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Talking Text

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Slide show. PowerPoint presentation. Wrap-up & Summary. Technology Tips for Differentiation ... to change the voices and listen to their words in funny ways. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Talking Text


1
For trainers
  • These slides should be edited to fit your
    audience, your setting (hands-on versus lecture),
    and your objectives.
  • You can also pull individual slides into your
    existing presentations.

2
For Windows users
  • Due to the variety of Windows configurations,
    not all talking utilities will work on all
    systems. Testing ahead of time is important.
  • Also ATT Natural Voices (29.95) will greatly
    improve sound quality in Windows.

3
Technology Tips
  • How to merge two PowerPoint slideshows or
    grabbing a selected batch of slides
  • Have one PowerPoint file open.
  • Position cursor where you want added slides.
  • Select Insert from the menu.
  • Select Slides from File
  • Dialogue box allows choice of file slides.

4
Technology Tips for Differentiated Instruction
Elementary Edition developed by the WestEd
Regional Technology in Education Consortium
5
Technology Tips for Differentiated Instruction
  • PowerPoint training
  • Web site at http//westedrtec.org/techtips
  • Tip-sheets
  • focused on using technologies most schools
    already have and
  • for use in professional development of
    technology-using general and special educators,
    and staff.

6
Technology Tips
  • Merging PowerPoint slideshows or grabbing a
    selected batch of slides
  • Position cursor where you want added slides.
  • Select Insert
  • Slides from File
  • Dialogue box allows choice of file slides.

7
Differentiated Instruction
  • is a model of instruction that revolves
    around the belief that students learn in many
    different ways.
  • (Verde, 2004)

8
Differentiated Instruction
  • Providing materials and tasks at varied levels of
    difficulty with varying degrees of scaffolding,
    through multiple instructional groups.
  • Encouraging student success by varying ways in
    which students work alone or collaboratively, in
    auditory or visual modes, or through practical or
    creative means.
  • (Tomlinson, 2000)

9
Differentiated Instruction
  • Student preferences for learning math
  • Using manipulatives
  • Observing demonstrations
  • Sketching out the problem
  • Reading
  • Comparing work with a partner
  • Solving problems as a team
  • (Strong, 2004)

10
Differentiated Instruction
  • Student Book Report Options
  • Diorama
  • Stand up comedy
  • Written report
  • Poster
  • Slide show
  • PowerPoint presentation

11
Why Differentiate Instruction?
  • Because not all children learn in the same way.
  • Because NCLB says all children need to become
    proficient.
  • Because research and practice demonstrate that
    differentiated instruction techniques are
    effective.

12
Why Differentiate Instruction?
  • Because we can maximize student's growth by
    meeting each student where he or she is and
    helping them progress.
  • Because of the diversity of students found in
    todays classrooms. (ELL, disabilities, cultural
    backgrounds, etc.)

13
Differentiation Fits with Standardized Instruction
  • Open Court suggests
  • Small groups working collaboratively
  • Pre-teach to activate prior knowledge
  • Re-teach
  • Independent reading
  • Partner or round table reading
  • Audio tape or other audible materials

14
Differentiated Instruction
  • Technology is a great tool for differentiation,
    by allowing changes to
  • content,
  • channels of input, and
  • means of output
  • It is also an excellent platform for cooperative
    learning

15
How can technology can help support students…
  • who are reading below grade level ?
  • who have difficulty following oral instruction or
    a discussion?
  • who need help organizing information?
  • who need increased support in the writing process?

16
Technology Tips for Differentiation
  • Talking Text (text-to-speech)
  • Digital Text
  • Word Features
  • Enhanced Text
  • Portables
  • Graphic organizers

17
Talking Text
See a Video Clip CAST TES Supports to Help
Recognition
18
What is Talking Text?
  • Words on the screen are read by the computer on
    command.
  • In most cases, the words need to be highlighted
    first.
  • Allows reading of individual words or phrases.
  • Works with word processors, websites, and more.
  • Often called text-to-speech.

19
Who does Talking Text help?
  • Remember your student who struggles with
    comprehension? Would they benefit from
  • pre-reading to increase comprehension?
  • reading to access standard or advanced materials?
  • reading and listening together (reinforcement)?
  • reading selected words or phrase?
  • Talking Text also helps writers to hear omissions
    or inaccuracies in their work.

