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Growing Vegetables in Wisconsin

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Cherry and pear tomatoes. 1 plant can produce 10-50 lb fruit ... Ground Cherry, Husk Tomato, Tomatillo Physalis ixocarpa. Gooseberry Physalis peruviana ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Growing Vegetables in Wisconsin


1
Growing Vegetables in Wisconsin
  • Karen Delahaut
  • Fresh Market Vegetable
  • Outreach Specialist

2
Tomatoes Lycopersicon esculentum
  • Family Solanaceae
  • Native to the Andes of South America
  • Introduced to Europe in 1500s
  • Believed to be poisonous until 1700s
  • Tomatine in green tissue
  • Lycopene beta carotene give tomatoes their
    color
  • Tender, warm season annual

3
  • 2nd most popular vegetable behind potatoes
  • Salsa is the most popular condiment, surpassing
    ketchup.
  • Red, pink, yellow, orange, white, purple

4
Determinate vs. Indeterminate
  • Determinate
  • 3 to 4 ft tall
  • Plant ends in flower bud
  • Indeterminate
  • 7 to 15 ft tall
  • Plant never ends, remains vegetative
  • Forms flowers in leaf axils
  • Cherry and pear tomatoes
  • 1 plant can produce 10-50 lb fruit/season

5
Cultivar Selection
  • Cherry Pear
  • (L. cerasiforme-cherry pyriforme-pear)
  • Smaller (½ dia.), sweeter tomatoes
  • Produce about 100 fruit/plant
  • Sweet 100
  • Yellow Pear
  • Sweet Million
  • Roma
  • Paste or processing tomatoes
  • Roma VF
  • Viva Italia
  • Amish Paste
  • Beefsteak
  • Larger tomatoes for fresh slicing
  • Higher ratio of cell wall to pulp short, soft
    core
  • Big Boy
  • Better Boy
  • Early Girl
  • Heirloom
  • Older, open pollinated varieties
  • Brandywine
  • Black Krim
  • Hungarian Heart

6
Tomato Culture
  • Self fertile, wind-pollinated flowers.
  • Starts seeds indoors 4-6 weeks before last frost
  • Plant transplants 18-24 inches apart in rows 3-4
    feet apart
  • Night temperature critical 60 - 70ºF
  • Temps lt 50 will cause blossom abortion, poor
    fruit set cat-facing

7
Staking or Trellising
8
Harvesting Tomatoes
  • Ripe, well-formed, blemish free
  • Heirloom beefsteak tomatoes will be irregular
    in shape
  • Never refrigerate tomatoes wont fully develop
    flavor after harvest
  • Ripen unripe fruit in a paper bag out of direct
    sunlight
  • Freeze, dehydrate, or can to preserve the summer
    flavor

9
Peppers Capsicum annuum, C. frutescens - Tabasco
  • Family Solanaceae
  • Originated in Central America
  • Came to United States in 1700s
  • Black white pepper used as seasoning is Piper
    nigrum.
  • Tender, herbaceous perennials grown as annuals.
  • Lance-shaped leaves perfect, white flowers.

10
Cultivar Selection-Hot
  • Anaheim 500-2,500
  • (mild, chile rellenos)
  • Ancho/Poblano 1,000-1,500
  • (mild, roasted, stuffed, mole)
  • Cayenne 30,000-50,000
  • (medium hot, Cajun Indian food)
  • Habanero 150,000-300,000
  • (hottest of all, salsas hot sauces)
  • Jalapeno 2,500-5,000
  • (medium hot, salsas salads)
  • Pequin 50,000-100,000
  • Serrano 10,000-20,000
  • (fiercely hot, roasted for salsa)
  • Thai 30,000-100,000
  • (fiercely hot, Asian stir fry)

11
Cultivar Selection - Sweet
  • Sweet
  • Bell
  • Early Crisp
  • Gypsy
  • Lady Bell
  • Purple Beauty
  • Banana
  • Banana Supreme
  • Bananarama
  • Cherry
  • Cherry Pick
  • Cubanelle
  • Key Largo
  • Hungarian
  • Pimiento
  • Antohi Romanian
  • Round of Hungary
  • Red Ruffled Pimiento
  • Tabasco

12
Pepper Culture
  • Start seed indoors 6-8 weeks before the last
    frost
  • Harden off transplants before setting out.
  • Plant 18-24 inches apart in the row.
  • Warm season
  • Grow best 70-80F day 65-70F night.
  • Blossom abortion, poor fruit set, shortened
    fruit, lack of color.
  • Capsanthin chemical that causes peppers to
    ripen
  • lt56F inhibit capsanthin production.
  • Moist soil - mulch is beneficial.

