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HIST2321 IDST2372


Why are the travels of Ibn Battuta considered among the classic works of travel ... Prince Henrique (Henry the Navigator) seizes Strait of Gibraltar, 1415 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HIST2321 IDST2372

Reaching Out Cross-Cultural Interactions (19)
  • Why are the travels of Ibn Battuta considered
    among the classic works of travel literature and
    what can they tell about the 14th century?

Reaching Out Cross-Cultural Interactions
  • Patterns of Long-Distance Trade

Travel and trade from the 12th to the14th century
Reaching Out Cross-Cultural Interactions
  • Long-Distance Trade Travel
  • Patterns of Long-Distance Trade
  • Trading Cities
  • Marco Polo
  • Political Diplomatic Travel
  • Mongol-Christian Diplomacy
  • Rabban Sauma
  • Ibn Battuta

Marco Polo Picking Pepper, 14th Century C.E.
Patterns of Long-Distance Trade
  • Silk roads
  • Sea lanes of Indian Ocean basin
  • Trans-Saharan caravan routes
  • Development of trading cities, emporia
  • Nomadic invasions cause local devastation but
    expand trade network
  • E.g. Mongols in China, 13th c.

Marco Polo (1253-1324)
  • Example of long-distance travel
  • Traveled to China with merchant father, uncle
  • Enters service of Mongol Kublai Khan
  • Returns to Venice after 17-year absence
  • Experiences recorded by fellow prisoner in
    Venice-Genoa conflict
  • Great influence on European engagement with far

Reaching Out Cross-Cultural Interactions
  • Sources From The Past
  • Ibn Batutta on Customs in the Mali Empire
  • When it is Friday, if a man does not come early
    to the mosque he will not find a place to pray
    because of the numbers of the crowd
  • - Ibn Batutta in Black Africa

Political Diplomatic Travel
  • Trade requires diplomatic relations after 1000 CE
  • Mongols, Christians recognize Muslims as common
    enemy, 13th century
  • Pope Innocent IV invites Mongols to convert to
  • Mongols counter-offer Christians accept Mongol
    rule or face destruction

Diplomatic Travellers
  • Rabban Sauma
  • Nestorian Christian Priest sent to Pope by
    Mongols in Persia, 1287, regarding proposed
    attack on Jerusalem
  • Did not win European support
  • 1295 new leader of Persia accepts Islam
  • Ibn Battuta (1304-1369)
  • Islamic scholar, worked in governments on
    extensive travel
  • Strict punishment meted out according to sharia
  • Lashes for drinking alcohol

Missionary Travelers
  • Sufi missionaries travel throughout new Muslim
    territories, 1000-1500 CE
  • Christian missionaries accompany, follow
  • Roman Catholic priests travel east to serve
    expatriate communities
  • John of Montecorvino

Tombstone of Catherina Vilioni, a Venetian (d.
1342), found in Yangzhou, China.
Reaching Out Cross-Cultural Interactions
  • Sources From The Past John of Montecorvino on
    his Mission in China
  • Indeed if I had but two or three comrades to aid
    me, it is possible that the emperor khan himself
    would have been baptized by this time!
  • - John of Montecorvino

Travel trade, twelfth to the fourteenth century
Cultural Exchanges
  • Narratives, Stories
  • E.g. European troubadours take Muslim love songs
  • European scientists learn from early Muslim,
    Jewish scientists

Reaching Out Cross-Cultural Interactions
  • Long-Distance Trade Travel
  • Long-Distance Travel Cross-Cultural Exchanges
  • Cultural Exchanges
  • Spread of Crops
  • Sugarcane
  • Gunpowder Technologies

Spread of Crops New Technologies
  • Citrus fruits, Asian rice, cotton
  • Sugarcane
  • Muslims introduce crystallized sugar to
  • Demand increases rapidly
  • Europeans use Muslim precedent of having large
    populations of slaves work on sugarcane
  • Gunpowder Technologies
  • Muslims, Mongols spread gunpowder
  • Technology reaches Europe by 1258

