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European colonialism in the Middle East

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... and British imperialism in Iran. Gerome's Napoleon in Egypt ... Map Correction: Iran and Egypt were not fully independent until much later than indicated here. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: European colonialism in the Middle East


1
European colonialism in the Middle East
  • Intervention, Transformation,
  • Independence

A romanticized painting of Napoleon inspecting a
mummy at the Pyramids.
2
Definitions
  • Imperialism
  • Policy of extending control over foreign entities
    either thru direct or indirect political or
    economic intervention
  • Colonialism
  • System in which a state claims sovereignty over
    territory resources beyond its borders,
    displacing or ruling its local population

Cecil Rhodes, From Cape to Cairo, as depicted
in a 19th c. Punch magazine.
3
Why did Europe become so strong?
  • New state types
  • emergence of the national state around 1500
  • well-defined territory
  • relatively centralized
  • Professional armies
  • New accumulation of wealth
  • New economies
  • Exploration of the New World, 1450-1700.
  • Industrial capitalism

4
W. European Transformation
  • New ideas
  • Science and Enlightenment
  • Development of a new scientific discourses
  • New identities
  • Us and Them, Civilized world and
    uncivilized world, Orient Occident
  • emergence of nationalism

5
ResponsesTransformations in Ottoman rule
  • Ottoman reform The Tanzimat, 1830s-1870s
  • New centralization
  • New technologies (railroad)
  • New education
  • New institutions
  • Autonomous reforms (Egypt)
  • Erosion of Ottoman economic and political
    independence
  • Capitulations
  • European protection of non-Muslim minorities
  • 1881 Public Debt Administration
  • Nationalism
  • loss of Ottoman territories in Europe
  • Turkish and Arab nationalism
  • Communal violence

6
The Age of Empire, 1875-1914
  • Growing global division between the very powerful
    and the less powerful
  • Rise of colonial empires
  • Between 1876 1914 about 25 of the worlds land
    surface distributed as colonies among about 6
    states (E. Hobsbawm)
  • Reasons economics (new markets new resources),
    strategic reasons, political symbolism,
    nationalism

In the late 19th c. around 60 of Britains
cotton exports went to India further east
7
Imperialism in Africa, late 19th-early 20th
century
8
European colonialism in the Middle East, late
18th-late 19th c.
  • 1798-1801 French invasion of Egypt
  • British outposts on the Arabian Peninsula, 1799
  • French annexation of Algeria, 1834 (settler
    colonialism)
  • British administrative occupation of Egypt, 1882
  • Russian and British imperialism in Iran

Geromes Napoleon in Egypt (1863)
9
European colonialism in the Middle East, 20th
century
  • WWI and Competing promises
  • Husayn-McMahon Correspondence, Sykes-Picot
    agreement Balfour Declaration
  • Post WWI League of Nations-sanctioned Mandate
    System gives Britain and France administrative
    control of Palestine, Transjordan, Iraq, Syria,
    Lebanon
  • Many other areas remain under direct or indirect
    colonialism

10
Sykes-Picot Agreement
11
The Mandate System
  • certain parts of the world put under
    trusteeship of various victorious European
    powers
  • British mandates in the MidEast Palestine, Iraq,
    Transjordan
  • French mandates in the MidEast Syria, Lebanon
  • Mandates both sanctify western colonialism but
    also circumscribe it

12
  • ARTICLE 22 OF THE COVENANT OF THE LEAGUE OF
    NATIONSJune 28, 1919
  • To those colonies and territories which as a
    consequence of the late war have ceased to be
    under the sovereignty of the States which
    formerly governed them and which are inhabited by
    peoples not yet able to stand by themselves under
    the strenuous conditions of the modern world,
    there should be applied the principle that the
    well-being and development of such peoples form a
    sacred trust of civilization and that securities
    for the performance of this trust should be
    embodied in this Covenant.
  • 2. The best method of giving practical effect to
    this principle is that the tutelage of such
    peoples should be entrusted to advanced nations
    who by reason of their resources, their
    experience or their geographical position can
    best undertake this responsibility, and who are
    willing to accept it, and that this tutelage
    should be exercised by them as Mandatories on
    behalf of the League.
  • 3. The character of the mandate must differ
    according to the stage of the development of the
    people, the geographic situation of the
    territory, its economic conditions and other
    similar circumstances.

13
Outside the Mandate
  • True independence Turkey
  • Mostly independent Yemen, S. Arabia
  • Direct colonial rule Libya (Italy) Algeria,
    Morocco, Tunisia (French)
  • External control influence Iran (Britain,
    Russia, U.S.), Egypt (Britain)
  • British treaties of protection Kuwait, Oman,
    U.A.E.

14
Map Correction Iran and Egypt were not fully
independent until much later than indicated here.
Both continued to have extensive external
involvement in their economic and political
affairs.
15
Full Independence How and When
  • Military Coup Egypt (1952), Iraq (1958)
  • Revolution Iran (1979)
  • War Turkey (1920-1923), Algeria (1954-1962),
    Israel (1948)
  • Uprising and Int. Agreement Libya, Syria,
    Lebanon (after WWII)
  • Treaty Jordan (1946/8), Tunisia (1956), Morocco
    (1956)
  • Communities promised states/autonomy that did not
    receive them Palestinians, Kurds, Armenians

16
Colonialism Overarching effects
  • Creation of new, national states in place of the
    Ottoman Empire (Iraq, Jordan, Israel, Turkey,
    etc.)
  • Implanting of western-supported regimes
    (especially monarchies) that use violence to
    maintain authority. In many cases, these would
    later be violently overthrown.
  • Centralization of political power. Loss of rural
    autonomy.
  • Reorganization of social relationships among
    different groups. Privileging of some religious
    and social groups over others, leading to future
    conflict.
  • Massive economic disruption. New economic
    relationships, with arrangements particularly
    benefiting western powers
  • New models nationalism, modernity vs
    traditional

17
Colonialism Imperialism,summed up (a
perspective)
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