20
What does research say about Talking Text?
  • Developing reading comprehension is a complex
    skill.
  • If a great deal of effort goes to sounding out
    words, energy for comprehension is reduced.
  • Talking text can provide one more tool for
    supporting comprehension for some students.
  • (Rose Dalton, 2002)

21
What does practice show…?
  • Many students improve editing and proofreading if
    they can hear their work.
  • Hearing ones own words is rewarding and
    motivating.

22
How-to Instructions for Talking Text
  • Hint Hearing multiple computers with Talking
    Text is disturbing you will need headphones.

23
Kidspiration Talks
  • The Talking Interface reads menus, buttons, and
    other program elements on-screen
  • The Listen tool (symbol of an ear) reads the
    words in their projects
  • The Record command (click Record on the Goodies
    menu) records sounds so they can be attached to
    symbols or ideas expanding and reinforcing
    learning
  • Allows a teacher to record instructions for
    students to use in an activity

24
KidPix Talks
  • Speech Menu
  • Read Text Aloud
  • Reads text entered with the keyboard, using
    typewriter key
  • Text boxes will be read in order, top to bottom
  • Pick a Voice
  • Dialog box with choice of voices
  • Preview to hear how each sounds
  • Click OK to select a voice

25
AppleWorks (Mac) Talks
  • Open a Word Processing document
  • Highlight text and click Lips or Text to Speech
    icon in the button bar
  • If there is no Talking icon in the tool bar
  • Open Preferences gt Available Buttons gt Word
    Processing
  • Drag Lips into button bar, click Done

26
AppleWorks (Win) Talks
  • If there is no talking icon
  • Press the triangle button in top left of tool
    bar.
  • Select Default and Visible at Start Up
  • Press triangle button again and select Edit
    Button Bar. Select Default and Modify. From the
    pulldown menu, Button Categories, select Word
    Processing.
  • Select Speak Text, a dialogue box will explain
    the function. Select Add, OK and Done.
  • This adds the Plain Talk button to your tool bar.
    Change voices via the Speech Control Panel

27
Storybook Weaver Talks
  • Look for Speech under Goodies

28
Macintosh (10.3.1)
Speech Preferences in the Finder menu gt System
Preferencesgt Speech gt Spoken User Interfaces
  • - Set Key to read highlighted text (Command plus
    L)
  • - Choice of voices rate (under Default Voice)

29
Macintosh (10.2 or earlier)
  • Download free utility called HearIt
  • Install as a control panel and restart
  • Set key combination (Hit Control plus \ to hear
    text.)
  • Hint Select a key not frequently used by other
    software.
  • Works with highlighted text in any program
  • Deselect text to stop the talking

http//www.ldresources.com/files/hearit.sea.hqx
30
The Universal Reader
  • Windows 98SE, NT, 2000, XP
  • Select what you want it to read
  • Click on the floating toolbar to hear it
  • 29 or less

http//www.premier-programming.com/UR/Ureader.htm
31
HELP Read
  • Windows 3.1 and 95
  • Freeware
  • Uses a text-to-speech synthesizer
  • Can read text files, web pages, e-books, and text
    in the windows clipboard

http//www.dyslexia.com/helpread.htm
32
ReadPlease 2003
  • Windows 95/98/ME/NT/2000/XP
  • Freeware
  • Includes 3 Microsoft voices.
  • Free conversion utility to make MP3 files

http//www.readplease.com/english/readwords.php
33
Microsoft Reader
  • Free Text-to-Speech Package works with
  • Windows 98, 2000, EP, Me
  • Windows XP Tablet PCs
  • Enhanced appearance of text- book-like
  • Navigation by page or by chapter
  • Enlarged text
  • Ability to add bookmarks or drawings

http//www.microsoft.com/reader/downloads/default.
asp
34
Microsoft Reader (cont.)
  • Ability to find words, notes, etc.
  • Ability to copy text
  • Link to free Encarta English Dictionary
  • Highlights each word as it is read
  • Choice of three voices
  • Insert notes next to selected text, allowing
    students to ask questions or record thoughts

35
Microsoft Reader (cont.)
  • Can convert Word documents to MS Reader format
    (in Windows 2000)
  • Free books and documents from University of
    Virginia can be added into the library
  • Word documents can easily be converted
  • Allows you to highlight words and then search for
    highlighted words

