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Title: Brazil, India and South Korea: Markets and Opportunities


1
Brazil, India and South Korea Markets and
Opportunities
SSP 2C Working in Global Markets Conrad Guettler
Consultant and Wolfson College Cambridge
cg119_at_cam.ac.uk

29 May 2008
2
Introduction and brief outline
  • Presentation based on journals market reports
    prepared for The Publishers Association of the UK
    but will be broader
  • Information on education and research systems, on
    funding and publishing
  • Brazil, India and South Korea noteworthy aspects
    for each country

3
Introduction - 2
  • To set the scene, some summary figures
  • Brazil India South Korea USA
  • Area 8.5m 3.3m 98,500 9.8m
  • (Sq km)
  • Population 189m 1.1bn 49m 304m
  • GDP growth 4.5 8.5 4.9 2.2
  • Education 4.4 3.6 4.6 5.3
  • ( of GDP)
  • Students in HE 4.5m 11.8m 3.2m 17.5m

4
Brazil General
  • 8.5m sq km federal republic
  • population of 189m main languages Portuguese,
    Spanish, English
  • annual GDP growth 3.0-4.5
  • Southeast contributes 60 of GDP
  • A promising future
  • Growing economy
  • Government committed to education and research

5
Brazil Education Research
  • Net enrolment of 95 in primary, almost 80 in
    secondary education
  • total of 25m pupils of whom 11 attend private
    schools
  • Net enrolment of 12 in tertiary (higher)
    education (HE)
  • 4.5m students of whom 70 are enrolled in private
    universities (e.g. PUCs) and other institutions
  • 564,000 students graduated in 2005 61 in
    humanities and social sciences, 26 in education,
    13 in science technology
  • Some 124,000 students on Masters and PhD courses
  • Public (federal) universities are highly regarded
    and carry out most research

6
Brazil Higher Education
  • 2,270 HE institutions but only about 11 of these
    are publicly funded
  • Public Private
  • Universities 92 86
  • University centres 4 115
  • Polytechnics (faculdades 86 1,679
  • Escuolas)
  • CeT/FaT 66 142
  • Total 248 2,022

7
Brazil Higher Education
  • Ministry of Education (MEC) holds the federal
    education budget (4.4 of GDP).
  • CAPES is the Federal agency that supports and
    evaluates all graduate programmes it also
    manages the purchasing consortium for e-resources
  • State agencies (e.g. FAPESP) important for
    education and research support
  • Top Universities (all federal or state
    universities) University of Sao Paulo,
    University of Campinas, UFRJ, UNESP, UFMG, UFRGS
  • Priorities for the future
  • Expansion of federal universities
  • To double output of PhDs by 2010 and to increase
    Masters degrees
  • expand FaTs in Sao Paulo state
  • Priorities engineering, computer science,
    agricultural sciences, life sciences

8
Brazil Research
  • Ministry of Science Technology (MCT)
    responsible for most RD spending (about 1.0 of
    GDP)
  • The Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq)
    and other agencies (FINEP etc)
  • CNPq funded 90,000 researchers in 2006 research
    grants were 42 in life sciences, 40 in natural
    sciences and 18 humanities social sciences
  • Brazil contributes 2 of the worlds scientific
    papers (50 of the Latin American total) ranked
    15th worldwide by ISI

9
Brazil Research - 2
  • President Lula da Silva announced a US28bn
    package for ST in November 2007
  • to increase RD share from 1.0 to1.5 of GDP
  • incentives for the private sector to invest in
    research projects
  • increased support for postgraduate qualifications
  • Research-intensive companies
  • Petrobras (oil)
  • Vale (mining and minerals)
  • Embraer (aircraft)
  • Embrapa (agribusiness)

