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FUNDAMENTALS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

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IF ALL THE SNOW AND ICE IN GREENLAND MELTED, GLOBAL SEA LEVEL WILL RISE 24 FEET. ... Greenland's glaciers are melting into the sea twice as fast as the previously ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: FUNDAMENTALS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE


1
FUNDAMENTALS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • Physical Causes
  • Consequences
  • Prevention, Mitigation, Monitoring, and
    Adaptation

2
FUNDAMENTALS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • Physical Causes

3
PLANET EARTH
4
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE LITHOSPHERE-HYDROSPHERE-ATM
OSPHERE-BIOSPHERE INTERACTIONS
5
PHYSICAL INTERACTIONS OCCUR ON MANY SCALES
  • Propagation, reflection, and refraction of light
    and EM waves from the sun (creating the solar
    input)
  • Absorption, storage, and re-radiation of light
    and EM waves (causing the natural greenhouse
    effect).
  • Absorption of heat by greenhouse gases in the
    atmosphere (causing the Unnatural greenhouse
    effect).

6
WHAT DOES IT ALL MEAN?
  • THE NATURAL GREENHOUSE EFFECT KEEPS THE EARTH
    WARM AT ABOUT 57.9 DEGREES F, AND
  • THE UNNATURALGREENHOUSE EFFECT CAUSES THE
    ATMOSPHERES TEMPERATURE TO RISE, FOLLOWED BY A
    RISE IN LAND AND OCEAN TEMPERATURES, CAUSING
    CLIMATE CHANGE ON A GLOBAL SCALE

7
WHAT DO WE KNOW?
  • THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT OCCURS WHEN AN EARTH
    WARMED BY THE SOLAR SPECTRUM RADIATES INVISIBLE
    INFRARED LIGHT BACK, BUT

8
WHAT DO WE KNOW?
  • CONTINUED
  • INSTEAD OF GOING BACK TO SPACE, IT IS
    PARTLY ABSORBED BY GREENHOUSE GASES IN THE
    ATMOSPHERE
  • NOTE ABSORPTION MAKES THE ATMOSPHERE WARMER.

9
A WARMING EARTH SEPT 25, 2007
10
THE AVERAGE GLOBAL TEMPERATURE HAS RISEN 1.7
DEGREES F IN PAST 150 YEARS
11
2005 - HOTTEST YEAR ON RECORD
  • According to NASA and other organizations, 2005
    was the hottest year on record for the Northern
    Hemisphere.
  • Temperatures were about 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit
    above the historical average.

12
WHAT DO WE KNOW?
  • SATELLITE MEASUREMENTS INDICATE THAT THE
    TROPO-SPHERE IS WARMING FASTER THAN THE EARTHS
    SURFACE.
  • NOTE THIS INDICATES THAT GREENHOUSE GASES IN
    THE ATMOSPHERE ARE ABSORBING TOO MUCH HEAT.

13
SOLAR INPUT
  • After hitting Earth's upper atmosphere, about one
    - third of the sun's energy is reflected back
    into space.
  • The two-thirds that gets through the atmosphere
    drives Earth's weather engine

14
WHAT DO WE KNOW?
  • THE SUN PROVIDES AN AVERAGE OF ABOUT 1370
    WATTS OF POWER THROUGH EM RADIATION TO EVERY
    SQUARE METER OF SURFACE IT STRIKES.
  • NOTE THIS IS CALLED THE SOLAR CONSTANT.

15
WHAT DO WE KNOW?
  • THE SOLAR SPECTRUM INCLUDES VISIBLE LIGHT
    (ROYGBI), ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT (A WAVE LENGTH TOO
    SHORT TO SEE), AND INFRARED LIGHT (A WAVE LENGTH
    TOO LONG TO SEE).

16
WHAT DO WE KNOW?
  • ABOUT 33 PERCENT OF THE INCOMING SOLAR
    SPECTRUM IS REFLECTED BACK TO SPACE FROM CLOUDS,
    SNOW, AND, TO A LESSER DEGREE, BY LAND SURFACES..

17
WHAT DO WE KNOW?
  • THE BALANCE (ABOUT 70 PERCENT) OF THE
    INCOMING SOLAR SPECTRUM IS ABSORBED BY LAND, AIR,
    WATER, OR ICE.

