meaning attached to food
  • Symbolism of sharing ethnic foods
  • Vegetarian
  • Omnivore

24
Why People Choose Foods
0
  • Factors that drive food choices
  • Convenience
  • Advertising
  • Availability
  • Economy
  • Emotional comfort
  • Habit
  • Personal preference and genetics

25
What is Research
  • Science of Nutrition is relatively new
  • First vitamin discovered in 1897
  • Protein structure 1940s
  • Things change as we learn more and so sometimes
    things seem contradictory or controversial

26
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What Do Scientists Do?
0
  • NHANES
  • An ongoing national scientific research project
    that involves
  • Asking people what they have eaten
  • Recording measures of their health status
  • CSFII
  • An ongoing national scientific research project
    that involves
  • Recording what people have actually eaten for two
    days
  • Comparing foods they have chosen with recommended
    food selections

29
What Do Scientists Do?
0
  • Agencies involved in nutrition policy, research,
    and monitoring
  • DHHS
  • USDA
  • CDC

30
Scientific Challenge
0
  • One experiment does not prove or disprove
    anything
  • A finding that has stood up to repeated rigorous
    testing may become a theory

31
Can I Trust the Media to Deliver Nutrition News?
0
  • News media often report ideas before they have
    been fully tested
  • Reporters, who may lack a science background, may
    misunderstand complex scientific principles
  • Sometimes scientists report their findings before
    they are subject to serious scrutiny

32
Consumer Corner Reading Nutrition News with an
Educated Eye
0
  • An educated consumer of nutrition information
    keeps the following in mind
  • The study being described should be published in
    a peer-reviewed journal
  • The news report should state the purpose of the
    study and describe the research methods
  • Should note the limitations of the study

33
Dietary Guidelines and Nutrition Objectives
0
  • Many countries set dietary recommendations and
    health objectives for their citizens
  • USDA issues Dietary Guidelines for Americans
  • Consist of 18 guidelines clustered into 9 groups

34
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38
Why Be Physically Active?
  • Reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases
  • Increased cardiovascular endurance
  • Increased muscle strength and endurance
  • Increased flexibility
  • Reduced risk of some types of cancer
  • Especially colon and breast cancer

39
Why Be Physically Active?
  • Improved mental outlook and lessened likelihood
    of depression
  • Improved mental functioning
  • Feeling of vigor
  • Feeling of belonging
  • The companionship of sports
  • Strong self image and belief in ones abilities

40
Why Be Physically Active?
  • Reduced body fatness, increased lean tissue
  • A more youthful appearance, healthy skin, and
    improved muscle tone
  • Greater bone density and lessened risk of adult
    bone loss later in life
  • Increased independence in the elderly
  • Sound, beneficial sleep
  • Faster wound healing
  • Lessening or elimination of menstrual pain
  • Improved resistance to infection

41
Conclusion
  • Only a tiny percentage of adults manage to
    achieve both adequacy and moderation in their
    diet
  • People behave as though they must choose between
    two alternatives
  • Getting all their nutrients but overconsuming
    calories in the process
  • Keeping their calories in line but running short
    on nutrients

42
How Can I Get Enough Nutrients without Consuming
Too Many Nutrients?
  • Nutrient density can help you distinguish between
    more and less nutritious foods
  • The concept of nutrient density can help people
    identify bulk without a lot of calories

43
How Can I Get Enough Nutrients without Consuming
Too Many Nutrients?
  • Foods that offer the most nutrients per calorie
    are vegetables
  • Especially vegetables
  • These foods are rich in phytochemicals
  • These foods take time to prepare

44
How Can I Get Enough Nutrients without Consuming
Too Many Nutrients?
  • Today most households do not have time for food
    preparation
  • Busy people should look for convenience foods
    that are nutrient dense
  • Bags of ready-to-serve salads
  • Refrigerated prepared meats
  • Frozen vegetables
  • Fat-free milk

45
How Can I Get Enough Nutrients without Consuming
Too Many Nutrients?
0
  • Achieving nutritional health does not just depend
    on the individual foods you choose
  • It is the way you combine them into meals
  • The way you arrange meals one after another over
    time (days and weeks)

46
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