13
Harvesting Peppers
  • Harvest immature or mature.
  • Chili or cayenne peppers can be dried.
  • Avoid harvesting peppers with sunken brown spots.
  • Store fresh peppers in the vegetable crisper
    section of the refrigerator.

14
Eggplant Solanum melogena
  • A.K.A. Aubergine
  • Family Solanaceae
  • Tender, warm-season perennial grown as an annual
  • Native to India China ancient Asian vegetable
  • America Introduced early as ornamental

15
Cultivar Selection
  • Fruit may be oval, oblong, or round.
  • Color ranges from purple-black, to green, pink,
    white, red or yellow.
  • Asian
  • Ichiban
  • Orient Express
  • American (oval)
  • Black Beauty
  • Purple Rain

16
Eggplant Culture
  • Indeterminate, erect bush
  • Flowers borne singly or in clusters in leaf axils
  • Start seed indoors 10-12 weeks before last frost
  • Very susceptible to chilling
  • 75-85F day 65-75F night
  • Best if planted on black plastic mulch

17
Harvesting Eggplant
  • Harvest eggplant approximately 25-40 days after
    pollination.
  • Fruit should be glossy and deeply colored and
    feel heavy for its size.
  • Mature fruit will have a dull skin and flesh will
    be bitter.
  • No such thing as male and female fruit!
  • Fruit with oval dimples on the blossom end will
    have fewer seeds and are less meaty but this is
    not related to gender.
  • Clip fruit from the plant to avoid damage

18
Other Solanaceous Vegetables
  • Potato Solanum tuberosum
  • Ground Cherry, Husk Tomato, Tomatillo Physalis
    ixocarpa
  • Gooseberry Physalis peruviana
  • Huckleberry Solanum nigrum var. guineense
  • Tree Tomato egg-size fruit with tomato-like
    flavor.

19
Beans Phaseolus vulgaris P. linensis
  • Family Fabaceae (Leguminoseae)
  • Native to Central America.
  • Records of use as food date back to 5000 B.C.
  • Self-pollinated.
  • Warm season, herbaceous annual.

20
Cultivar Selection
  • Bush
  • Erect plant, usually short season
  • Blue Lake
  • Bush Romano
  • Royal Burgundy (purple)
  • Goldmine (wax)
  • Lima
  • Climbing or bush forms.
  • Heat tolerant
  • Pole
  • Twining type of bean, usually matures later but
    harvest time is longer
  • Kentucky Blue
  • Kentucky Wonder Wax
  • Scarlet Runner

21
Bean Culture
  • Plant beans after the last expected frost in warm
    soil, 50ºF.
  • Soak seed for an hour before planting to enhance
    germination.
  • May need inoculum in new gardens.
  • Plant seed 1 to 2 inches deep.
  • Well-drained soils.
  • Replant mid-summer for fall crop.
  • Little or no nitrogen fertilizer required.
  • Pole beans will require staking or some form of
    support.

22
Harvesting Beans
  • Harvest beans 14-18 days after full bloom.
  • Should be sweet, tender and uniform size.
  • Store in the refrigerator under high humidity.

23
Peas Pisum sativum
  • Family Fabaceae (Leguminoseae)
  • Native to middle Asia.
  • Field peas are native to Africa.
  • Became popular as a vegetable in the 1700s.
  • Cool season, herbaceous annual.
  • Classified by growth habit, pod appearance, seed
    color, and starch/sugar content.

24
Cultivar Selection
  • Snap or Edible Pod eaten when immature
  • Sugar Snap
  • Super Sugar Snap
  • Field Peas
  • Black-eyed
  • Clay grow well in clay soils
  • Crowder crowd the peas in the pod
  • Iron rusty red
  • Pink-eyed pink central ring
  • White Acre
  • Zipper unzip themselves from pod
  • Garden Peas
  • Early Frosty
  • Maestro
  • Wando
  • Garden Sweet
  • Spring
  • Snow Peas eaten when half mature
  • Mammoth Melting Sugar
  • Oregon Sugar Pod II
  • Snowbird

25
Pea Culture
  • Plant as early as April 15th in southern WI.
  • Preparing the planting site the previous fall
    will prevent planting delays.
  • Sandy, well-drained soils are best.
  • Soak seeds for 1 hour prior to planting to speed
    germination.
  • Space 1-2 inches apart in the row.
  • Support with a trellis or twine.

