Fitness: Physical Activity, Nutrients, - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Fitness: Physical Activity, Nutrients, PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 24352a-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Fitness: Physical Activity, Nutrients,

Description:

2 3 DAYS/WEEK. Engage in strength and flexibility ... The Declining Weight of Miss America. BMI. Slide 75. Bulimia Nervosa - Dx. Diagnostic criteria ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:63
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 91
Provided by: CindyA7
Learn more at: http://www.mpc.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Fitness: Physical Activity, Nutrients,


1
Fitness Physical Activity, Nutrients, Body
Adaptations
  • Chapter 14

2
Figure 14-1 Page 475
Physical Activity Pyramid
DO SPARINGLY Limit sedentary activities.
23 DAYS/WEEK Engage in strength and flexibility
activities and enjoy leisure activities often.
35 DAYS/WEEK Engage in vigorous activities
regularly.
EVERY DAY Be as active as possible.
3
Exercise for Fitness and Health
  • Exercise necessary for optimal health longevity
  • Components of fitness include
  • Flexibility
  • Muscle strength endurance
  • Cardiovascular endurance

4
Table 14-1 Page 476
5
Benefits of Fitness
  • Optimal body composition less body fat, more
    lean muscle mass
  • Optimal bone density wt-bearing activity builds
    bone strength
  • Lowers risk of some cancers ex., colon ca,
    breast ca
  • Lowers risk of CVD lowers BP, chol

6
Benefits of Fitness (cont)
  • Lowers risk of Type 2 Diabetes
  • Lessens anxiety and depression helps to reduce
    stress
  • Longer life, higher quality of life in later
    years
  • Restful sleep
  • Nutritional health - allows for greater Kcal
    intake

7
Developing Fitness
  • Training is performing an activity regularly
  • Conditioning is the physical improvement as a
    result of training
  • Progressive overload principle - applied by
    increasing frequency, intensity, or duration,
    slightly exceeding the comfort capacity
  • Hypertrophy - increase in muscle mass in response
    to use
  • Atrophy - decrease in muscle mass due to disuse

8
In-text Figure Page 477
Peoples bodies are shaped by the activities they
perform.
9
Cardiorespiratory Endurance
  • Aerobic activity improves heart lung activities
  • VO2 Max (maximal oxygen uptake) the maximum
    amount of O2 that can be consumed, can improve
    15-20 w/ training
  • As fitness improves
  • Increased strength heart muscle decreased HR
  • Increased blood volume, RBC, capillaries

10
Cardiorespiratory Endurance
  • Fitness benefits (cont)
  • Improves circulation
  • Reduces blood pressure
  • Aerobic activity includes the large-muscle
    groups, sustained for gt 20 min for improved
    endurance

11
Table 14-2 Page 480
12
Aerobic Activity
  • When O2 available/low to moderate activity
  • Requires O2
  • Cardiovascular workout
  • Burns kcals
  • Advantages
  • Long-term (2 min. to 5 hrs)
  • Energy efficient - 95 glucose
  • Disadvantage - slower than anaerobic

13
Figure 14-2 Page 480
Delivery of Oxygen by the Heart and Lungs to the
Muscles
Air (O2 , CO2 ), other gases
The respiratory system delivers oxygen to the
blood.
1
The circulatory system carries oxygenated
blood throughout the body.
2
The blood carries the carbon dioxide back to the
lungs.
4
The muscles and other tissues obtain oxygen from
the blood and release carbon dioxide into it.
3
14
Energy Expenditure
  • Aerobic activity
  • Light to mild activity
  • lt 7 kcals/minute
  • Moderate to heavy activity
  • 8-12 kcals/minute
  • Maximal activity
  • gt 13 kcals/minute

15
In-text Figure Page 486
Low- to moderate-intensity aerobic exercises that
can be sustained for a long time (more than 20
minutes) use some glucose, but more fat for fuel.
16
Energy Systems of Physical Activity
  • ATP Can deliver energy instantly
  • CP Creatine phosphate high energy compound
    stored in muscle, 10 second supply
  • Energy Nutrients CHO, Pro, Fat generate ATP
  • Muscle use varies during rest, activity

