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An Introduction to Instructional Design Patterns

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Identify elements of design. Separate content, presentation, strategy, and sequencing ... This can be audiovisual design (Presentation: look & feel and/or ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Learn more at: http://arclite.byu.edu
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Title: An Introduction to Instructional Design Patterns


1
An Introduction to Instructional Design Patterns
  • Michael Bush (BYU)
  • Thor Anderson (UVSC)
  • Jeff Dunster (BYU)

2
ARCLITE Lab Efforts/Goals
  • Expand concept of separation of elements of
    instructional design and delivery
  • Implement standards (Unicode, SCORM)
  • Maintain access to components of interest
  • Represent content using standard markup schemes
  • Video (MPEG-7)
  • Text (QTI Specification and DocBook)

3
Challenges for Development
  • Interactive materials development is expensive.
  • Systems change.

4
We need to find better ways to reuse, share, and
recycle our instructional products
Or at least many components thereof!
5
Wanted!
  • For instructional content
  • General and extendable content data model
  • For sequencing of units of content
  • A generalized approach for combining elements
    into some meaningful order

6
Techniques to Address the Problem
  • Approach the problem differently
  • Identify elements of design
  • Separate content, presentation, strategy, and
    sequencing
  • Develop the best tools for each task of the
    development process

7
lt?xml version"1.0" encoding"UTF-8" ?gt
ltACTIVITY TYPE"content_with_questions"gt
ltQUESTION TYPE"random_blanks"gt   ltCONTENT
TYPE"referenced_text" LANG"ar"gt
../media/text/AK1.txt lt/CONTENTgt  
lt/QUESTIONgt   ltCONTENT TYPE"video" LANG"ar"
HEIGHT"16" WIDTH"320"gt
../media/sounds/AK1_text.mov lt/CONTENTgt
lt/ACTIVITYgt
AK1.TXT ??? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ??????
???? ?? ????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ???????. ?????
???? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????
??????? ?? ????? ??? ????. ??? ????? ?? ???
??????? ????? ???? ????? ?????????.
8
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9
lt?xml version"1.0" encoding"UTF-8"
standalone"no"?gt lt?xml-stylesheet
type"text/xsl" href"xslt/qti/qti.xslt"?gt ltquest
estinteropgt ltitem ident"ea1_ra_a"gt
ltpresentation label"???? ?????" lang 'ar'gt
ltflow class"instructions"gt ltmaterialgt
ltmattextgtWatch the movie clip several times.
lt/mattextgt lt/materialgt lt/flowgt
ltflow lang"ar"gt ltmaterialgt
ltmatvideo uri"media/video/ahlan_wisahlan.mov"gt
lt/matvideogt lt/materialgt
lt/flowgt lt/presentationgt
lt/itemgt lt/questestinteropgt
10
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11
ltquestestinteropgt ltitem ident "ea2_ln_1"gt
ltpresentation label "EA2 Language
Notes"gt ltflow class 'bullet'gt
ltmaterialgt ltmattextgt1. More Equational
Sentenceslt/mattextgt lt/materialgt
lt/flowgt ltflowgt ltmaterialgt
ltmattextgtEquational sentences have two parts the
subject and the predicate. The subject will be a
noun, pronoun, or demonstrative. It is what the
sentence is talking about. The predicate can be
another noun, an adjective, an adverb, or a
prepositional phrase. If it is an adjective, it
will agree in gender with the subject. For
example lt/mattextgt
lt/materialgt lt/flowgt lt/questestinteropgt
12
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19
Implementation
  • Subdivide content and design.
  • Determine the appropriate level of granularity
    for content and design elements.
  • Use the best tool for every design and
    development task.

20
Design Structure
  • Within elements This can be audiovisual design
    (Presentation look feel and/or skins).
  • Between elements Some call this sequencing. With
    appropriate level of granularity of content
    object, this can be branching.