26
Harvesting Peas
  • Harvest peas 3 weeks after full bloom.
  • Plump enough to shell garden peas easily.
  • Dont allow to get over ripe.
  • Store at 35-40F under high humidity.

27
Cabbage Brassica oleracea var. capitata, tuba,
sabauda
  • Family Brassicaceae
  • (Cruciferae)
  • Native to Europe Asia.
  • Hardy, cool season herbaceous biennial
  • First to evolve from wild broccoli.
  • Heads may be pointed, conical, oblong, round, or
    flattened.
  • Leaves may be smooth or savoy green, red, or
    purple.
  • Alaskan-grown kraut cabbage heads may be 60lbs
    each!
  • Isothiocyanates give cole crops their distinct
    flavor.

28
Cultivar Selection
  • Cultivars based on color and type
  • Savoy Express (savoy)
  • Ruby Perfection (red)
  • Earliana (early green)
  • Salad Delight (red)
  • If available, select cultivars resistant to
    cabbage yellows.

29
Cabbage Culture
  • Start seeds indoors 6-8 weeks before the last
    frost.
  • Slowly acclimate transplants before setting
    outside permanently.
  • Sow seed directly for fall crops 10-12 weeks
    before killing frost.

30
Harvesting Cabbage
  • Harvest when heads are firm and before they
    split.
  • Cut with a sharp knife just above the root crown.
  • Dont wash prior to storage.
  • Store in refrigerator with or without a plastic
    bag.

31
Broccoli Brassica oleracea var italica
  • Family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)
  • Native to Europe Asia.
  • Hardy, cool season, herbaceous annual.
  • 1st crop to evolve from wild cabbage.
  • Head comprised of functional flower buds.
  • Sprouting heading varieties.

32
Cultivar Selection
  • Calabrese or Italian Green
  • Packman
  • Green Goliath
  • Purple Sprouting
  • Romanesco forms spiral-shaped heads
  • Minaret

33
Broccoli Culture
  • Relatively tolerant to environmental stress.
  • Temperatures below 40F will cause chilling
    injury.
  • Start seeds indoors 6-8 weeks before the last
    frost.
  • Sow seed directly for fall crops 10-12 weeks
    before killing frost.
  • Browning of florets due to boron deficiency.
  • Button heads due to temperature extremes or
    nitrogen deficiency.

34
Harvesting Broccoli
  • Harvest when heads are firm and florets havent
    begun to open.
  • Retain 2-4 inches of stem when cutting.
  • Cut sprouting broccoli just below the floret to
    stimulate new shoots.
  • Cool immediately after harvest.
  • Dont wash prior to refrigeration.

35
Cauliflower Brassica oleracea var. botrytis
  • Family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)
  • Native to Europe Asia
  • Hardy, cool season herbaceous biennial.
  • Evolved from sprouting broccoli.
  • Winter and late-season types have curds
    consisting of functional flower buds.
  • Purple cauliflower is a type of broccoli.

36
Cultivar Selection
  • Snowball types most common
  • Snow Queen
  • Early White
  • First White
  • Snow Crown
  • Specialty
  • Violet Queen

37
Cauliflower Culture
  • Start seeds indoors 6-8 weeks before the last
    frost.
  • Needs a long, cool growing season.
  • Sow seed directly for fall crops 10-12 weeks
    before killing frost.
  • Prolonged temperatures below 50F will induce
    bolting.
  • Hot summer temps will cause poor curd quality.
  • Tie cauliflower leaves together to blanch the
    curds when heads are 2-3.
  • Heads develop in 3-14 days after tying depending
    on the temperature so check every other day.

38
Cauliflower Problems
  • Browning of the curds is caused by boron
    deficiency or unavailability in high pH soils.
  • Ricing is when curds become velvety and is caused
    by high nitrogen and temperatures that result in
    rapid head formation.
  • Blindness is when no curd is formed due to poor
    fertility, insect damage, disease, heredity, or
    cold.
  • Stressed plants may form small, button heads.