Bubonic Plague
  • The Little Ice Age, c. 1300 CE
  • Decline of agricultural output leads to
    widespread famine
  • Bubonic Plague spreads from south-west China
  • Carried by fleas on rodents
  • Mongol campaigns spread disease to Chinese
  • Spread of Plague
  • Mongols, merchants, travelers spread
    disease west
  • 1346 Black Sea ports
  • 1347 Mediterranean ports
  • 1348 Western Europe

Symptoms of the Black Plague
  • Inflamed discolored lymph nodes in neck,
    armpits, groin area
  • Buboes, hence Bubonic
  • 60-70 mortality rate, within days of onset of
  • Extreme northern climates less affected
  • Winter hard on flea population
  • India, sub-Saharan areas unaffected
  • Reasons unknown
  • Social Economic effects
  • Massive labor shortage
  • Demand for higher wages
  • Population movements
  • Governments attempt to freeze wages, stop serf
  • Riots result

Population Decline (millions)
Economic Recovery
  • Conscripted labor to repair, rebuild irrigation
  • Promoted manufacturing of porcelain, silk
  • Cultural revival
  • Attempt to eradicate Mongol legacy by promoting
    traditional Chinese culture
  • Emperor Yong-le commissions 23,000-roll

Recovery in Western Europe State Building
  • China centralized Empire
  • Europe regional states
  • Europe develops new taxes
  • Italian states bonds large standing armies
  • France salt tax, sales tax
  • England hearth tax, head tax, plow tax
  • French Louis XI (1461-1483) had 15,000 man army
  • Spain - Fernando of Aragon marries Isabel of
    Castile, 1469
  • Major political economic alliance
  • Completes reconquista, expanded beyond Iberian
    peninsula to Italy
  • Funded Columbus quest for China

Reaching Out Cross-Cultural Interactions
  • Crisis Recovery
  • Recovery in Western Europe State Building
  • Taxies and Armies
  • Italian States
  • France England
  • Spain

The Renaissance, 14th-16th centuries
  • rebirth of classical culture Italian artists
    use perspective
  • Work with real human anatomy musculature
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
  • Michelangelo (1475-1564)
  • Architecture domed cathedrals Roman dome

Michelangelo Pieta, 15th Century Italian
The Humanists
  • Humanities literature, history, moral philosophy
  • Renaissance humanists deeply devoted to
  • Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536) publishes critical
    Greek-Latin edition of New Testament
  • Also devoted to rediscovering classical Latin
    texts, often ignored in monastic libraries

Humanist Moral Thought
  • Rejection of monastic lifestyle in favor of
    morally virtuous life while engaged in the world
  • Marriage, business
  • Reconciliation of Christianity with rapidly
    changing European society economy
  • Renaissance Europe the larger world
  • Artists express interest in Byzantine, Asian

Exploration Colonization
  • Ming dynasty hesitant to have large foreign
  • Mongol experience
  • Allowed small populations in port cities
  • Yongle engaged Admiral Zheng He to mount seven
    massive naval expeditions, 1405-1433
  • Placed trade under imperial control
  • Demonstrated strength of Ming dynasty
  • Successful, but aborted as Mongols presented new
    threat in the north

Chinese European voyages of exploration,
European Exploration in the Atlantic Indian
  • Motives profit, missionary activity
  • Portuguese early leaders in Atlantic exploration
  • Search for sea route to Indian Ocean basin
  • Prince Henrique (Henry the Navigator) seizes
    Strait of Gibraltar, 1415
  • Begins encouragement of major Atlantic voyages

Colonization of the Atlantic Islands
  • Madeiras, Azores Islands, etc.
  • Investments in sugarcane plantations
  • Exploration of west African coast
  • Dramatically increases volume of slave trade
  • Ultimately, some 12 million Africans deported to
    Americas for slave labor

Indian Ocean Trade
  • Attempt to avoid using Muslim middlemen in trade
    with east
  • 1488 Bartolomeu Dias sails around Cape of
    Good Hope
  • 1497-1499 Vasco de Gama sails route to India
  • Portuguese gunships attempt to maintain trade
  • Beginnings of European imperialism in Asia