21
Designing an Interaction
Presentation
Design within Elements
Design
Content
22
Designing Instructional Sequence
Rule
Example
Practice
Courtesy TICCIT Merrill, Bunderson, et al.
23
Adaptive Processes
No help needed!
Help needed!
Design between Elements
24
Instructional Design Pattern Origins and
Definitions
  • Thor Anderson
  • Utah Valley State College

25
Huh?
Im thinking we go with the Façade pattern on the
server side and maybe use a Mediator on the
client.
Yeah, or maybe we just use multiple Observers.
26
Say what?
Ok, and then we can trade fours after the second
bridge.
Lets start out with 12 bar blues in F major.
.
.
Jazz Musician 2
Jazz Musician 1
27
Say what?
Ok, and then we can trade fours after the second
bridge.
Lets start out with 12 bar blues in F major.
.
.
Jazz Musician 2
Jazz Musician 1
28
What is a Design Pattern?
  • A design pattern is an effective means to
    convey/communicate what has been learned about
    high-quality designs. Kuchana, 2004
  • To make this happen you need
  • Shared language for communicating
  • Common vocabulary of design elements

29
What are these two talking about?
Im thinking we start with a tutorial followed by
some project
-
based learning and then a skills assessment
.
Uh
,
sounds good
.
Instructional Designer
2
Instructional Designer
1
30
We want design patterns!
  • If a design pattern is about effective
    communication of high-quality designs, then it
    seems instructional designers would want patterns
    of their own.
  • Patterns are not limited to software design
  • Originally from field of architecture
  • There are, however, some limitations as not
    everything can be considered a design pattern.

31
Design Patterns are not
  • Inventions
  • They are discovered and documented from
    observation and study
  • Theoretical constructs
  • They are applied, reusable solutions to common,
    recurring design problems.
  • Solutions to every problem
  • They are meant to be elegant, reusable solutions
    in a particular context

32
How to discover ID patterns?
  • Do such general terms as tutorial, lecture,
    and simulation qualify as instructional design
    patterns?
  • Is it possible ID patterns are merely the
    application of software design patterns and are
    therefore only found in instructional software?

33
Language Learning Templates Authoring Tool
  • Jeffrey Dunster - Masters Student
  • Information Systems
  • Brigham Young University

34
Authoring Language Learning Templates - Demo
  • Built on the Eclipse development framework
  • Modularized plugins
  • Java codebase
  • XML driven content architecture
  • SCORM capable
  • Extendable
  • Open source

35
ltquestestinteropgt ltitem ident "ea2_ln_1"gt
ltpresentation label "EA2 Language Notes"gt
ltflow class 'bullet'gt ltmaterialgt
ltmattextgt1. More Equational
Sentenceslt/mattextgt lt/materialgt
lt/flowgt ltflowgt ltmaterialgt
ltmattextgtEquational sentences have two parts the
subject and the predicate. The subject will be a
noun, pronoun, or demonstrative. It is what the
sentence is talking about. The predicate can be
another noun, an adjective, an adverb, or a
prepositional phrase. If it is an adjective, it
will agree in gender with the subject. For
example lt/mattextgt
lt/materialgt lt/flowgt lt/questestinteropgt
ltcomprehensiongt   lttitlegtMain Titlelt/titlegt
ltinstructionsgt Describe the school logo for
someone who cant see.   lt/instructionsgt
ltmediagt ltimage height"200" width"300"
src"byu.gif"gt   lttitlegtThe BYU Logolt/titlegt
  lt/imagegt   lt/mediagt ltquestionsgt
ltshortanswergtDescribe the logo.
ltfeedbackgtThanks for your input in this
shortanswer quiery.lt/feedbackgt  
lt/shortanswergt ltfillIntheblankgtThe
dominant color is ltblankgtltcorrectanswergtblue
ltfeedbackgtCorrect!
ltaudio srccorrect.mp3 /gt  
lt/feedbackgt lt/correctanswergt
ltfeedbackgtblue is the correct
answer.lt/feedbackgtlt/blankgt  
lt/fillIntheblankgt lt/questionsgt lt/comprehensiongt
36
Programmatic Design Patterns In Use
  • Model/View/Controller
  • Façade
  • Many more

37
Instructional Design Patterns In Use
  • Evaluation
  • Multiple choice
  • Fill-in-the-blank
  • Short answer
  • Instructional
  • Anticipation
  • Comprehension
  • Listen/watch write

38
Patterns For the Future?
  • Lecture
  • Essay evaluation
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