10
Brazil Book Publishing
  • Brazilian Book Chamber (CBL) is the trade
    association compiles good statistics e.g. in
    2006
  • First editions 20,000
  • New editions reprints 26,000
  • Book sales estimate US990m of which Schoolbooks
    account for 41, General for 29, STM
    Professional for 19 and Religious titles 11
  • International publishers with strong local
    presence
  • Elsevier (Campus), Pearson, Thompson (Pioneira),
    McGraw-Hill
  • Macmilland, OUP and CUP for ELT
  • Most textbooks and academic titles published in
    Portuguese
  • Photocopying a concern for publishers of English
    language texts

11
Brazil Book Publishing - 2
  • Brazilian University Presses
  • USP, UNESP, Unicamp, other federal universities
  • Editora Mackenzie, Editora PUC-Rio, PUC-SP, PUC
    Minas
  • Research centres and institutions
  • IMPA (mathematics)
  • Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (biomedical)
  • Getulio Vargas Foundation (social sciences)

12
Brazil Journals Publishing Consortia
  • Journals publishing mainly by societies,
    institutes and UPs
  • Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO)
  • 200 Brazilian journals
  • A further 200 journals from Latin America
  • Open Access
  • CAPES portal periodicos (consortium)
  • over 12,300 journals and databases
  • 190 member institutions
  • usage mirrors research intensive universities
  • COPERE consortium for private institutions
  • Close consortia contacts with other Latin
    American countries

13
Brazil Journals Publishing - 2
  • Subscription agents still important
  • e.g CAPES prefers to work with them on training
    etc
  • PTI, PPT, dotLib, Systems Link EBSCO
  • Sales Marketing services
  • Accucoms and EmPact

14
India General
  • 3.3m sq km federal republic, 5-year plans
  • population of 1.1bn
  • about 70 rural
  • youth population (15-24yrs) expected to peak in
    2011 at 240m
  • main languages Hindi (30), English, 14 other
    national languages
  • annual GDP growth 6-8
  • Characteristics
  • Growing economy
  • Steady expansion of higher education
  • Growing middle class

15
India Education
  • Ministry of Human Resource Development
    responsible for all education matters
  • 3.6 of GDP spent on education in 2005-6 aim is
    to reach 6
  • Gross enrolment rates
  • Primary 85, secondary 39, tertiary 9
  • 220m pupils in state schools, 42m in 50,000
    private schools
  • 6,000 new secondary schools planned for
    2007-20012
  • Government targets for enrolment into HE 15 by
    2012 and 22 by 2017
  • University Grants Commission is the main
    administration and funding agency for universities

16
India Higher Education
  • Universities as of March 2006 (UGC Annual Report
    2005-2006)
  • Central 20
  • State 216
  • Deemed 101
  • Other 18
  • Total 355
  • Colleges 18,064 (1,500 engineering and 1,200
    management)
  • 16 new universities created in 2004-5, 6 in
    2005-6 and 26 in 2006-7
  • Some universities (62) and many colleges (11,955)
    are not (yet) recognized by UGC i.e. are
    ineligible for central funding.
  • Since 2003 some 50 new engineering and 50 new
    business management colleges have been opened
    annually

17
India Higher Education - 2
  • Some Student enrolment figures
  • 11.8m students (41 female) including over 800,00
    postgraduates
  • 45 in Faculty of Arts, 21 in Science, 18 in
    Commerce, 16 in
  • Professional faculties
  • 90 of undergraduates and 67 of postgraduates
    study in Colleges
  • 91 research students study in universities
  • annual output
  • over 2m graduates with Batchelor degrees
  • over 500,000 with Masters degrees
  • almost 18,000 PhDs
  • about 25,000 graduates of some 240 medical
    colleges
  • almost 490,000 teaching staff in HE

18
India Higher Education - 3
  • Some highly ranked universities and institutes
  • Universities of Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune JNU
    Delhi, Banares Hindu University
  • Indian Institutes of Management (IIM) Ahmedabad,
    Bangalore
  • Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) Delhi,
    Kaupur, Mumbai
  • Indian Institute of Science Bangalore
  • Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai
  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi
  • National Law School of India University