17
Energy Sources Quick Energy
  • ATP
  • 2 - 4 second supply for muscle
  • CP (Creatine phosphate)
  • Synthesized by muscle during rest
  • Instant activation for just seconds of activity
  • CP ADP ATP Cr
  • ATP CP energy systems are anaerobic

18
Glucose And Exercise
  • Amount of CHO eaten impacts amount glycogen
    stored (carbohydrate loading)
  • In muscle more exercise (more depletion of
    muscle glycogen) --gt increased capacity of muscle
    to store glycogen

19
Energy Sources CHO (Glucose)
  • CHO (anaerobic) Intense activity
  • Duration 20 seconds-3 minutes energy supply
  • Lactic acid build up-gt fatigue
  • Example ¼ mile sprint

20
Anaerobic Activity
  • When there is limited O2 available or during
    intense activity
  • Does not require O2
  • No Cardiovascular workout
  • Increase strength/bulk
  • Build up lactic acid

21
Anaerobic Activity, Continued
  • Glucose -gt Pyruvate -gt Lactic Acid
  • Advantages
  • Quick (Fastest way to resupply ATP to muscle)
  • Disadvantages
  • No long term ATP
  • 5 efficiency of glucose
  • Lactic acid build up results in fatigue

22
Activity Intensity and Fuel
  • Brief and Maximal Intensity Exercise
  • lt 30 seconds (85-100 VO2 max)
  • CP
  • Anaerobic glycolysis

23
Energy Source Glucose
  • CHO (aerobic) Moderate High Activity
  • Duration 3 min and longer
  • Muscle glycogen 300-400 gm (20 min)
  • Liver glycogen 100 gm (glucose for blood)
  • ATP from CHO and fat
  • Example Swimming, hiking, cycling, running

24
Energy Sources Fat
  • Fat (aerobic)
  • Primary source of energy used for prolonged
    low-intensity activity (gt 20 minutes)
  • Glucose 36-38 ATP ( 6 C), uses 6 O2
  • 18 C FA 147 ATP, uses 26 O2

25
Energy Sources Fat, Continued
  • Requires O2 and glucose for breakdown
  • Used to preserve muscle glycogen and blood
    glucose levels
  • The more trained the muscle, the greater the
    ability to use fat as Energy due to more and
    bigger mitochondria

26
Energy Sources Protein
  • Protein (aerobic)
  • Used during endurance exercise
  • Supplies only about 10 of the bodys energy
    needs during activity and rest
  • Duration Intensity gt 1 hour/day at moderate
    intensity, use more pro for fuel
  • Less pro used for fuel if diet is high CHO
    person physically fit

27
Activity Intensity Fuel
  • Endurance
  • gt 1 hour (70-80 VO2 max)
  • 60-80 fat
  • 15-30 glucose
  • 10 protein

28
Requirements Fluid
  • In general
  • At least 1 ml/kcal
  • 2500 kcals 2500 ml 10.4 cups
  • Fluid losses occur with sweat and respiration
  • Weigh before/after activity
  • Difference of 1 lb2 cups fluid

29
Fluid Electrolytes cont
  • For noncompetitive everyday active people plain,
    cool H2O recommended
  • Events gt 1 hour, sports drinks OK
  • NO salt tablets can worsen dehydration, impair
    performance
  • Avoid excessive caffeine, avoid ETOH

30
Table 14-5 Page 491
31
Requirements Energy Nutrients
  • CHO
  • 60-70 kcal needs ( vs 50-60)
  • Protein
  • 12-15 kcal needs (vs 10-15)
  • RDA 0.8 g/ kg
  • Fat
  • 20- 30 kcal needs (vs lt 30)

