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This document is contained within the Fire Management Toolbox on Wilderness.net. Since other related resources found in this toolbox may be of interest, you can visit this toolbox by visiting the following URL:

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Fire history maps. Weather forecasts. Forest fire behavior characteristics. Minimum Requirement Decision Guide. Selecting the AMR ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: This document is contained within the Fire Management Toolbox on Wilderness.net. Since other related resources found in this toolbox may be of interest, you can visit this toolbox by visiting the following URL:


1
  • This document is contained within the Fire
    Management Toolbox on Wilderness.net. Since other
    related resources found in this toolbox may be of
    interest, you can visit this toolbox by visiting
    the following URL http//www.wilderness.net/index
    .cfm?fusetoolboxessecfire. All toolboxes are
    products of the Arthur Carhart National
    Wilderness Training Center.

2
Minimum Impact Suppression Strategies Tactics
Wilderness Resource Fire Advisor February 28,
2007 Albuquerque, New Mexico
3
Objectives
  • Understand the difference between a strategy,
    tactic, method
  • How to effectively assist in the development and
    implementation

4
Strategy
Limit Fire Spread to the North
General Objective
Protection or Benefits
5
Tactic
Construct Line
Appropriate Management Response
or
Protect Arch Sites
Fire Use
6
Methods
Cold Trail Fire Perimeter
Construct Handline
7
Tool Kit for AMR Decisions
  • Fire history maps
  • Weather forecasts
  • Forest fire behavior characteristics
  • Minimum Requirement Decision Guide

8
Selecting the AMR
  • Surveillance / Monitoring.
  • Lining to halt fire spread.
  • Use of aerial support.
  • Use of burn-out associated with natural barriers,
    trails, etc.
  • Wet line.
  • Dry line.
  • Minimal or extensive mop-up.

9
MIST Tactics
  • Without compromising firefighter safety, minimum
    impact tactics should be used for all fire
    activities, including
  • Line construction
  • Mop-up
  • Helispot construction
  • Spike and coyote camps
  • Rehab work
  • Introduction of invasive species

10
Minimum Requirement Decision Guide
  • Consider basic analysis in each incident, at
    least informally.
  • Are there other less intrusive actions that
    should be tried first?
  • Develop alternatives, using motorized equipment
    and mechanized transport, not using these, or
    some combination.
  • Assess biophysical, social, political, health and
    safety effects of each.

11
Hand Line
12
As the Fuel Situation Increases
  • A decision to stop growth at fire edge or to use
    natural barriers.
  • Use of more intensive fireline.
  • Use of more intensive burn-out tactics.

13
  • Locate line in minimal fuels.
  • Use only the width and depth necessary to halt
    fire spread.
  • Widen minimal line by burning fuels between the
    line and the fire.
  • Limb or fall only when necessary for safety and
    to prevent fire spread.

14
  • Minimize clearing fuels next to the fire edge.
  • Roll logs rather than buck, or reroute around.
  • Scrape fuels from the base of snags.
  • Consider explosives.

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Burn-outTactics
18
  • When applied from natural barriers, burn-out may
    reduce the need to build handline.
  • However, mass ignition from aerial applications
    may be
  • More extensive.
  • Higher intensity.
  • More expensive.

19
  • Fire Behavior Considerations depend on the time
    of day minimum management tactics may be more
    successful at night or in the morning than during
    the heat of the day.

20
Mop-up
21
Considerations
  • Mop-up standards are a decision negotiated
    between the forest, the team and the line
    overhead.
  • Strive for the minimum necessary to secure the
    line from escape, based on anticipated weather.
  • The standard is a balance between resource values
    and our ability to mitigate for safety.
  • Minimizing mop-up impacts requires longer
    patrolling.

22
  • Use cold trail techniques.
  • Use water rather than tools.
  • Minimize soil disturbance.
  • Cool, remove or burn fuels.
  • Allow fuels to burn out.
  • Fire line around problems rather than fall.

23
Tree Cutting
  • There is no question safety is paramount, but why
    do firefighters need to be there?
  • Snags are important to a functioning ecosystem.
  • Stumps are not natural in appearance.

24
  • When building line, locate away from snags where
    possible.
  • During mop-up
  • Identify hazard trees with flagging or glow
    sticks.
  • Extinguish burning trees with water or dirt.
  • Consider blasting.

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Precautions Around Water
  • Avoid use of retardants, foams and surfactants
    near live streams.
  • If chemicals are used, pump from fold-a-tank 200
    from water.
  • Provide spill prevention and containment measures
    for pump operations.

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Helicopter Operations
29
  • During planning consider the objectives.
  • If primarily as crew support, longline.
  • If primarily for crew shuttles
  • Use natural openings.
  • Avoid construction in high use areas.
  • Are there others within reasonable walking
    distance?
  • Provide specific instruction for construction.

30
  • During construction
  • Flush cut stumps.
  • Limit bucking and limbing.
  • Use directional falling so trees will be
    crisscrossed in a naturally appearing arrangement.

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35
Spike Camp Management
36
  • Use existing and impact resistant sites.
  • Avoid clearing and trenching and NO bough beds.
  • Change location, if impacts are unacceptable.
  • Locate latrines 200 from water and 8 deep.
  • Evaluate coyote camp impacts vs. travel.
  • Avoid wildlife (bear) attractants.

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  • Be involved in selecting sites.
  • Be there with the spike camp manager before the
    crews get there.
  • Define expectations for camp.

39
Human Waste
40
Rehabilitation
41
  • The objective is to mitigate or eliminate
    resource damage to as natural a condition as
    possible. The standards applied can significantly
    affect the cost of a fire.

42
  • Rehab of fire line.
  • Fill in berms and provide drainage, if necessary.
  • Scatter bone piles.
  • Slant cut large logs at 45-60 degrees on bottom
    side.
  • Naturalize.

43
  • Helispots
  • Consider burning piles at later date.
  • Spike Camps
  • Cover latrine.
  • Pick up all litter and naturalize.
  • IC, Staging Areas and Drop Points
  • Rehab commensurate with resource values.

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59
Before Leaving
  • Walk through to once again eliminate any
    remaining evidence of human presence.

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64
Review
  • MIST applies in outside of the wilderness
  • Work smarter, not harder

65
Thousands of tired, nerve-shaken, over-civilized
people are beginning to find out that going to
the mountains is going home that wilderness is a
necessity that mountain parks and reservations
are useful not only as fountains of timber and
irrigating rivers, but as fountains of life.
John Muir
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