19
India Higher Education - 4
  • HE Objectives of the 11th Plan (2007-2012)
  • 30 new Central Universities, 14 of these aiming
    at world-class standards
  • 370 new degree colleges
  • 8 new Indian Institutes of Technology
  • 20 new Indian Institutes of Information
    Technology
  • 7 new Indian Institutes of Management
  • 5 new Indian Institutes of Science Education and
    Research
  • 10 new National Institutes of Technology
  • Specific Indian concern inclusiveness and
    equitable access
  • reserved places in HE for scheduled castes and
    tribes to be increased from 22.5 to 49.5 of
    admissions

20
India Research
  • Ministry of Science Technology (MOST)
    responsible for some 200 national laboratories.
    Spend on RD 0.8 of GDP (comparable to Brazil)
  • MOST provides support for publications by
    professional bodies and societies through its
    Department of Science Technology, e.g.
  • National Institute of Science Communication and
    Information Research (NISCAIR/CSIR) publishes 19
    journals. In favour of Open Access
  • Most research funding goes to the top 20
    universities and institutes
  • Centrally funded universities and institutes are
    much better supported than state ones
  • Priorities biotechnology, nanotechnology.
    pharmaceutical sciences
  • India ranked 13th worldwide by ISI in terms of
    number of papers

21
India Publishing
  • Federation of Publishers and Booksellers
    Associations in India (FPBAI)
  • Federation of Indian Publishers (FIP)
  • Association of Publishers in India (API,
    foreign-owned publishers)
  • Issues piracy and photocopying of textbooks

22
India Book Publishing
  • Over 80,000 new titles published in 2004 (26
    Hindi, 22 English)
  • Total book market estimated as US2.4bn
  • English Language book market estimated as
    US1.25bn
  • Trade US500m
  • School US425m
  • HE Professional US325m
  • HE books and journals market growing by 10 per
    annum. Journals component estimated as worth
    US100-140m
  • All the major international publishers are
    present in India
  • Strong Indian college and academic book publishers

23
India Publishing and Data Services
  • Business Process Outsourcing (BPO)
  • from typesetting to data conversion and online
    services some examples
  • Scientific Publishing Services, Chennai
  • Aptara (Techbooks), Delhi
  • Macmillan India, Bangalore
  • Newgen, Chennai
  • Integra Software Services, Pondicherry
  • India is also becoming a major print centre for
    regional editions
  • Thomson Press India (India Today Publishing
    Group) claims to be the largest commercial
    printer in South Asia

24
India Journals Publishing
  • Sage has an active local journals publishing
    programme
  • Springer is now distributing the journals of the
    Indian Academy of Science in Bangalore
  • Medknow Publications publishes over 60 biomedical
    journals, all with Open Access to full-text
  • Indian journals available online are generally
    Open Access

25
India Journals Publishing Consortia
  • Subscription agents still important
  • Allied Publishers Subscription Agency
  • Globe Publication Pvt.
  • Informatics India Ltd
  • Universal Subscription Agency Pvt. Ltd. and
    Global Information System Technology Pvt. Ltd.
    (GIST)
  • Two major consortia
  • INDEST-AICTE (managed by NISCAIR) for all CSIR
    laboratories, IITs, IIMs and more recently
    engineering colleges
  • Inflibnet (UGC funded) for over 150
    universities

26
South Korea General
  • 98,500 sq km, strong US influence
  • population 49m 25 live in Greater Seoul area
  • English widely taught in schools
  • GDP growth 4-5 (13th largest economy in the
    world)
  • Major companies Samsung Electronics, Hyundai
    Motor, LG Electronics, SK (Energy Telecom)
  • Characteristics
  • National determination to become a leading
    knowledge-based society
  • Government committed to education but shrinking
    student cohort
  • High broadband penetration