18
THE OCEANS STORE HEAT
  • Oceans, the source of moisture in the air, store
    heat more effectively over the long term than
    land and transports it efficiently over
    distances of thousands of miles.

19
WHAT DO WE KNOW?
  • THE EARTHS OCEANS ABSORB 20 TIMES AS MUCH
    HEAT AS THE EARTHS ATMOSPHERE.
  • THE pH LEVEL OF THE EARTHS OCEANS HAS
    INCREASED.
  • NOTE THE pH INCREASES AS CARBON DIOXIDE IS
    ABSORBED.

20
WHAT DO WE KNOW?
  • SEA LEVEL RISES FOR TWO REASONS
  • WATER EXPANDS WHEN IT IS WARMED, AND
  • WATER VOLUME INCREASES AS MELT WATER IS ADDED.

21
WHAT DO WE KNOW?
  • AVERAGE GLOBAL SEA LEVEL HAS INCREASED BY
    4.7 INCHES SINCE THE LAST ICE AGE.

22
WHAT DO WE KNOW?
  • IF THE FLOATING ARCTIC ICE CAPS MELT,
    GLOBAL SEA LEVEL WILL NOT BE AFFECTED.
  • IF ALL THE SNOW AND ICE IN GREENLAND
    MELTED, GLOBAL SEA LEVEL WILL RISE 24 FEET.

23
CLOUDS CAUSE BOTH COOLING AND WARMING
  • Clouds cool Earth by reflecting incoming solar
    energy.
  • Clouds cool Earth by slowing evaporation.
  • Clouds warm Earth by trapping heat being
    re-radiated upward from the Earths surface.

24
LAND SURFACES AFFECT TEMPERATURES AND MOISTURE
  • Mountain ranges can block clouds, creating "dry"
    shadows downwind.
  • Sloping land facilitates water runoff, leaving
    the land and air drier.

25
ICE AND SNOW
  • Ice and snow reflects heat outward into space,
    cooling Planet Earth in the process.
  • When ice melts into the ocean, the ocean water
    losses some of its stored heat.

26
WHAT DO WE KNOW?
  • THE ALBEDO (PERCENT OF LIGHT REFLECTED) FOR
    FRESH SNOW IS 80-90 PERCENT,
  • BUT IT IS ONLY 50 60 PERCENT FOR MELTING ICE.

27
GREENHOUSE GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE
  • Greenhouse" gases include water vapor, carbon
    dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide.

28
WATER VAPOR
  • Higher air temperatures increase the rate of
    water vaporization.
  • Water vapor is the most potent greenhouse gas.

29
VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS
  • Volcanic eruptions add water vapor and ash to
    the atmosphere.

30
UNNATURALGREENHOUSE EFFECT
  • Greenhouse gases trap heat inside the atmosphere.
  • Too much trapped heat increases temperatures in
    the atmosphere and on the land and ocean
    surfaces, which causes climate change.

31
WHAT DO WE KNOW?
  • THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT OCCURS NATURALLY.
  • HUMAN ACTIVITIES EXACERBATE THE
    UNNATURAL GREENHOUSE EFFECT BY INCREASING
    CERTAIN GREENHOUSE GASES (E.G., CO2) ABOVE
    HISTORIC LEVELS.

32
WHAT DO WE KNOW?
  • WITHOUT THE NATURAL GREENHOUSE EFFECT, PLANET
    EARTH WOULD BE MUCH COLDER E.G., A TEMPER-ATURE
    OF ABOUT
  • MINUS 2 DEGREES F.

33
WHAT DO WE KNOW?
  • WITH AN UNNATURAL GREENHOUSE EFFECT, PLANET
    EARTH WOULD BE WARMER THAN THE CURRENT AVERAGE
    TEMPERATURE OF 57.9 DEGREES F.

34
WHAT DO WE KNOW?
  • CARBON DIOXIDE ENTERS THE ATMOSPHERE
    NATURALLY, AND
  • NATURE REMOVES CARBON DIOXIDE FROM THE
    ATMOSPHERE NATURALLY.

35
THE OCEANS ARE A NATURAL CARBON SINK
  • The oceans and marine life remove and/or consume
    huge amounts of carbon dioxide.