36
E-Text Reader
  • Free talking word processor for PC
  • Highlights each word as read
  • Can adjust speed of reading
  • Allows zoom, colored highlighting find
  • Allows setting bookmarks, for jumping from
    forward and backward
  • Opens .doc files (Microsoft Word)

http//www.premier-programming.com
37
Tex-Edit Plus (Mac)
  • Talking word processor - 15 shareware
  • Other languages include Japanese, French, German,
    Spanish, Dutch, and Italian.
  • Can adjust speed of reading
  • Will highlight each word as read
  • Can change highlight, font, and background
    colors.
  • Can insert voice recordings and graphics. (Vicki
    may be the best voice.)

http//www.tex-edit.com/
38
Talking Web Site
  • Merriam Webster On Line
  • http//www.merriam-webster.com

39
Thinking of Your Students…
  • Who would benefit from highlighting individual
    words and hearing them read?
  • …from hearing the definition of the word
    read?
  • Who would benefit from hearing an entire
    selection or article on a website read aloud?
  • Who would enjoy hearing their own words read by
    the computer?

40
Example of Use
  • 2nd graders are using the computer to conduct
    research on dinosaurs. They use the
    text-to-speech function to hear the short
    passages read aloud.

41
Example of Use
  • There is a group of young boys that love to
    change the voices and listen to their words in
    funny ways. They write longer drafts when they
    know we are going into the computer lab for
    writing and editing.
  • More examples at http//westedrtec.org/techtips

42
Other Products
  • Not free but maybe worth the expense.
  • Write OutLoud (99 or less- free 30 day trial.)
  • IntelliTalk (140 or less - free 45 day trail.)
  • CAST eReader (199-229)
  • All of these
  • highlight sentence and word within sentence as it
    is read
  • allow reading by letter, word, or sentence
  • allow correction of pronunciation
  • have other helpful features, e.g. talking
    dictionary

43
Suggested Hands-on Activities
  • Try out some of the built in speech in KidPix,
    Kidspiration.
  • Try speech using the OS or a utility that will
    allow you to highlight any word in browser to
    hear it aloud.
  • Download and try the features of IntelliTalk3
    http//www.intellitools.com

44
Digital Text
  • Visit this topic at the Technology Tips Website
    http//westedrtec.org/techtips

45
What is Digital Text?
  • Text stored as strings of characters.
  • If you can select and change the font of text on
    the computer screen, its digital text
  • Many books and historical documents have been
    converted to digital format, for access via
    computer.
  • New writing is being done to take advantage of
    hyperlinking and multi-media.

46
Free Digital Text
  • The Tell-Tale Heart
  • Heidi
  • Oliver Twist
  • Tom Sawyer
  • Little Women
  • Kidnapped
  • The Silver Balloon
  • Dragonwings
  • Mary Poppins
  • Dickens
  • Robert Frost
  • Mark Twain
  • Edgar Allan Poe
  • Rosa Parks
  • Star Spangled Banner
  • Bill of Rights
  • The Jungle
  • First Across the Continent

47
Free Digital Text
  • Historical information
  • Rosa Parks Star Spangled Banner U.S.
    Constitution First Across the Continent Bill of
    Rights
  • Magazines and newspapers
  • New York Times Fossil News American Girl
    Online National Geographic Online ZuZu (online
    kids newspaper)

48
Free Digital Text
49
Why use Digital Text?
  • Visual display can be varied - larger, etc.
  • Auditory display - good for pre-reading
  • Allows embedding learning supports in content
  • Pre-reading background, definitions
  • Summary
  • Key questions
  • Allows students to copy/paste, or otherwise
    manipulate the text, to indicate comprehension

50
How-to find Digital Text
  • 87 Digital Book Libraries
  • http//www.ditext.com/etexts.html

51
Free Books Online
  • Internet Public Library
  • http//www.ipl.org
  • Project Gutenberg
  • http//promo.net/pg/
  • University of Virginia's e-Book Library
    http//etext.lib.virginia.edu/ebooks/ebooklist.h
    tml