27
South Korea Education
  • Previous Ministry of Education and Human Resource
    Development and Ministry of Science Technology
    have been merged in to a new Ministry of
    Education, Science Technology.
  • Kim Doh-Yeon, professor of materials science and
    engineering at SNU, appointed as minister on 29
    February 2008
  • 2008 Education budget up 13.4, equal to 19.4 of
    the national budget
  • 230 four-year universities with 2.1m students and
    54,000 faculty
  • 3.5m students in all of HE including junior
    colleges
  • 40 of students studying ST subjects
  • about 9,000 doctorates a year

28
South Korea Higher Education
  • HE allocation up by 27 in 2008 education budget
    to increase the global competitiveness of
    universities
  • More specialization
  • Challenge college-bound age-cohort (18-21 years)
    will drop
  • Government reducing student admission quotas
  • Imposing mergers on public and private
    universities
  • Restructuring of graduate education
  • Now 35 professional graduate schools of dentistry
    and medicine
  • A new law school system starting in 2008 25
    universities approved to open US-style law
    schools for applicants with a first degree

29
South Korea Higher Education - 2
  • Brain Korea 21 Phase 2 (2006-2012)
  • Nurture 10 top research universities
  • Be in top ten countries in terms of ISI rankings
    (currently 11th)
  • Attract more foreign students
  • Top universities
  • Seoul National University, Korea, Yonsei,
    Hanyang, Ewha Womans, Sungkyunkwan, Kyungbook
  • KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and
    Technology), Gwangju Institute of Science and
    Technology, POSTECH (Pohang University of Science
    and Technology)

30
South Korea Research
  • Basic research deemed essential for the countrys
    long-term development
  • 25 of the RD budget
  • RD expenditure now 3.0 of GDP (has steadily
    increased) 75 from the private sector
  • Over 10,000 industrial RD centres
  • Korea Research Foundation (KRF) and Korea Science
    and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) are the main
    agencies for research funding
  • also support academies, conferences and
    publications
  • Over 700 ST societies

31
South Korea Book Publishing
  • Korean Publishers Association has almost 1,000
    members
  • 43,585 new titles publishes in 2005
  • total publishing turnover was US2.7bn
  • childrens books and literature the biggest
    sectors
  • strong interest in e-books
  • Academic sales estimate US200m
  • of which US75m journals, US21m databases

32
South Korea Journals Publishing
  • Korean journals are mostly published by societies
    and professional bodies, with most content in
    Korean
  • Korean language journals available online are
    generally Open Access
  • Springer starting to publish the journals of 8
    Korean engineering and life sciences societies in
    2008

33
South Korea Journals Consortia
  • Korea Education Research Information Service
    (KERIS)
  • National licences for databases and e-books
  • Korean Electronic Site Licence Initiative (KESLI)
  • Almost 400 libraries participating in National
    Digital Science Library
  • 317 libraries in e-journals consortium
  • over 13,400 e-journals licensed
  • Subscription Agents
  • EBSCO Korea
  • EPublic
  • Geonet F1
  • Journalpia
  • Shinwon Datanet (iGroup)

34
General observations
  • Some important points
  • English language proficiency can be somewhat
    variable
  • A local presence or representation is essential
  • Need to establish long-term relationships
  • Publishing collaborations are welcome
  • Note how Exchange rate variations can affect
    business
  • 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
  • Real/US 3.08 2.93 2.43 2.18 1.85
  • Rupee/US 46.6 45.3 44.1 45.3 46.6
  • Won/US 1,192 1,145 1,024 955 929

35
Conclusion
  • For the market survey reports
  • Contact Mandy Knight at The Publishers
    Association
  • mknight_at_publishers.org.uk
  • For any other queries contact me
  • Conrad Guettler
  • Wolfson College
  • Cambridge CB3 9BB, UK
  • cg119_at_cam.ac.uk
  • Thank you!
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