39
Harvesting Cauliflower
  • Harvest when curds are compact and surrounded by
    leaves.
  • Retain enough wrapper leaves to hold heads
    intact.
  • Wrap in a damp cloth and refrigerate immediately.

40
Brussels Sprouts - B. oleracae var. gemmifera
  • Family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)
  • Native to Europe Asia
  • Hardy, cool season herbaceous biennial.
  • Believed to be derived from savoy cabbage.
  • Sprouts form in the leaf axils beginning at the
    bottom of the plant.

41
Cultivar Selection
  • F1 Hybrids have good uniformity, vigor and
    disease resistance.
  • Bubbles
  • Tasty Nuggets
  • Content
  • Diablo

42
Brussels Sprouts Culture
  • Start seeds indoors 6-8 weeks before the last
    frost.
  • Needs a long, cool growing season 90-100 days.
  • Sow seed directly for fall crops 10-12 weeks
    before killing frost.
  • Bitter sprouts caused by heat or drought.

43
Harvesting Brussels Sprouts
  • Best flavor develops after frost.
  • Sprouts harvested before frost are loose and
    bitter.
  • Top 3 weeks before harvest.
  • Dont have to remove lower leaves.

44
Other Cole Crops
  • Kale
  • B. oleracae var. acephala
  • Kohlrabi
  • B. oleracea var. gongyloides
  • Chinese Cabbage
  • B. oleracea var. pekinensis
  • Bok Choy
  • B. rapa var. chinensis

45
Carrots Daucus carota var. sativus
  • Family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)
  • Originated in Afghanistan possibly northern
    Iran Pakistan.
  • Introduced in America in the 1700s.
  • Biennial, grown as an annual.
  • White, purple, yellow, orange, and red varieties.

46
Carrot Pigments
Xanthophyll
Anthocyanin
Beta carotene
Lycopene
47
Cultivar Selection
  • Imperator
  • More slender and slightly longer than Danvers
    type
  • Deep orange cortex with lighter core
  • Fresh Market
  • Danvers
  • Medium to long with broad shoulders and sharp
    taper
  • Orange tinged with green
  • Processed into baby food
  • Nantes
  • Short, cylindrical with no taper, and a blunt,
    rounded base
  • Bright orange
  • Primary home garden carrot
  • Chantenay
  • Medium to short with a slight taper and blunt end
  • Grown for storage or processing
  • Medium to light orange

48
Carrot Culture
  • Sow ¼ inch deep in loose soil free of debris
    rocks.
  • Thin to 1-3 inches apart in the row.
  • Well-drained soil.
  • Replant mid-summer for extra sweet fall carrots.
  • Will produce a flower stalk if exposed to temps
    of 50F for 6-8 weeks particularly under long
    days.

49
Harvesting Carrots
  • Harvest when they are sweet and before they
    become woody.
  • Carrots with large shoulders are often woody.
  • Wash well before storing in a plastic bag in the
    refrigerator.
  • Sugar content increases while in cold storage.
  • Ethylene will cause bitterness dont store with
    apples, melons, or bananas.

50
Radishes Raphanus sativus
  • Family Brassicaceae
  • Native to China.
  • Leaves deeply pinnate arising from a basal
    rosette. Edible.
  • Roots can be round, oval, cylindrical, or
    icicle-shaped.
  • Bolt under long day conditions.
  • Insect pollinated.

51
Cultivar Selection
  • Bred for taste, bolt resistance, disease
    resistance, appearance.
  • Cultivars are based on season grown
  • Spring-type
  • Cherry Belle
  • Early Scarlet Globe
  • Summer
  • French Breakfast
  • Snow Belle (white)
  • White Icicle (white)
  • Red Meat
  • Winter (var. longipinnatus)
  • April Cross
  • Round Black Spanish
  • Daikons
  • Chinese White
  • China Rose

52
Radish Culture
  • Plant before the last frost in spring and sow
    every 10-14 days to extend the harvest.
  • Plant 1 inch apart in the row with rows 1 foot
    apart for spring radishes and 2 inches apart in
    the row for winter radishes.
  • Raised beds will promote rapid development of
    spring radishes
  • Consider interplanting spring radishes with
    other, later maturing crops.

53
Harvesting Radishes
  • Spring radishes are harvested 20-25 days after
    seeding when lt¾ inch diameter.
  • Winter radishes are harvested 50-60 days after
    planting.