32
Table 14-4 Page 487
33
Other Nutrient Needs
  • Vitamins Minerals
  • Most athletes with a nutrient dense diet can meet
    their needs with diet supplements not needed
  • Iron deficiency May be a concern in young women
    athletes blood tests to confirm with prescribed
    supplements by MD

34
Figure 14-4 Page 494
An Athletes Meal Selections
Breakfast 1 c shredded wheat with low-fat milk
and banana. 2 slices whole-wheat toast with
jelly. 1 1/2 c orange juice.
Snack 3 c plain popcorn. A smoothie made from 1
1/2 c apple juice. 1 1/2 frozen banana.
Dinner Salad 1 c spinach, carrots, and mushrooms
with 1/2 c garbanzo beans, 1 tbs sunflower seeds,
and 1 tbs ranch salad dressing. 1 c spaghetti
with meat sauce. 1 c green beans. 1 corn on the
cob. 2 slices Italian bread. 4 tsp butter. 1
piece angel food cake with fresh strawberries
and whipping cream 1 c low-fat milk.
Lunch 2 turkey sandwiches. 1 1/2 c low-fat
milk. Large bunch of grapes.
Total kcal 3000 63 kcal from carbohydrate 22
kcal from fat 15 kcal from protein All vitamin
and mineral intakes exceed the RDA for both men
and women.
35
Figure 14-3 Page 483
The Effect of Diet on Physical Endurance
Maximum endurance time
Fat and protein diet
57 min
Normal mixed diet
114 min
High-carbohydrate diet
167 min
36
Before the Event
  • Familiar foods
  • Eat 1-4 hours before event
  • Want blood available to legs, not GI tract
  • High complex CHO --gt glycogen --gtenergy (CHO
    loading)CHO-rich, low fat, low fiber liquid
    meals high CHO may be well tolerated
  • 300 800 Kcals

37
Figure 14-5 Page 495
Examples of High-Carbohydrate Pregame Meals
300-kcalorie meal 1 large apple 4 saltine
crackers 1 1/2 tbs reduced-fat peanut butter
750-kcalorie meal 1 large baked potato 2 tsp
margarine 1 c steamed broccoli 1 c mixed carrots
and green peas 5 vanilla wafers 1 1/2 c apple or
pineapple juice
500-kcalorie meal 1 large whole-wheat bagel 2 tbs
jelly 1 1/2 c low-fat milk
38
After the Event
  • Recovery of fluids
  • 2 cups water/ 1lb wt loss
  • Recovery of CHO high CHO foods enhance glycogen
    storage avoid high pro and fat foods right after
    event
  • Rest

39
Sports Nutrition Myths
  • Spot reducing works
  • Fat used from all over body
  • Muscle converts to fat
  • With decreased activity
  • Muscles lose tone
  • Muscles shrink
  • If E in gt E out --gt fat

40
In-text Figure Page 480
The key to regular physical activity is finding
an activity that you enjoy.
41
In-text Figure Page 475
Physical activity helps you look good, feel good,
and have fun, and it brings many long-term health
benefits as well.
42
Ergogenic Aids (Highlight 14)
  • Ergogenic aids work enhancing substances or
    treatments
  • No sound data to support majority of claims
  • Ask Who is making claim? Who will profit from
    sale?

43
Ergogenics
  • Protein Powders whey protein promoted to
    achieve greater muscle gains fact adequate
    kcals, pro from foods, wt training exercising
    promotes muscle growth
  • Protein powders provide excess pro, stored as
    body fat, deaminated with extra burden on kidneys

44
Ergogenics
  • Amino Acid Supplements neither effective nor
    safe not recommended produces excess ammonia
  • Carnitine promoted as a fat burner a
    nonprotein amino acid made from lysine
    facilitates transport long chain fatty acids into
    mitochondria ineffective, can cause diarrhea

45
Ergogenics
  • Caffeine Research supports to enhance endurance
    by stimulating fat release, slowing glycogen use,
    less perception of fatigue
  • IOC prohibits gt 5-6 cups coffee 2 hrs prior to
    event
  • Side effects stomach upset, nervousness,
    headache

