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The 17th Century


On may 10th, 1940 Germany invaded France ... Because German naval power could not match that of Britain, Germany launched an air war ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The 17th Century

The 17th Century
  • England and the Dutch Republic

"Golden Age" of the Dutch Republic
  • History of the Dutch prior to Westphalia
  • Rebellion against Philip II
  • The Eighty Years War (1568-1648)
  • Peace of Westphalia recognizes the independence
    of the United Provinces
  • Internal dissension after independence two
    centers of political power

Politics in the Dutch Republic
  • House of Orange
  • Each province had a stadholder who was
    responsible for leading the army and maintaining
  • Starting with William of Orange, his house
    occupied the stadholderate in most of the 7
    provinces, which were
  • Favored the development of a centralized
    government with them as heredity monarchs
  • William II and his son
  • The States General
  • Assembly of representatives from every province
  • Opposed the centralizing actions of the House of
  • Dominated Dutch politics throughout most of the
    late 17th century
  • However, the States General was ill-equipped to
    handle the threat from France and Louis XIV

William of Orange
  • In 1672, with threats from both France and
    England the States General turns again to the
    House of Orange, in the person of William to lead
  • Is able to stem the tide against France
  • In 1688 gains the English crown and its resources
    in his battle against France
  • Upon his death in 1702, the republican forces
    regain control over Dutch affairs

Economic Power of the Dutch
  • Economic Prosperity
  • The United Provinces, with its access to the
    Atlantic, become the major trading power of the
    17th century
  • However, the wars with France and competition
    from England erode its economic strength and by
    1715 the Dutch experience an economic decline
    that would last into the 18th century
  • Amsterdam as a Commercial Capital
  • Center of the Dutch commercial empire
  • Replaced Antwerp as financial and commercial
    capital of Europe
  • Was also a manufacturing center producing woolen
    cloth, refined sugar and tobacco products, glass,
    beer, paper, books, jewelry, and leather goods
  • Also important as a financial center
  • Exchange Bank of Amsterdam, 1609
  • Amsterdam Stock Exchange

England and the Stuarts
  • With the death of Elizabeth in 1603, the Tudor
    line came to an end and was replaced by the
  • James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England

James VI becomes James I
  • Knew little about the laws and traditions of
  • Believed in Divine Right of Monarchy
  • This put him into conflict with Parliament which
    had grown accustomed to a balanced polity of
  • Parliament expressed its displeasure with James
    by refusing to grant him the monies he requested
  • Jamess religious policy also alienated many in
  • Puritans wanted James to eliminate the Episcopal
    system, and replace it was a more Presbyterian
  • James refused because the bishops were an
    important prop for monarchical power
  • With this setback, the Puritans become a strong
    opponent of the Stuart monarchy

Charles I
  • Charles I (1625-49) believed even more strongly
    in divine right
  • This would involve himself in a protracted
    conflict with Parliament resulting in Civil War
    and his death in 1649

Charles I Petition of Right (1628)
  • Charles had to accept before any new taxes could
    be raised
  • Prohibited taxation without Parliaments consent,
    arbitrary imprisonment, quartering of soldiers in
    private homes, and the declaration of martial law
    in peacetime
  • Charles initially agrees, but reneges on the
    Petition because it limits the power of the

Personal Rule, 1629-1640
  • Result of the Petition controversy is that
    Charles decides he cannot work with Parliament
    and decides not to summon it
  • Now Charles had to find ways to raise money
    without Parliament
  • The Ship Money
  • Applied to all of England and not just the coast
  • Tax angers the Gentry

Personal Rule, 1629-1640 Religious Policies
  • Marries the sister of Louis XIII, Henrietta Maria
  • Charles, along with Archbishop Laud, tries to
    introduce more ritual into the Church of England
  • Tries to impose reforms on Scotland and they rise
    in revolt against Charles

The Long Parliament (1640-1660)
  • To raise the funds needed to fight the Scots,
    Charles recalled Parliament, but 11 years had
    taken their toll
  • In first session (Nov. 1640 Sept. 1641),
    Parliament takes several steps to limit the power
    of the king
  • Abolition of arbitrary courts and the collection
    of the Ship Monies
  • The Triennial Act
  • Radical Parliamentarians wanted to push harder,
    especially to eliminate bishops
  • Charles moves on Parliament
  • Backfires as a group of Puritans led by John Pym
    decide the king had gone too far and England
    slips into Civil War