Reaching Out Cross-Cultural Interactions
  • Crisis Recovery
  • Recovery in China The Ming Dynasty
  • Hongwu
  • Ming Centralization
  • Mandarins and Eunuchs
  • Economic Recovery
  • Cultural Revival

Ming Vase, 1368 - 1644
Recovery in China The Ming Dynasty
  • 1368 Yuan dynasty collapses, Mongols depart
  • Ming Dynasty founded
  • Emperor Hongwu, orphan raised by Buddhist
  • works through military ranks
  • Proclaims new Ming (Brilliant) dynasty,

Emperor Hongwu
Ming Centralization
  • Reestablishment of Confucian educational system
  • Execution of minister suspected of treason,
    begins tradition of direct rule by Emperor
  • Reliance on emissaries called Mandarins
  • Heavy reliance on eunuchs
  • Sterile, could not build hereditary power base
  • Centralized structure lasts through Qing dynasty
    to 1911

Reaching Out Cross-Cultural Interactions
  • Exploration Colonization
  • The Chinese Reconnaissance of the Indian Ocean
  • Zheng Hes Expeditions
  • Chinese Naval Power
  • End of the Voyages

Chinese Voyages of Trade Exploration, 1405-1498
Reaching Out Cross-Cultural Interactions
  • Zheng Hes Expeditions treasure ship (four
    hundred feet) Columbuss Santa Marie
    (eighty-five feet) Illustration by Jan Adkins,

Reaching Out Cross-Cultural Interactions
  • European Exploration in the Atlantic Indian

Reaching Out Cross-Cultural Interactions
  • Exploration Colonization
  • European Exploration in the Atlantic Indian
  • Portugese Exploration
  • Colonization of the
  • Atlantic Islands
  • Slave Trade
  • Indian Ocean Trade
  • Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus
  • Search for western sea route to Indian Ocean
  • Portuguese consider his proposal impractical,
    reject it
  • Fernando Isabel of Spain underwrite voyage,
    departs in 1492
  • Makes landfall in San Salvador
  • Believes he has reached islands off coast of Asia
  • Consequences of discovery of Western Hemisphere
  • Reconfiguration of global networks of power,
    communication, exchange

Key Words Terms (19)
  • Ibn Battuta, 1304-1369 14th c. trading cities
    Marco Polo, 1253-1324Mongol-Christian
    diplomacyEnvoy Rabban Saumacrop citrus , rice,
    sugarcanegunpowder technologiesThe Little Ice
    AgeBubonic  Plague, 14th c. Emperor Hongwu
    Ming Dynasty The Yongle EmperorYongle
    EncyclopediaWestern European state-building
  • Unification of Spain, Fernando Isabel
    Reconquista The Renaissance Leonardo da Vinci
    The HumanistsMichelangelo Buonarotti
    Desiderius Erasmus Zeng He's Ming
    ExpeditionsPrince Henry the Navigator
    Christopher Columbus, 1492 Vasco da Gama, 1498

Unit III Summary
  • The Indian sub-continent did not experience
    centralized imperial rule, but participated fully
    in the larger hemispheric zone of cross-cultural
    communication exchange.
  • The early medieval era was a crucial period for
    the development of western Europe Christianity
    preserved elements of Roman society established
    a foundation for cultural unity.
  • From 1000 to 1500C.E., nomadic peoples overran
    settled societies established vast
    transregional empires from China to eastern
  • Increased maritime trade in the Indian Ocean
    promoted intense cross-cultural communications.
  • Rapid political development in sub-Saharan Africa
    western Europe was underwritten by demographic
    growth, increased agricultural production
    political development.
  • The 14th and 15th c. brought war, plague,
    global climatic changes to the eastern
  • Recovery, however, brought expansion laid the
    foundations of a new era in world history, as
    European voyages brought the worlds various
    peoples into permanent and sustained
    communication with one another.
  • The period from 1000 to 1500 C. E. set the stage
    for the modern era of world history.
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