46
Ergogenics
  • Creatine Claims to enhance energy use by
    speeding resynthesis of CP, incr muscle strength
    more research needed to promote use safety in
    doubt wt gain is side effect
  • Ma huang (ephedra) Promoted to boost energy,
    help with wt control cardiac stimulant, assoc
    with HTN, rapid HR, nerve damage not rec

47
Ergogenics
  • Vitamin E Promoted to protect against
    exercise-induced oxidative stress more evidence
    needed, may help , but does not improve
    performance
  • Chromium picolinate Trace mineral supplement
    falsely promoted to build muscle, enhance fat
    burning not rec

48
Ergogenics Illegal
  • Anabolic Steroids
  • Synthetic version male hormones
  • Among most dangerous, illegal
  • Promoted to stimulate muscle bulking
  • DHEA Androstenedione Human Growth Hormone-
    also banned by IOC NCAA

49
Ergogenics Steroids, Cont
  • Cons
  • Steroids do NOT increase strength/CV alone
  • Increased aggressiveness (Roid Rage)
  • Acne
  • Lowered sperm count/testicular atrophy
  • Abnormal liver function (CA, hepatitis)
  • Increased risk heart attack, HTN
  • Can limit growth in adolescents

50
In-text Figure Page 474
Physical activity, or its lack, exerts
a significant and pervasive influence on
everyones nutrition and overall health.
51
In-text Figure Page 481
Split-second surges of power as in the heave of a
barbell or jump of a basketball player
involve anaerobic work.
52
Animation
Examine how changes in exercise intensity alter
the mixture of fuels that are oxidized during
physical activity
Click to view animation.
53
In-text Figure Page 483
Moderate- to high- intensity aerobic exercises
that can be sustained for only a short
time (less than 20 min- utes) use some fat, but
more glucose for fuel.
54
In-text Figure Page 485
Abundant energy from the break- down of fat can
come only from aerobic metabolism.
55
In-text Figure Page 489
For perfect functioning, every nutrient is needed.
56
In-text Figure Page 490
To prevent dehydration and the fatigue that
accompanies it, drink plenty of liquids before,
during, and after physical activity.
57
In-text Figure Page 494
A variety of foods is the best source of
nutrients for athletes.
58
In-text Figure Page 499
Supplements as Ergogenic Aids
59
Table H14-1(1) Page 503
60
Table H14-1(2) Page 503
(cont.)
61
Eating Disorders
  • Highlight 9

62
Eating Disorders
  • Est 5 million people in US, mostly girls, young
    women
  • Includes
  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • Bulimia Nervosa
  • Binge-Eating Disorder
  • No simple causes/treatment

63
Female Athlete Triad
  • Appearance-based and endurance athletes
  • Ballet, gymnastics
  • Disordered eating patterns
  • Amenorrhea
  • Osteoporosis
  • Risk factors adolescence, pressure to excel,
    focus on achieving ideal wt., dieting

64
Figure H9 -1 Page 311
The Female Athlete Triad
Eating Disorder
Restrictive dieting (inadequate energy and
nutrient intake) Overexercising Weight
loss Lack of body fat
Restrictive dieting (inadequate energy and
nutrient intake) Overexercising Weight
loss Lack of body fat
Osteoporosis
Amenorrhea
Loss of calcium from bones
Diminished hormones
65
Anorexia Nervosa
  • 1/100 women in U.S.
  • U.S. culture favors development
  • Images of ideal body
  • Advertising unrealistic
  • Food linked to personal emotional experiences
    not just for nutrients
  • 19/20 affected are young women 1/20 males

66
In-text Figure Page 310
Eating Disorders
67
Anorexia Nervosa - Dx
  • Refusal to maintain minimal normal body wt, lt
    85 IBW
  • Intense fear of gaining wt, becoming fat
  • Disturbance in perception of body wt
  • amenorrhea

68
Table H9 -2 Page 313
69
Anorexia Nervosa Family Characteristics
  • Dominated by controlling parents, overprotective
  • Values achievement/outer qualities
  • Values parents opinion
  • Works to please
  • High degree of perfectionism

