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Dec 1

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... involves using pictures of famous persons seen in the ... people would know (presidents, actors, sports celebrities, news anchors, the superrich, etc) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dec 1


1
Dec 1 Language Spatial Processing
2
  • I. The Wada Technique
  • blood supply to most of each cerebral hemisphere
    is carried by the carotid artery
  • inject a fast-acting anesthetic into the carotid
    artery going to one side of brain
  • briefly deadens brain and prevents responses
  • ask questions, if patient cannot speak, then
    that side of brain controls their speech
  • 95 have left hemisphere specialization for
    speech (97 of right-handed 70 of left-handed)

3
Substrates for Speech and Language II. Most cases
of speech impairment follow damage to left
inferior frontal region - Brocas area - speak
in hesitant way - trouble naming people or
objects - reading and writing are impaired -
automatic (reflexive) speech is okay -
comprehension okay - often accompanied by motor
apraxia and partial paralysis on right side of
body Symptoms describe Brocas Aphasia - a type
of language impairment
4
Both areas housed in left hemisphere of most
people.
5
  • Example of speech in man with Broca's Aphasia
  • Yes ... ah ... Monday ... er Dad and Peter H ...
    (his own name), and Dad ... er hospital ... and
    ah ... Wednesday ... Wednesday nine o'clock ...
    and oh ... Thursday ... ten o'clock, ah doctors
    ... two ... an' doctors ... and er ... teeth ...
    yah. (from Carroll, 1999)
  • (Hesitant lots of pauses trouble naming things)

6
III. Other cases of language impairment follow
damage to left temporo-parietal cortex -
Wernickes area, angular gyrus, supramarginal
gyrus - fluent speech, but often does not make
sense - structure okay, content meaningless -
substitute sounds (girl --gt curl) - substitute
categorical words (bread --gt cake) - trouble
understanding what they hear or read - not
accompanied by other physical problems Wernickes
Aphasia
7
  • Speech from someone with Wernickes Aphasia
  • Well this is .... mother is away here working
    her work out o'here to get her better, but when
    she's looking, the two boys looking in other
    part. One their small tile into her time here.
    She's working another time because she's getting,
    too.
  • (from Carroll, 1999)
  • (Fluent but meaningless.)

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IV. Broader damage to left hemisphere regions -
Global Aphasia - loss of ability to understand
spoken or written language, to speak, or to write
10
V. Narrower damage to cortical regions - more
specific language impairments Anomia -
difficulty naming Different frontal cortical
areas associated with naming different things
objects vs animals vs people Category-specific
retrieval-storage sites
11
  • Proper Name Anomia difficulty or inability to
    remember peoples names
  • The research procedure involves using pictures
    of famous persons seen in the media people that
    most people would know (presidents, actors,
    sports celebrities, news anchors, the superrich,
    etc)
  • people with name anomia have good memory for
    events and can tell you facts/events related to
    the famous person, but not be able to name them
  • name anomia often occurs in Alzheimers Disease
  • word-finding difficulties occur with normal
    aging
  • and retrieving peoples names is more affected
    than object naming

12
What happens when an entire hemisphere is
removed? Disastrous consequences in adulthood
for functions controlled by that hemisphere. In
young children though, no major effects on
language even when the LH is removed. Subtle
effects though. Those without a LH develop
generally normal speech and grammar, but have
some problems with advanced grammatical
constructions. It is the girl that is pushing
the boy John didnt know that dinner was
ready. John knew that dinner wasnt ready

13
Spatial Processing and the Parietal Lobes
14
Parietal Lobe

15
Types of Spatial Processing Tasks
Category Function Brain
area 1) Spatial Attention Attention to left
hemispace Right parietal Attention
to right hemispace Left parietal 2) Spatial
Perception Object Localization RL
occipital and parietal
lobes Line orientation Right
parietal 3) Spatial Construction Building with
blocks RL parietal
Puzzles 4) Spatial mental Mental Rotation
Right parietal operations Mental
Imagery posterior
16
I. Spatial attention Neurological damage and
visual attention A. Unilateral (one side) damage
to the parietal lobe Neglect syndrome - patients
spontaneously fail to process info on side
opposite to the damage Neglect contralateral
space - do not see people on one side of room
eat from only one side of the plate draw half of
an object. (But can adapt by learning to turn
plate to turn head to move objects across
visual field.)
17
Neurological damage and visual attention A.
Unilateral (one side) damage to the parietal
lobe Neglect syndrome - patients spontaneously
fail to process info on side opposite to the
damage Neglect also seen for visual images in
memory - describe a well-known scene (home
town)from one point of view describe half of it.
Asked to describe it if looking at same scene
from another point of view - describe other half
of it. Info is processed or existent in memory -
but not attended to or brought to conscious
awareness! Neglect for words in non-attended
part of visual field - still get priming effects.
18
Neurological damage and visual attention B.
Bilateral (both sides, RH and LH) damage to
posterior parietal lobes and part of occipital
cortex - Balints Syndrome Can perceive objects -
but only one at a time. Show 3 things - report
seeing only one (even when very close together).
Which one varies - cannot control the direction
of attention. Show person wearing glasses -
report person or glasses.
19
II. Spatial Perception Object localization -
usually tested in visual domain - position of an
object relative to your own body (Is it lined
up straight? To left? to right?) - position of
object relative to some point in space (How
close is dot to edge of card?) Line orientation
detection - Benton test often used (visual)
line segments - Tactile test (metal rod) feel
its position (blindfolded)
20
/
21
/ \ l
22
Types of Spatial Processing Tasks
Category Function Brain
area 1) Spatial Attention Attention to left
hemispace Right parietal Attention
to right hemispace Left parietal 2) Spatial
Perception Object Localization RL
occipital and parietal
lobes Line orientation Right
parietal 3) Spatial Construction Building with
blocks RL parietal
Puzzles 4) Spatial mental Mental Rotation
Right parietal operations Mental
Imagery posterior
23
III. Spatial Construction Tasks Block
Design Object Assembly
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Types of Spatial Processing Tasks
Category Function Brain
area 1) Spatial Attention Attention to left
hemispace Right parietal Attention
to right hemispace Left parietal 2) Spatial
Perception Object Localization RL
occipital and parietal
lobes Line orientation Right
parietal 3) Spatial Construction Building with
blocks RL parietal
Puzzles 4) Spatial mental Mental Rotation
Right parietal operations Mental
Imagery posterior
28
IV. Spatial mental operations Mental Rotation
Mental Imagery Mental Rotation -
manipulating objects through mental space
manipulate through 360 degrees of rotation -
task is to determine if stimulus object 1 would
look like stimulus object 2 if rotated into that
position or is stimulus object 2 a mirror image
of 1? - use asymmetric stimuli B E R
P F K L
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Types of Spatial Processing Tasks
Category Function Brain
area 1) Spatial Attention Attention to left
hemispace Right parietal Attention
to right hemispace Left parietal 2) Spatial
Perception Object Localization RL
occipital and parietal
lobes Line orientation Right
parietal 3) Spatial Construction Building with
blocks RL parietal
Puzzles 4) Spatial mental Mental Rotation
Right parietal operations Mental
Imagery posterior
33
IV. Spatial mental operations Mental Rotation
Mental Imagery Mental Imagery - describe
a scene from memory perform tasks (What color is
a banana, etc? What is bigger an orange or a
lemon? What is darker lettuce or a green pepper?
Scene descriptions show a model landscape on
a table Block view and ask to
describe from memory Then ask to
describe it as if standing on the other
side of the table
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