36
WHAT DO WE KNOW?
  • AS THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT INCREASES TEMPERATURES
    IN THE ATMOSPHERE, THE REMOVAL RATE OF CARBON
    DIOXIDE IS DECREASED.

37
HUMAN INFLUENCES
  • Humans are exacerbating warming by adding much
    more carbon dioxide to the greenhouse gases that
    are naturally present in the atmosphere, through
    .
  • Extensive use of fossil fuels.

38
HUMAN INFLUENCES
  • Aerosols, smoke and sulfates reflect sunlight
    away from the Earth, which outweigh ----.
  • The temporary, localized cooling effects from
    aerosols and the smoke and sulfates from industry.

39
HUMAN INFLUENCES ON LAND SURFACES
  • Once tropical forests (a carbon sink) are cleared
    for cattle ranching or community development, the
    cleared land can becomes a major source of
    methane, a greenhouse gas.

40
FUNDAMENTALS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • Consequences

41
THE WATER CYCLE AND THE UNNATURAL GREENHOUSE
EFFECT
  • Higher air temperatures increase the rate of
    water vaporization (Water vapor is the most
    potent greenhouse gas) and accelerate the melting
    of ice.
  • .

42
THE CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • Worldwide rise in sea level.
  • Collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation
    (The Atlantic Conveyor Belt).
  • Increased probability of severe windstorms.
  • Larger storm surges in seasonal hurricanes and
    typhoons.
  • Prolonged droughts in some regions and heavy
    precipitation in others.

43
THE CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • Reduced fresh water for a large portion of
    humankind that presently obtains its fresh water
    from glacier-fed rivers.
  • Loss of function of activities such as winter ski
    resorts.

44
ATLANTIC THERMOHALINE CIRCULATION
  • The Atlantic Conveyor Belt keeps Europe from
    becoming a deep freeze in the winter.
  • Ancient sediments, ice cores, and fossils
    indicate that the Atlantic Conveyor Belt shifted
    abruptly about 8,200 years ago, when a sudden
    cooling occurred.

45
ATLANTIC CONVEYOR BELT
  • As a result, the land temperature in Greenland
    dropped more than 9 degrees Fahrenheit within ONE
    OR TWO decades, an effect that could prove
    disastrous for Europe.

46
GREENLANDS ICEBERGS
47
GREENLAND
  • Greenland's glaciers are melting into the sea
    twice as fast as the previously calculated rate
    of four miles per year.
  • This faster rate, if continued in concert with
    similar observations in the Himalayas and South
    America, makes predictions of how quickly Earth's
    oceans will rise over the next century
    questionable and probably obsolete.

48
GREENLAND AND ANTARCTICA
  • The ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are
    among the largest reservoirs of fresh water on
    Earth.
  • How much sea level will rise as a result of
    faster melting is unclear.
  • Current estimates of around 50 cm (20 in) over
    the next century may be much too low.

49
DECREASING ICE THICKNESS AT QUELCAYA, PERU
50
GLACIAL RETREAT COLOMBIA
51
GLACIAL RETREAT BALAIS, SWITZERLAND
52
GLACIAL RETREAT GLACIER NATIONAL PARK, MONTANA
53
SHEPHARD GLACIER 1913 (LEFT) AND 2005 (RIGHT)
54
GRINNELL GLACIER 1938 (LEFT) AND 1991 (RIGHT)
55
CORAL BLEACHING
  • Ocean temperatures that are too warm stress
    corals, causing them to expel symbiotic
    micro-algaetheir food supply-- which lives in
    their tissues.
  • As a result, the reefs appear bleached.
  • Bleaching that lasts longer than a week can kill
    corals.
  • One of the significant long-term impact is on the
    fishing industry.

56
CORRAL BLEACHING FROM TEXAS TO TRINIDAD
57
FUNDAMENTALS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • Prevention, Mitigation, Monitoring, and
    Adaptation

58
THE TIPPING SCENARIO ISSUE OF GLOBAL CLIMATE
CHANGE
  • The Tipping Scenario Issue is
  • Within a few decades, will humans be virtually
    helpless to slow, much less, reverse the risks
    associated with global warming?

59
THE TECHNOLOGY ISSUE OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • The Technology issue is Can the global
    community slow and possibly reverse the perceived
    increasing adverse risks through timely
    technological innovations for prevention,
    mitigation, monitoring, and adaptation?