52
Finding Digital Text
Banned Books On-Line Bartleby.com Books about
California History and Culture Carrie A
Full-Text Electronic Library The Children's
Literature Web Guide Classic Horror Short
Stories Documenting the American South Global
Language Resources Hyperizons The Hypertext
Fiction Homepage Library of Congress The Thomas
Jefferson Digital Archive Victorian Women
Writers Project World Wide School Library
53
Benetechs BookShare
  • Inexpensive books online
  • Over 12,000 titles
  • http//www.bookshare.org
  • Sarah, Plain and Tall
  • The Mouse and the Motorcycle
  • Ribsy
  • Island of the Blue Dolphins
  • Old Yeller
  • Dragonsong
  • The Black Pearl
  • Johnny Tremain
  • Caddie Woodlawn
  • Tuck Everlasting
  • Strider
  • Dear Mr. Henshaw

54
Think of Your Students…
  • Is there one or more who would benefit
  • if the text was larger or easier to see?
  • if they could hear it read aloud?
  • if they could highlight or cut and paste the
    important points, or mark words that were
    unclear?
  • if there was a summary of the article that could
    be read before?

55
Suggested Hands-on Activity
  • Find a selection of text that you would use in
    class. Copy and paste into a word processor.
  • Think about changes that could be made to enhance
    the reading experience for your student.

56
Suggested Hands-on Activity (Cont.)
  • What if you break the selection into smaller
    parts and paste two questions after each section
    What has happened so far? - What do you think
    will happen next? with white space for student
    writing.
  • You could even print this out as a worksheet.

57
Word Features
  • Visit this topic at the Technology Tips Website
    http//westedrtec.org/techtips

58
What are Word Features?
  • Differentiation strategies
  • Computer-generated summaries
  • Change how the text looks on the screen
  • Adjust the grammar checker
  • Highlight text

59
Why use Word Features?
  • Computer-generated summaries
  • Essential content for students to pre-read
  • Change how the text looks on the screen
  • Allows user preference for font type, size, and
    color
  • Adjust the grammar checker
  • Allows teacher to reduce frustration for students
    or target specific errors

60
AutoSummarize
  • A tool that will
  • highlight key sentences or
  • extract key parts of a document
  • Why?
  • Pre-reading for meaning by students that struggle
    with comprehension due to decoding problems or
    learning disabilities
  • Post-reading as a way of consolidating learning

61
AutoSummarize
62
Gettysburg Address
63
How-to AutoSummarize
  • Tools gt Auto-Summarize

64
Related research
  • The National Reading Panel found that
    summarization is an effective strategy that helps
    readers improve memory and identification of main
    ideas.

65
Changing the Display in Word
  • Font Serif or Sans-serif
  • Size
  • Text Color
  • Background Color

Yellow text, Serif font Yellow text, Sans-serif
font Pink text, Serif font or - Sans-serif
66
Why Change the Display in Word
  • Thinking of your students-
  • Are there any that have trouble reading the
    computer display?
  • Have any been diagnosed with visual processing
    issues?
  • Would printing out material larger, bolder, or in
    color assist them?

67
Background
The old lady pulled her spectacles down and
looked over them about the room then she put
them up and looked out under them. She seldom
or never looked through them for so small a
thing as a boy
The old lady pulled her spectacles down and
looked over them about the room then she put
them up and looked out under them. She seldom
or never looked through them for so small a
thing as a boy
68
Font Type
  • Serif Sans-serif

The old lady pulled her spectacles down and
looked over them about the room then she put
them up and looked out under them. She seldom
or never looked through them for so small a
thing as a boy …
The old lady pulled her spectacles down and
looked over them about the room then she put
them up and looked out under them. She seldom
or never looked through them for so small a
thing as a boy …
69
How to Change Display
  • Changing font size, type, and color are made in
    the normal formatting menu, toolbar, or palette.
  • To provide a blue background, go to Preferences
    and select General. Select the option for Blue
    Background, White Text.

70
Why adjust the Grammar Checker?
  • The default setting checks for 26 types of
    grammar problems
  • For the beginning writer, or when drafting an
    outline, Word will flag an overwhelming number of
    errors.
  • It will be less annoying and confusing.

71
Example of Why to Adjust the Grammar Checker
  • Winning student essay flawed?

72
Example of Why to Adjust
73
How-to Adjust the Grammar Checker
  • Word gt Preferences gt Spelling and Grammar gt
    Grammar gt Writing Style Customize grammar
    checking
  • Casual
  • Standard
  • Formal
  • Technical
  • Custom 26 settings including capitalization,
    contractions, passive voice, run-on sentence, etc.