54
Beets Beta vulgaris
  • Family Chenopodiaceae (goosefoot family).
  • Grown for their roots and edible greens.
  • Native to western Europe north Africa.
  • Selected from ancient European species.
  • Originally fed to livestock - mangels.
  • Biennial grown as an annual.
  • Contain betacyanin and betaxanthin.
  • High in carbohydrates.

55
Cultivar Selection
  • Based on color, shape use
  • Red, yellow, purple, white, striped.
  • Top-shaped, globe-shaped, flattened, elongated.
  • Slicing, bunching, storage.
  • Big Red
  • Burpee Golden
  • Chioggia (striped)
  • Cylindra
  • Detroit Dark Red
  • Detroit Supreme
  • Lutz - greens
  • Ruby Queen (bunching type)

56
Beet Culture
  • Temperatures of 55-70F produce rapid growth and
    good flavor.
  • Zoning comes from temperature fluctuations.
  • Space seed 2-4 inches apart in double rows with
    rows 15-30 inches apart.
  • Sow every 2-3 weeks apart to extend the season.

57
Harvesting Beets
  • Harvest when beets are round, tender, 2
    diameter. Old, large roots can be fibrous.
  • 50-60 days after planting.
  • May store for up to 6 months in the refrigerator.

58
Other Root Crops
  • Turnip Brassica rapa subsp. rapifera
  • Rutabaga Brassica napus var. napobrassica
  • Parsnip Pastinaca sativa
  • Celariac Apium graveolens var. rapaceum

59
Garlic Allium sativum
  • Family Alliaceae
  • Native to Middle Asia.
  • 1st cultivated 5,000 years ago.
  • Introduced to America in the 1700s.
  • Herbaceous, cool-season, perennial.
  • Comprised of multiple cloves.
  • Only hardneck varieties produce flowers.

60
Cultivar Selection
  • Hardneck
  • Rocambole
  • German Red
  • Killarney Red
  • Russian Red
  • Spanish Roja
  • Purple Stripe
  • Bogatyr
  • Brown Rose
  • Brown Tempest
  • Chesnok Red
  • Giant Siberian
  • Persian Star
  • Porcelain
  • Music
  • German Extra Hardy
  • Georgial Crystal
  • Georgian Fire
  • Northern White
  • Softneck
  • Artichoke
  • California White
  • Inchelium Red
  • Polish White
  • Silverskin
  • Silver Rose
  • Silver White
  • Elephant garlic is not a garlic but a form of
    leek! Allium ampeloprasum

61
Garlic Culture
  • Plant cloves in early fall 6 weeks before the
    ground freezes
  • Larger cloves produce larger bulbs
  • Well-drained soil
  • Mulch with straw after the ground freezes
  • Remove the flower stalk of hardneck garlic when
    it forms a circle

62
Harvesting Garlic
  • Harvest garlic when 2/3 of the tops turn brown -
    9 months after planting.
  • Cure for 30 days in a warm, dry place.
  • Hardneck garlic will last for 3-6 months.
  • Softneck garlic lasts for 6-9 months.

63
Onions Allium cepa
  • Family Alliaceae
  • Native to Southern Asia
  • Introduced to America in the 1400s
  • Herbaceous biennial grown as an annual.
  • Bulb is comprised of fleshy basal leaves.
  • Contains glucose, fructose, sucrose no starch

64
Cultivar Selection
  • Green onions (A. cepa) immature true onions
    harvested before bulbs form.
  • Scallions or bunching onions (A. cepa) never form
    a bulb.
  • Multiplier onions form 4-5 bulbs enclosed in a
    single leaf sheath.
  • Shallots (A. cepa) develop a small cluster of
    bulbs and are more subtle in flavor.
  • Pearl onions (A. ampeloprasum) form only one
    storage leaf. Like leeks but form small bulbs
    like garlic.
  • Cipollini onions are small, sweet, early onions.

65
Onion Culture
  • Plant seeds, sets, or transplants.
  • Sets may flower if summer is cool.
  • Transplant once frost is out of the ground
    about 4 weeks before the last spring frost.
  • Do not allow the soil to dry out.
  • Weeds can be a problem in onions and garlic.

66
Harvesting Onions
  • Harvest green onions when the tops are gt 6 and
    ½-1 in diameter.
  • Harvest bulb onions when 50-75 of the tops fall
    over.
  • Cure bulb onions at 85-90F for 10 days
  • Store at 35-40?F for 3-4 months.