60
BOOK OF KNOWLEDGE -
Perspectives On Science, Policy, And Change
61
LOCAL REGIONAL SCALES
DATA BASES AND INFORMATION
HAZARDS GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE
SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN
UP AFTERSHOCKS
62
Living with Global Climate Change
NO DISASTER
INCREASED DEMANDS ON COMMUNITY
INCREASED CAPABILITIES OF COMMUNITY
63
Living With Global Climate Change
A DISASTER
DECREASED CAPABILITIES OF COMMUNITY
INCREASED DEMANDS ON COMMUNITY
64
Prevention, Mitigation and Adaptation Measures
  • PREVENTION (CONTROL THE SOURCE)
  • MITIGATION (REDUCE THE IMPACTS)
  • ADAPTATION (ANTICIPATE)

65
Measures (continued)
  • MONITORING
  • SCENARIOS
  • ADAPTATIVE RESPONSE TO MONITORING AND SCENARIOS

66
ADAPTATION THAMES RIVER, LONDON
67
AN ASSESSMENT OF IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE
UNITED STATES
  • A report of the U.S. Climate Change Science
    Program, a joint effort of more than a dozen
    government agencies
  • The full report is online at www.usgcrp.gov
  • June 20, 2008

68
BASED ON A CONTINENTAL ASSESSMENT OF CLIMATE
CHANGE
69
HIGHLIGHTS OF REPORT
  • "Heat waves and heavy downpours are very likely
    to increase in frequency and intensity.

70
HIGHLIGHTS OF REPORT
  • "Substantial areas of North America are likely
    to have more frequent droughts of greater
    severity.

71
HIGHLIGHTS OF REPORT
  • Hurricane wind speeds, rainfall intensity, and
    storm surge levels are likely to increase.

72
HIGHLIGHTS OF REPORT
  • The cold season storms are likely to become more
    frequent, with stronger winds and more extreme
    wave heights."

73
ADDITIONAL IMPLICATIONS
  • Soil amplification of earthquake ground shaking
    is likely to be more pervasive.

74
ADDITIONAL IMPLICATIONS
  • Landslides triggered in earthquakes are likely
    to be more extensive.

75
ADDITIONAL IMPLICATIONS
  • The effects of tsunami wave run up will be more
    extensive.

76
PROJECTED CHANGE IN FREQUENCY
  • By the end of this century rainfall amounts
    expected to occur every 20 years now could be
    taking place every five years.
  • y the end of this century rainfall
    amounts expected to occur every 20 years could be
    taking place every five years.
  • Such an increase "can lead to the type of events
    that we are seeing in the Midwest," said Karl,
    though he did not directly link the current
    flooding to climate change.

77
PROJECTED CHANGE IN FREQUENCY
  • Such an increase "can lead to the type of severe
    floods that we are seeing at present in the
    Midwest.
  • y the end of this century rainfall
    amounts expected to occur every 20 years could be
    taking place every five years.
  • Such an increase "can lead to the type of events
    that we are seeing in the Midwest," said Karl,
    though he did not directly link the current
    flooding to climate change.

78
ARE MIDWEST USA FLOODS A SIGN OF WHAT WILL HAPPEN
IN FUTURE?
79
MIDWEST USA FLOODS A RESULT OF GREENHOUSE GASES
OR MAN'S AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES?
80
MAN'S PAST ACTIVITIES ALTERED IOWA'S LANDSCAPE
  • The heavy rains fell on a landscape that had
    been radically reengineered by humans for 50
    years.
  • Plowed fields have replaced tall grass prairies.

81
IOWA'S ALTERED LAND WAS VULNERABLE TO FLOODING
82
MAN'S ACTIVITIES ALTERED IOWA'S LANDSCAPE
  • Former prairie grass fields were meticulously
    drained with underground pipes.
  • Streams and creeks were straightened.

83
MAN'S ACTIVITIES ALTERED IOWA'S LANDSCAPE
  • Most of the former wetlands were gone.
  • Community development had taken over former
    floodplains.
  • w

84
LONG-TERM IMPLICATIONS
  • Comprehensive emergency management will be more
    difficult to plan and implement in the future.
  • Sustainable infrastructure will also be
    difficult to plan and achieve.
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