74
Classroom Example
  • Set the grammar checker to flag only one type of
    error during a single writing session
  • subject-verb agreement
  • sentences beginning with And, But, or Hopefully
  • use of first person
  • run-on sentences
  • passive voice
  • capitalization
  • contractions

75
Classroom Example
  • Use an article or other electronic text
    selection and run each style of grammar checker
    on it.
  • Discuss the different types of errors that are
    flagged.

76
Suggested Hands-on Activities
  • Go into Word spelling and grammar preferences and
    look at the 26 settings that can be turned on or
    off in the Custom setting.
  • Use Word general preferences to change the
    background to blue.
  • Take a single sentence and copy it multiple
    times, using different fonts and colors.
    Determine for yourself or with your students
    which is most readable.

77
Highlighting in Word
  • Highlighting is a low tech strategy that can also
    be done electronically
  • Students and/or teachers highlight specific
    words, letters, or parts of speech

78
Who does highlighting help?
  • Students who need help to focus.
  • Students who are having difficulty with a
    specific concept that can be highlighted.
  • Students who benefit from interaction with text
    actively highlighting material themselves to
    demonstrate comprehension.

79
What does research say about highlighting?
  • Adding color to text increases the odds that the
    information will be stored in long-term memory
    and more readily recalled.
  • Emerging readers may skip over words they don't
    understand.  Highlighting such words cues them to
    go back later.

80
Highlighting Strategies
  • Highlight new vocabulary
  • Highlight important names, dates, places.
  • Use different colors (red for names, green for
    places)
  • Highlight key points and corresponding details to
    emphasize meaning.

81
Highlighting Strategies
  • Allow students to highlight
  • to demonstrate knowledge or
  • highlight key information, as in note-taking
  • mark words they dont know

82
Highlighting Adverbs
Come, there's no use in crying like that!' said
Alice to herself, rather sharply I advise you
to leave off this minute! She generally gave
herself very good advice, (though she very seldom
followed it), and sometimes she scolded herself
so severely as to bring tears into her eyes and
once she remembered trying to box her own ears.
83
Highlighting the Schwa Sound
slow think about synthesis
stock track speak pill medium
syringe great fifty
84
How-to Highlight in Word
  • Select text. Select highlighter in formatting
    palette
  • Some students will benefit from cutting and
    pasting the highlighted material for further
    organization or expansion.

85
Suggested Hands-on Activity
  • Think of a student who could benefit from
    highlighting words they dont understand?
  • Can you think of another student who could work
    with them, who could model good choices?

86
Enhanced Text
  • Visit this topic at the Technology Tips Website
    http//westedrtec.org/techtips

87
What is Enhanced Text?
  • Added information, questions, links, or graphics
    to enhance comprehension
  • Works with printed or electronic text, as well as
    to audio versions

88
Who is helped by Enhanced Text?
  • Students with who have difficulty with
    comprehension or with organizing information.
  • English-learners who struggle with vocabulary.
  • Students who come from diverse cultures and may
    need more context.

89
Research on Enhanced Text
  • Techniques that have been shown to enhance text
    comprehension include
  • questions that allow self-monitoring for
    understanding,
  • using graphic and semantic organizers,
  • student-generated questions about the text,
  • becoming aware of story structure, and
  • periodically summarizing key points.
  • (National Reading Panel, 2000)

90
More Research on Enhanced Text
  • The Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST)
    found that students who read novels in a digital
    format with decoding supports are more motivated
    to read because they can access the content at an
    age-appropriate level that is just challenging
    enough.
  • (O'Neill Dalton, 2002)

91
Example of Enhanced Text
Spectacles a pair of glasses
  • The old lady pulled her spectacles down and
    looked over them about the room then she put
    them up and looked out under them. She seldom or
    never looked through them for so small a thing as
    a boy they were her state pair, the pride of her
    heart, and were built for "style," not service
    --she could have seen through a pair of
    stove-lids just as well.