67
Leeks Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum
  • Family Alliaceae
  • Native to the Mediterranean.
  • Herbaceous, cool-season biennial grown as an
    annual.
  • Non-bulbing unless daylength exceeds 19 hours.
  • Milder flavor than onions.
  • 2nd year they will form underground bulbs like
    Elephant garlic

68
Cultivar Selection
  • Bred for size and shape of the stalk, hardiness,
    disease resistance, and early maturity
  • American Flag
  • Giant Musselburg
  • King Richard
  • Otina
  • Pancho

69
Leek Culture
  • Plant leek seed indoors around Feb. 15.
  • Transplant in mid-April or 4 weeks before the
    last frost date.
  • Plant in holes 5-6 inches deep and fill in holes
    to blanch.
  • Long season require 120-150 days to harvest.

70
Harvesting Leeks
  • Harvest when1 ¼ -3 inches thick.
  • May mulch heavily and harvest into winter.
  • Trim roots, green leaves and wash before storing
    in the refrigerator for up to 2 months.

71
Melon Cucumis melo Citrullus lanatus
  • Watermelon leaves are heart-shaped with 3-7
    lobes.
  • Plants are monoecious can be self or cross
    pollinated.
  • Family Cucurbitaceae
  • Native to Africa
  • Introduced to America in 1400s.
  • Warm season, herbaceous annual.
  • May be determinate or indeterminate.
  • Melon leaves are oval to kidney-shaped with 5-7
    lobes.
  • Melons can only cross-pollinate with members of
    the same species.

72
Sex in the Garden
  • Cucurbit flowers may be perfect (have male and
    female parts) or imperfect (have only one or the
    other).
  • Male flowers produced early in the season
    (daylength gt14 hrs.)
  • Female flowers begin to show up along with the
    males around the summer solstice
  • And male flowers predominate in August until
    frost
  • Genetics, day length, and temperature determine
    what gender of flowers are produced

73
Cultivar Selection
  • Muskmelon Reticulatus group
  • Magnifisweet
  • Athena
  • Super Sun
  • Sweet Early
  • Honeydew
  • Inodorus group
  • Super Dew
  • Early Crisp
  • Venus
  • Watermelon
  • Yellow Doll
  • Crimson Sweet
  • Bush Sugar Baby
  • Moon Stars

74
Melon Culture
  • Require 90-125 days to produce a crop.
  • Seed at ½ to 1 inch depth, 5 ft centers.
  • Dont transplant well.
  • Chilling sensitive.
  • Require warm, sunny weather to produce sweet
    fruit.
  • Moist, well-drained soil.
  • Best grown on plastic mulch.
  • Bees essential for good fruit set.
  • Only allow 1-2 fruits to develop per plant.

75
Harvesting Melons
  • Harvest muskmelons at full-slip. 30-35 days after
    pollination.
  • Cool immediately to prevent deterioration.
  • Observe the ground patch on watermelon to
    determine when to harvest it will become white
    to creamy yellow.
  • Wipe watermelon clean with a damp cloth and store
    in a cool location.

76
Cucumber Cucumis sativus
  • Family Cucurbitaceae
  • Native to India
  • Warm season, herbaceous annual.
  • May be determinate or indeterminate.
  • Leaves and stems are spiny.
  • Leaves are triangular with rounded lobes with the
    middle lobe longer.
  • Self-pollinated.
  • Cucurbitacin is what causes people to have
    difficulty digesting cucumbers.
  • Gynoecious all female. Need 1 male plant to
    pollinate.
  • Parthenocarpic self-fertile doesnt require
    pollination.
  • Requires isolation from other fruit to avoid
    pollination to provide seedless fruit.

77
Cultivar Selection
  • Pickling (blunt, angular, warty, light green,
    spiny)
  • Homemade Pickles
  • Pickalot
  • Gherkin (small, oval, prickly)
  • Slicing (long and tapered with smooth, glossy
    green skin and few spines)
  • Dasher II
  • Marketmore
  • Orient Express
  • Sweet Success
  • Tasty Green
  • Salad Bush
  • Spacemaster

78
Cucumber Culture
  • Plant seeds 1-1½ inches deep and 8-12 inches
    apart.
  • Require soil temperatures of 60F.
  • Dont transplant well.
  • Trellis on strong wire mesh to save space.