The English Civil War First Phase, 1642-1646
  • Royalists vs. Parliamentarians (Roundheads)
  • Important Battles
  • Marston Moor, 2 July 1644
  • Naseby, 14 June 1645
  • Parliament is successful
  • Main reason for success was the New Model Army
    led by Oliver Cromwell
  • New Model Army was mainly composed of the extreme
    Puritans that Cromwell forged into a well
    disciplined and effective military force

The English Civil War Second Phase, 1648
  • With the capture of the King, a split occurred
    among the parliamentary forces
  • Presbyterian majority wanted to disband the army
    and restore Charles with a Presbyterian church
  • The Independents, comprising most of the army,
    opposed this and marched on London in 1647 and
    began negotiations with the king
  • Charles takes advantage of the split and flees to

The English Civil War Second Phase, 1648
  • Cromwell and the army are enraged and wage war
    against the king once again
  • Cromwell defeats and captures the king and
    determines to impose the armys point of view
  • Cromwell purges the Presbyterian members of
    Parliament leaving a rump of 53
  • They try Charles for treason and have him
    executed in January of 1649

Oliver Cromwell and the Commonwealth
  • With the execution of the king, the Rump
    Parliament abolished the monarchy and the House
    of Lords
  • England is declared a republic or commonwealth
  • Rebellion in Ireland
  • Political difficulties
  • The Levellers
  • Cromwell dismisses the Rump Parliament in April

Oliver Cromwell and the Commonwealth
  • Creation of the Instrument of Government
  • Englands first only written constitution
  • Executive power is rested in the Lord Protector,
    which Cromwell is appointed to
  • Cromwell again encounters problems with
  • Dismissal in 1655 and the Major Generals
  • Cromwell now leads a military dictatorship with
    policies no better than Charles Is
  • Cromwell dies in 1658 with rule passing to his
  • Commonwealth cannot be maintained and the Stuarts
    are restored in the person of Charles II

The Stuart Restoration and Charles II
  • Charles II (1660-85) is restored to the throne
    after 11 years of exile
  • Charles is a carefree monarch
  • However, Parliament kept most of the powers it
    gained during the Civil Wars

Reign of Charles II
  • Religion continues to create controversy
  • Anglican Church was restored with Parliament
    passing laws to force Catholics and Puritan
    Dissenters to conform
  • Charles sympathy toward Catholicism
  • 1672 Charles issues Declaration of Indulgences,
    suspending the religious laws passed by
  • Parliament responds by forcing Charles to suspend
    the declaration and passing the Test Act of 1673
  • Imaginary plot to assassinate Charles so James
    could take the throne forces Parliament to pass a
    law to exclude James
  • Those who favor exclusion are called Whigs
    supporters of James known as Tories
  • Charles dismisses Parliament in 1681 and rules
    without it through French subsidies

James II and the "Glorious Revolution"
  • James succeeds his brother in 1685
  • Open and devout Catholic, James tries to overturn
    all the anti-Catholic policies of Parliament
  • Contrary to the Test Act, James appoints
    Catholics to high governmental and military
  • Parliamentary outcries are muted because James is
    old and his heirs are his two Protestant
  • However, in June of 1688 a son was born and the
    specter of a Catholic monarchy rose again

William and Mary and the Bill of Rights
  • In response, a group of seven prominent English
    nobleman invite William of Orange, husband of
    Mary, Jamess eldest daughter to invade England
    and rid them of James
  • Williams sails to England and with little
    bloodshed, James flees to Europe
  • William and Mary are installed as monarchs

Results of the Glorious Revolution
  • The Bill of Rights
  • Affirmed Parliaments right to make laws levy
  • Standing armies could only be raised with the
    support of Parliament
  • Elections and debates of Parliament had to be
    free without interference from the King
  • Did not completely settle the religious problems
    Toleration Act of 1689 gave Puritan Dissenters
    the right of free worship, but they did not have
    full civil and political equality as the Test Act
    was not repealed

Results of the Glorious Revolution
  • Essentially, the Glorious Revolution completed
    the 17th century struggle between King and
  • Parliament demolished the Divine Right theory as
    William was king by their grace
  • However, Parliament did not have complete control
    of the government, but it now had an unquestioned
    role in the affairs of state