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The Individual and the Megastate

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Rural society where everyone's a cowboy and rides a horse. Everyone owns an oil well ... You wear boots and a cowboy hat. The Reality of Texas ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Individual and the Megastate


1
The Individual and the Megastate
2
Im from Texas.
  • Rural society where everyones a cowboy and rides
    a horse
  • Everyone owns an oil well
  • Everythings the biggest
  • You wear boots and a cowboy hat

3
The Reality of Texas
  • Weve changed from an agrarian, rural society to
    a more urban society
  • 1980s saw a boom and bust many businesses and
    banks/SLs failed
  • 1990s saw a change to technological economy
    which outperformed the national economy

4
How Weve Changed
  • Growing population
  • Economic transformation
  • Increased demand for water and governmental
    services
  • Demographic changes

5
Megastates
  • Highly urbanized
  • Rapid population growth
  • First to experience technological and urban
    changes
  • Our gross state product ranks third, while we are
    second in population

6
Context of Our Politics
  • Treaty of Velasco permitted the growth of Texas
    as a national entity, and provided extraordinary
    claims to land
  • Santa Anna repudiated it as soon as he had
    returned to Mexico
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo made the Rio Grande
    border permanent

7
Context Of Our Politics
  • Relationship with Mexico is long-standing and
    good
  • Gulf of Mexico provides foreign trade and
    investment, as well as tourism

8
Regional Context
  • Regions are based on geography, labor, economies,
    and communities of interest
  • East Texas
  • Original land of settlement
  • Highly agricultural and oil-oriented
  • Gulf Coast
  • High oil influence
  • More urban
  • Greater labor influence

9
Regional Context
  • West Texas
  • Concentration of crops and livestock, along with
    oil
  • Most regional feel of any Texas area
  • Panhandle
  • Texline is closer to Bismarck, ND than to
    Brownsville
  • Farm and ranching, oil and gas and service
    industries predominate

10
Regional Context
  • North Texas
  • Dominated by DFW metroplex
  • Most white-collar area of Texas (manufacturing,
    banking, finance, insurance)
  • Central Texas
  • I-35 corridor
  • Extensive governmental employment, both state and
    federal

11
Regional Context
  • South Texas
  • Ranges from Del Rio on the West to the Gulf
  • Heavy agricultural and petrochemical influence
  • High concentration of Mexican workers, many
    living in colonias

12
Texas People
  • Native Americans (3 tribes)
  • Alabama Coushatta
  • Tigua
  • Kickapoo
  • Represent less than 1 of population
  • Little influence in Texas politics

13
Texas People
  • Anglos
  • Initial settlers mostly from upper South belief
    in individualistic subculture of limited
    government
  • Most early settlements in northeast Texas
  • By Civil War, equal number of upper and lower
    South immigrants
  • Texarkana-San Antonio dividing line to the
    north and west are upper South (individualistic),
    to the south and east are lower South
    (traditionalistic)

14
Texas People
  • Hispanics
  • Very little settlement of Texas by Hispanics
  • Some Hispanic influence in Republic (Jose
    Navarro, Juan Seguin)
  • Represent 30 of Texans in 2000 census
  • Primarily located in South Texas and along the
    border
  • Growing presence in state politics

15
Texas People
  • African Americans
  • During the Civil War, 30 of Texas population
    was African American
  • Largest concentration is in East Texas
  • Also concentrated in Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston
    and Austin
  • Increasing participation as elected officials

16
Texas People
  • Asian-Americans
  • Between 2-3 of Texas population
  • Largest concentration is in Houston
  • Beginning to hold elective offices

17
Texas Political Culture
  • A set of attitudes, beliefs and sentiments which
    give order and meaning to a political process and
    which provide the underlying assumptions and
    rules that govern behavior in the political
    system.

18
Elazars Three Political Subcultures
  • Traditionalistic
  • A hierarchy exists which limits the power and
    influence of the general public, and power
    resides in a few individuals who perpetuate
    policies which may benefit the general public,
    but are secondary to the interests and objectives
    of those in power. Family and social
    relationships form the basis for maintaining this
    elite structure (does the name Kennedy ring a
    bell?)

19
Traditionalistic Subculture
  • First to arrive in Texas, coming mostly from the
    South
  • Few wealthy families dominated politics and
    government
  • Government is a tool for preserving social order

20
Elazars Three Political Subcultures
  • Individualistic
  • Politics and government are like a marketplace,
    not created for moral purposes but to simply
    handle utilitarian matters which are demanded by
    the people it serves.

21
Individualistic Subculture
  • Alliances are formed based on personal loyalties
  • Most often associated with cities and the Middle
    Atlantic states
  • Government is a means for advancing ones
    personal goals by working in an organization,
    political party or interest group

22
Elazars Three Political Subcultures
  • Moralistic
  • Politics and government help man in the search
    for a good society. Government is viewed as a
    positive instrument to promote the general
    welfare of society, and should actively intervene
    to enhance social and economic interests

23
Moralistic Subculture
  • Last to arrive in Texas and still not firmly
    established
  • Emerged in New England
  • More likely to use government in innovative ways

24
Texas Origins
  • Settled primarily by traditionalistic and
    individualistic viewpoints
  • These two views blended into Texas unique
    political views
  • Minimized role of government
  • Skepticism towards taxes
  • Conservatism

25
Population Growth Changes
  • Texas growth has exceeded the national average
    over the last 50 years
  • Since 1994 Texas is the 2nd largest state in
    terms of population second to California
  • 2000 census shows population nearly 21 million
  • Two new Congressional seats

26
Population Growth Changes
  • Birth rates are high, especially among Hispanic
    women
  • Migration from other states, especially Northeast
    and Midwest
  • Higher population growth creates demand for
    governmental services
  • Median age is growing

27
Size and Geographic Diversity
  • Second largest in land mass, following Alaska
  • Size has affected state policy and, to some
    extent, perceptions of the state
  • If independent, state would be thirty-seventh
    largest country
  • Geography shaped historical migrations and land
    use

28
Urban Texas
  • During first 100 years, Texas was a rural state
  • Now 80 of population is urban
  • Three of ten largest US cities are here Houston
    (2.02 mil.), San Antonio (1.23 mil.) and Dallas
    (1.21 mil.)
  • Population density (number of people per square
    mile in a specific area) ranges from 62 people in
    671 square miles to 3.4 million in 1,788 square
    miles

29
Income, Wealth Poverty
  • 33 Texans on Forbes 400 List in 2000
  • In 2002, 15.6 of Texans fell below poverty lines

30
Education and Literacy
  • Most new jobs will be in the service industry
  • As many as 50 of the jobs by 2010 will require a
    college degree
  • The more educated, the more likely to be informed
    about and participate in political process

31
Economy of Texas
  • Historically linked to oil and gas
  • World oil price drop (1981) resulted in serious
    unemployment
  • Severe decline in peso and border economies
  • Another loss in 1986 with concurrent slump in
    electronics

32
Economy of Texas
  • In 1987-88, many Texas banks failed
  • State tax revenues declined, and an increase in
    the sales tax was passed in 1987
  • Beginning in the early 90s, the economy started
    to turn around and Texas outperformed the nation

33
Economy of Texas
  • If a nation, Texas economy would rank 11th
  • Economic diversification has occurred, with
    growth in service industries
  • High-tech has become the highest growing sector
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