79
Harvesting Cucumbers
  • Harvest slicing cucumbers when they are 6-8
    inches long (typically 12 days after
    pollination).
  • Oversized (yellow) fruit left on the plant will
    prevent subsequent fruit from developing will
    have large seeds.
  • Wipe clean with a damp cloth and store uncut in
    the refrigerator.

80
Summer Squash Cucurbita pepo
  • Family Cucurbitaceae
  • Native to the Americas
  • Warm season, frost tender, herbaceous annual.
  • May be determinate or indeterminate.
  • Leaves are 3-lobed or entire.
  • Plants are monoecious.
  • Thin-skinned, eaten when immature.
  • Blossoms are edible.

81
Cultivar Selection
  • Crookneck
  • Horn of Plenty
  • Pic-n-Pic
  • Early Golden Crookneck
  • Scallop or Patty Pan
  • Scallopini
  • Butter Scallop
  • Peter Pan
  • Zucchini
  • Aristocrat
  • Spineless Beauty
  • Roly Poly
  • Straightneck
  • Butterstick
  • Gold Bar
  • Sunray
  • Saffron

82
Winter Squash Cucurbita maxima, pepo, moschata
  • Family Cucurbitaceae
  • Native to Americas
  • Warm season, herbaceous annual.
  • May be determinate or indeterminate.
  • Leaves are 3-lobed or entire.
  • Plants are monoecious.
  • Can cross pollinate with other cultivars of the
    same species.
  • Hard rinds make them good for storage.

83
Cultivar Selection
  • Acorn (C. pepo)
  • Green or gold deeply ribbed.
  • Cream of the Crop
  • Ebony Sweet Acorn
  • Table Ace
  • Table Queen
  • Buttercup (C. maxima)
  • Medium-dark green splotched with grey.
  • Autumn Cup
  • Butternut (C. moschata)
  • Orange flesh, tan skin, bulbous base.
  • Autumn Glow
  • Early Butternut
  • Waltham
  • Delicata (C. pepo)
  • Cornells Bush Delicata
  • Hubbard (C. maxima)
  • Medium, blue-gray with bumpy skin.
  • Blue Hubbard
  • Kabocha (C. maxima)
  • Ambercup
  • Sweet Mama
  • Spaghetti (C. maxima)
  • Oval with golden yellow skin.
  • Pasta Hybrid
  • Vegetable Spaghetti
  • Turks Turban (C. maxima)
  • Green, turban-shaped, striped with red, white,
    orange.

84
Squash Culture
  • Seed early and plant 1 inch deep 4 feet apart.
  • Moist soil
  • Warm season 65-75F.
  • Mulch. Reflective mulch may repel insects.
  • Bees essential.
  • Bush-type or vining plants.
  • Shallow roots irrigate.

85
Harvesting Squash
  • Harvest the first summer squash 7-8 weeks after
    seeding when fruit are 2-3 inches in diameter and
    7 inches long.
  • Handle summer squash gently as it bruises easily.
  • Refrigerate for up to 1 week.
  • Winter squash is harvested 3-4 months after
    planting.
  • Harvest winter squash before a hard frost.
  • Outer skin of winter squash should resist
    fingernail pressure.
  • Cure winter squash by exposing them to 80F temps
    for 7-10 days.
  • Store at 40-45F for up to 2-3 months.

86
Cucurbit Taxonomy
  • Cucurbita pepo
  • Acorn
  • Delicata
  • Jack-o-lantern
  • Pie pumpkins
  • Patty pan squash
  • Small gourds
  • Summer squash
  • Zucchini
  • Cucurbita maxima
  • Banana
  • Buttercup
  • Hubbard
  • Kabocha
  • Large gourds
  • Turks turban
  • Huge pumpkins
  • Cucurbita moschata
  • ButterNUT

87
Pumpkins Cucurbita pepo (Jack-O-Lantern pie),
maxima (giants)
  • Family Cucurbitaceae
  • Native to Americas
  • Warm season, frost-tender, herbaceous annual.
  • May be determinate or indeterminate.
  • Leaves are 3-lobed and may be deeply indented.
  • Plants are monoecious.
  • Can cross pollinate with other cultivars of the
    same species.
  • Mammoth pumpkins are related to Hubbard squash
    and are pinkish-orange in color.