70
Anorexia Nervosa Individuals Characteristics
  • Desires control
  • Feels controlled by others
  • Addiction
  • Obsessive/compulsive (fear of fat)
  • Tremendous discipline
  • High exercise, low kcal diet
  • Disturbed body image
  • Panic w/ wt gain

71
Anorexia Nervosa Physical Characteristics
  • Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) BMR slows
  • Heart muscle weakens with decreased function
  • Impaired immune response
  • Anemia
  • GI tract? decreased peristalsis, diarrhea,
    atrophy
  • Amenorrhea

72
Anorexia Nervosa Treatment
  • Psychological counseling
  • Inpatient Addiction-type Centers
  • Nutrition intervention
  • Increase food kcals gradually
  • Include foods from all food groups, well-balanced
    diet
  • Multivitamin
  • Small, frequent feedings

73
Bulimia Nervosa
  • More common than Anorexia Nervosa
  • Higher incidence
  • 5-20 of college women
  • Secretive nature, not as physically apparent
  • Dieting --gt hunger --gt binge --gt purge
  • Binge eating purging

74
Figure 8-5 Page 261
The Declining Weight of Miss America
BMI
75
Bulimia Nervosa - Dx
  • Diagnostic criteria
  • Recurrent episodes of binge eating, including
    eating, within 2 hrs, def larger amt of food than
    most sense of lack of control over eating
  • Inapprop behavior to prevent wt gain
    self-induced vomiting, enemas, laxatives,
    diuretics
  • Binge eating with compensatory behaviors 2 x week
    for 3 mo

76
Bulimia Nervosa Dx (cont)
  • Self-evaluation unduly influenced by body size,
    wt
  • Does not occur during episodes of anorexia
  • Purging type non-purging type may engage in
    excessive exercise

77
Table H9 -3 Page 314
78
Bulimia Nervosa
  • Bingeing
  • up to 10,000-15,000 kcals at one sitting
  • Purging
  • Food rules
  • Laxatives/emetics
  • Hypergymnasia

79
Bulimia Nervosa, Cont
  • U.S. culture promotes thinness
  • Triggered by rejection/depression
  • Bingeing/purging often done in secret
  • Not as quickly recognized
  • May also abuse drug/ETOH, compulsively steal, or
    is sexually promiscuous

80
Bulimia Nervosa Self- Induced Emesis
  • Vomiting
  • Fluid and electrolyte imbalances
  • Abnormal heart rhythms
  • Kidney injury/failure
  • Teeth erosion (Dentists)
  • Esophageal ulcers
  • Rupture/tear stomach/esophagus

81
Bulimia Nervosa Treatment
  • Treat for depression
  • Body image
  • Work to decrease diet cycles
  • Gain control over food, establish regular eating
    habits with wt maintenance as goal
  • Avoid finger foods eat sitting down
  • Include vegs, salad, foods to prolong eating
  • Well balanced diet

82
(No Transcript)
83
Binge- Eating Disorder
  • Includes compulsive overeating
  • Typically do not purge
  • Behavioral disorder that needs treatment

84
Table H9-5 (1) Page 317
85
Table H9-5 (2) Page 317
(cont.)
86
Preventing Eating Disorders
  • Realize that some concern is normal
  • Discourage restrictive dieting, fasting
  • Correct misconceptions about nutrition, safe
    weight loss, normal body wt
  • Encourage normal expression of disruptive
    emotions
  • Encourage coaches, etc. about weight sensitivity

87
Preventing Eating Disorders, Continued
  • Carefully phrase weight-related comments
  • Encourage children to eat only when hungry

88
Figure H9 -2 Page 315
The Vicious Cycle of Restrictive Dieting and
Binge Eating
Negative self-perceptions
Purging
Restrictive dieting
Binge eating
89
Table H9 -1 Page 312
90
Table H9-4 Page 316
About PowerShow.com