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From Stem Cells to Jail Cells: Ethics, Politics and Policy Options

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What is the difference between therapeutic and reproductive cloning? ... Kentucky Derby. Preakness. Taz. Champion Racing Mule. Idaho Gem. Cloned from. Fetal Sib of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: From Stem Cells to Jail Cells: Ethics, Politics and Policy Options


1
The Science and Ethics of Reproductive
CloningIntroduction to the Science California
Science CenterApril 15, 2006
Edward RB McCabe, MD, PhD Physician-in-Chief, Matt
el Childrens Hospital at UCLA Co-Director, UCLA
Center for Society and Genetics www.socgen.ucla.ed
u
2
Science of Reproductive Cloning
  • What is a clone?
  • How is a clone created?
  • What is the difference between therapeutic and
    reproductive cloning?
  • Why clone animals and humans?
  • What types of animals have been cloned and what
    have we observed?
  • Who is doing this research and where?

3
Science of Reproductive Cloning
  • What is a clone?
  • How is a clone created?
  • What is the difference between therapeutic and
    reproductive cloning?
  • Why clone animals and humans?
  • What types of animals have been cloned and what
    have we observed?
  • Who is doing this research and where?

4
Clone
  • A copy of
  • Gene
  • Animal
  • A clone of an animal
  • An exact genetic copy of the original
  • Equivalent to an identical twin

5
Science of Reproductive Cloning
  • What is a clone?
  • How is a clone created?
  • What is the difference between therapeutic and
    reproductive cloning?
  • Why clone animals and humans?
  • What types of animals have been cloned and what
    have we observed?
  • Who is doing this research and where?

6
Comparing Sexual Reproduction and Cloning
7
Cloning Dolly
8
Science of Reproductive Cloning
  • What is a clone?
  • How is a clone created?
  • What is the difference between therapeutic and
    reproductive cloning?
  • Why clone animals and humans?
  • What types of animals have been cloned and what
    have we observed?
  • Who is doing this research and where?

9
Cloning
  • Therapeutic
  • To generate stem cells for use in Regenerative
    Medicine
  • Reproductive
  • To generate clonal organism(s) from an original
    individual

10
Embryonic Stem Cells
  • Generated from
  • inner cell mass (ICM)
  • of embryo
  • Pluripotent or totipotent
  • any cell can give rise to a
  • complete organism
  • ES cells in culture growing
  • on spindle-shaped fibroblast
  • feeder layer
  • Will differentiate into embryoid
  • bodies in culture

11
(No Transcript)
12
Science of Reproductive Cloning
  • What is a clone?
  • How is a clone created?
  • What is the difference between therapeutic and
    reproductive cloning?
  • Why clone animals and humans?
  • What types of animals have been cloned and what
    have we observed?
  • Who is doing this research and where?

13
Why Clone Animals?
  • To generate protein therapeutics that are highly
    and reproducibly expressed from animal to animal
  • To be used to develop organs for transplantation
    into humans
  • To save endangered species from distinction
  • To reproduce desirable characteristics, such as
    speed in a race horse
  • To permit infertile animals with desirable
    features to reproduce

14
Funny Cide 2003
Kentucky Derby
Taz Champion Racing Mule
Preakness
Idaho Gem Cloned from Fetal Sib of Taz
15
Why Clone Humans?
  • To obtain human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) for
    Regenerative Medicine
  • To generate an identical twin of an existing or
    previously existing individual
  • To engineer the clone of an individual with a
    genetic disorder such that the clone would be
    identical except for the repaired gene

16
Why Are Cloning and Embryonic Stem Cells Linked?
  • ES cells could be derived from donated, or
    abandoned or orphaned embryos
  • For transplantation of immunologically identical
    tissue
  • ES cells could be derived using SCNT from the
    individual who would receive the ES cell-derived
    tissue

17
Culture Conditions Induce Differentiation
18
Science of Reproductive Cloning
  • What is a clone?
  • How is a clone created?
  • What is the difference between therapeutic and
    reproductive cloning?
  • Why clone animals and humans?
  • What types of animals have been cloned and what
    have we observed?
  • Who is doing this research and where?

19
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20
Observations in Cloned Animals
  • Extremely low reproductive efficiency
  • High late fetal losses
  • Placental abnormalities
  • Increased birth size
  • Large offspring syndrome
  • Risk to mother and offspring
  • High early neonatal death rates
  • Respiratory deaths

21
Science of Reproductive Cloning
  • What is a clone?
  • How is a clone created?
  • What is the difference between therapeutic and
    reproductive cloning?
  • Why clone animals and humans?
  • What types of animals have been cloned and what
    have we observed?
  • Who is doing this research and where?

22
Hwang Fraudulently Claimed to Derive hES Cells
from Cloned Human Embryos
23
hESC PoliciesHoffman, University of Minnesota
24
Stem Cell Research Centers Hoffman, University
of Minnesota
25
Summary
  • What is a clone?
  • How is a clone created?
  • What is the difference between therapeutic and
    reproductive cloning?
  • Why clone animals and humans?
  • What types of animals have been cloned and what
    have we observed?
  • Who is doing this research and where?
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