What does it mean that she could have seen
through a pair of stove-lids just as well?
92
How-to Find Enhanced Text
93
The Intersect Digital Library Catalog
  • The Diary of Opal Whiteley
  • The Diary of Juan Bautista de Anza
  • Your Genes, Your Choices Cloning
  • On the Run
  • An American History Sourcebook
  • …with more coming
  • http//intersect.uoregon.edu/

94
Enhanced Text The Intersect Digital Library
95
Prentice Hall Interactive Text Books
  • Literature analysis
  • Reading strategies
  • Author Biographies
  • Additional questions
  • Links to external websites
  • Internet activities and research
  • Self-tests

http//www.phschool.com/iText/literature/
96
Enhanced Text Prentice Hall
  • Preview
  • background
  • summary
  • visual summary
  • video clips

97
Spark Notes
  • Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
  • Context
  • Summary
  • Characters
  • Analysis of Major Characters
  • Themes, Motifs, and Symbols
  • Chapter One The Worst Birthday

http//www.sparknotes.com
98
Enhanced Text Spark Notes
  • Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
  • Chapter Summary, Description, Analysis
  • Links to Characters

99
Wikipedia.org - Free Encyclopedia
100
Classroom Example
  • First graders work in pairs at the single
    classroom computer where they visit Starfall.com.
    Zac the Rat is a book with a related animated
    movie that introduces the short a vowel sound.
    They click each word to hear it read. A game
    allows them to make words with the short a. A
    printed worksheet is available if they need more
    practice.

101
Classroom Example
  • Third graders are reading a Harry Potter book.
    Before each chapter, the teacher asks what has
    occurred in the previous chapter and makes a list
    of the major events. She tells them who will be
    involved in the coming chapter, using the chapter
    summaries from Sparknotes.com.

102
Portables
Visit this topic at the Technology Tips Website
http//westedrtec.org/techtips
103
Why use Portables?
  • Typing in a word processor is easier than writing
    for some students
  • Writing can be exported to other programs, for
    editing, enhancing, etc.
  • They support lesson plans that encourage
    cooperative learning
  • Highly transportable for use in non-classroom
    settings

104
Who benefits from using Portables?
  • Students who struggle with paper and pencil
    because of dysgraphia or physical disability
  • Students who are motivated by technology

105
What does research say about using Portables?
  • Students interest in writing is increased using
    computers, E-mates, AlphaSmarts, etc.
  • Writing on computer has a positive effect on the
    quality of student writing the biggest impact
    for
  • students with learning disabilities
  • students in early elementary grades

106
Fit with standard curriculum
  • Open Court This paragraph needs a better ending
    and beginning.

Purple Monster was chasing Little Rabbit. Little
Rabbit ran faster and faster but Purple Monster
was getting closer. Then along came Mr. Bear on
his motorcycle. The End.
107
Example Lesson Plan Growing Sentences
Lesson supports a wide range of abilities
  • Students are given a seed such as The boat
    sank so that they can nurture and grow a
    completely mature sentence. Students work alone
    or in groups, thinking of what kind of boat,
    where it was, what caused it to sink, how it
    sank, etc.

108
Example Lesson Plan Pass It On
Lesson supports a wide range of abilities
Each student writes 1-2 lines of a story and then
passes it on to another student, who adds another
line. Can be done with a single device If done
with 3-4 students per device, divide into small
groups and allow students to edit the stories, or
edit as a whole group activity.
109
Fieldtrip Recording
  • Students or adults take notes on 3-4 AlphaSmarts,
    of what the group saw, did, and learned
  • Notes can be printed, or loaded onto a computer
    and shared when students write up their
    experience

110
AlphaSmart with CoWriter
  • CoWriter SmartApplet generates possibilities for
    the words students want. Words are based on
    spelling, grammar rules, context clues and
    vocabulary
  • Free topic dictionaries give fast access to very
    specific words and phrases

111
Portable Devices in the Curriculum
  • Several classroom examples are posted at
    http//westedrtec.org/techtips
  • Your examples welcome!

112
Graphic Organizers
Visit this topic at the Technology Tips Website
http//westedrtec.org/techtips
113
Graphic Organizers
  • …a visual representation of concepts,
    knowledge, or information that can incorporate
    both text and pictures.

114
Why use Graphic Organizers?
  • Assess understanding or diagnose misunderstanding
  • Can increase recall
  • Design a complex structure (long texts, large web
    sites, etc.) or communicate complex ideas

115
Why not just use pencil and paper?
116
Because…
  • Text can be read by the computer
  • Students can change size, color, and font
  • Students can cut and paste or otherwise
    manipulate information
  • Image libraries on computers allow images to be
    combined with text to increase comprehension or
    allow students to demonstrate understanding

117
Who benefits from using Graphic Organizers?
  • Students who are helped by seeing relationships
    between information
  • Students who enjoy an interactive process
  • Students who can take the graphic representation
    and use it to generate narrative or expository
    writing

118
What does the research say about Graphic
Organizers?
  • Direct teaching of the thinking strategies
    involved in graphic organizers leads students to
    use them independently
  • Use of graphic organizers in pre-reading helps
    students relate new information to their existing
    knowledge (Scruggs, Mastropieri, Monson
    Jorgenson 1985)

119
Ideas for Graphic Organizers
  • Webbing
  • Concept mapping
  • Matrix
  • Flow chart
  • Venn diagram
  • Time line

120
Text to Symbols
121
Story Mapping
122
Compare / Contrast
123
Demonstrate Understanding
124
Examples within Project Based Learning
  • Choosing a Topic (Spider Map)
  • Assessing prior knowledge around a problem (KWHL)
  • Setting Up the Problem
  • Organizing Data (Timeline)
  • Writing from the Outline (Kidspiration)

125
Deciding On The Topic
126
K-W-L-H
127
Organizing Data
128
Using Graphic Templates
  • Images can be dragged off these sites and pasted
    as images into other software, including Word,
    AppleWorks, KidPix, etc.
  • North Central REL
  • http//www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/le
    arning/lr1grorg.htm
  • SCORE
  • http//www.sdcoe.k12.ca.us/score/actbank/torganiz.
    htm

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Classroom Example
  • 4th graders brainstorm what would be included in
    a good report on an animal
  • One person types the ideas into Kidspiration
  • Switching into outline view, the ideas are
    re-arranged into a sensible order.
  • Each child can work from this outline in
    preparing their report, either on the computer or
    in hard copy.

130
Suggested Activity
  • Use graphic organizer software or sketch the
    links between the strategies
  • Talking text
  • auto-summary,
  • changing text display
  • enhancing text,
  • highlighting
  • portable word processors
  • graphic organizers.

131
Suggested Activity
  • Which are good for writing?
  • Which can help in reading?
  • What about comprehension?

highlighting portable word processors graphic
organizers
talking text auto-summary changing text
display enhancing text
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A Vision of the Future
  • In the future we expect a number of these tools
    and strategies to be incorporated into standard
    websites and curriculum.
  • In fact, CA Law will require publisher websites
    to be accessible by 2005 with additional software
    access by 2009.

133
A Vision of the Future
  • Publisher websites will
  • Provide tools for graphic organizers
  • Link text to diverse types of resources
  • Provide text that can be read aloud by the
    computer
  • All operating systems will
  • Provide easy, global, built-in text to speech
    capacity

134
Whats happening today…
  • Prentice Hall, Holt, Glencoe Science and others
    are creating online, interactive forms of their
    textbooks.

135
Whats happening today…
  • McDougal Littell Inc. Reading Coach CD
  • allows students to use an electronic highlighter
    (they can change the color of it) when they read.
  • includes electronic text for parts of the Bridges
    to Literature textbook.
  • allows the creation of 'sticky notes' that are
    like post-its.
  • offers audio support for pre-selected vocabulary
    words, reading the word and the definition.

136
WestED Knowledge Brief
  • Using Flexible Technology to Meet the Needs of
    Diverse Learners What Teachers Can Do
  • http//www.wested.org/cs/
  • we/view/rs/763/wresources2

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Sources of Support
  • Visit the website for Technology Tips
  • http//westedrtec.org/techtips
  • Curriculum examples
  • Detailed instructions
  • Downloadable materials
  • Research
  • Additional hints and tips
  • Contact Julie Duffield or Lisa Wahl
  • jduffie_at_wested.org lisawahl_at_ataccess.org

138
Technology Tips for Differentiation
  • A new tip on Math will be posted 2/05.
  • An free online course based on this material is
    planned for Summer 2005.

http//www.westedrtec.org/techtips
139
Further Resources
  • RTEC Exchange archived on line events
  • http//rtecexchange.edgateway.net
  • Leave No Diverse Learners Behind RTEC Resources
    That Help!
  • Using Technology to Support the English/Language
    Arts Adoptions
  • All Kinds of Minds

140
Resources http//www.ataccess.org
141
Further Resources
  • Universal Design for Learning
  • Community forums
  • Research
  • Digital text
  • http//www.cast.org

142
Further Development
  • Let us know your thoughts on improving the web
    site, handouts, or presentation.
  • Contact
  • Julie Duffield jduffie_at_wested.org
  • Lisa Wahl lisawahl_at_ataccess.org
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