88
Cultivar Selection
  • Based on
  • Shape
  • Size
  • Color
  • Flesh quality (pie)

89
Pumpkin Cultivars
  • Miniature
  • Baby Bear
  • Baby Boo
  • Jack-Be-Little
  • Munchkin
  • Spooktacular
  • Small
  • Mystic Plus
  • New England Pie
  • Schooltime
  • Touch of Autumn
  • Medium
  • Autumn Gold
  • Casper
  • Gold Standard
  • Ghostrider
  • Lumina
  • Magic Lantern
  • Rouge Vif dEtampes
  • Small Sugar
  • Spirit
  • Trick or Treat
  • Large
  • Atlantic Giant
  • Connecticut Field
  • Howden
  • Prizewinner

90
Pumpkin Culture
  • Dont plant before May 20 in southern WI and up
    to 2 weeks later in the north.
  • Plant 1-1 ½inches deep 3-5 feet apart in the row
    with rows 4-6 feet apart .
  • Moist soil.
  • Warm season 65-75F.
  • Mulch.
  • Bees essential.
  • Shallow roots irrigate.
  • Hand pollinate giant pumpkins so they set fruit
    early.
  • Only allow 2 fruit per plant to develop.

91
Harvesting Pumpkins
  • Harvest 3-4 months after planting.
  • Outer skin should resist fingernail pressure.
  • Leave a 3 handle.
  • Cure by exposing them to temps of 80F for 7-10
    days.
  • Store at 40-45F for up to 2-3 months.
  • Store better if not exposed to hard frost.

92
Lettuce Lactuca sativa
  • Family Asteraceae
  • Native to the Mediterranean Basin.
  • Herbaceous annual.
  • Cool season, long day plant.

93
Cultivar Selection
  • Crisphead
  • (var. capitata)
  • Large, heavy, brittle
  • Latest to mature
  • Ithaca
  • Summertime
  • Butterhead (Bibb) (var. capitata)
  • Small, loosely filled head with creamy interior.
  • Boston is day neutral
  • Bibb is short-day
  • Batavia is intermediate between crisphead bibb
  • Buttercrunch
  • Esmeralda
  • Four Seasons

94
Cultivar Selection
  • Looseleaf (var. crispa)
  • Easiest to grow 1st to mature
  • Salad Bowl
  • Green Ice
  • Prizehead
  • Simpson Elite
  • Royal Oakleaf
  • Romaine (Cos) (var. longifolia)
  • Torpedo-shaped heads
  • Matures later than butterhead and leaf varieties
  • Cimmaron
  • Giant Caesar
  • Parris Island Cos
  • Athena
  • Rouge d Hiver

95
Lettuce Culture
  • Seed at ¼ inch depth or use transplants.
  • Cool season temps above 70 with long days
    cause lettuce to bolt.
  • Moist, well-drained soilshallow rooted and
    drought susceptible.
  • Bitterness comes from high temperatures mature
    plants.
  • Harvest in 50 days

96
Harvesting Lettuce
  • Harvest individual leaves or bunches of leaves by
    cutting them with a sharp knife or shears.
  • Harvest lettuce heads by cutting them with a
    sharp knife below the lowest leaf and remove any
    damaged leaves.
  • Harvest Romaine lettuce when heads are smaller to
    avoid bitterness.
  • Place in a perforated plastic bag and refrigerate
    immediately.
  • Dont wash until just prior to use.

97
Spinach Spinacia oleracea
  • Family Chenopodiaceae (goosefoot family)
  • Native to Iran
  • Spina means spiny in Latin to describe prickly
    seed.
  • Hardy, cool-season annual.
  • High in vitamins A C, calcium, iron,
    potassium.

98
Cultivar Selection
  • Based on leaf texture
  • Savoy
  • Avon
  • Bloomsdale Long-Standing
  • Melody
  • Smooth
  • Baby Leaf
  • Giant Nobel
  • New Zealand
  • Olympia
  • Space
  • Tyee
  • Viroflay
  • Whale

99
Spinach Culture
  • Temps of 55-65F.
  • Spring and fall crop.
  • Can sow seeds late in fall for fall spring
    crop.
  • Direct seed in rows or broadcast.
  • ¾ apart in rows 2-4 inches wide
  • Plant ½-¾ inches deep
  • Slow to emerge up to 3 weeks
  • Clip to thin to 1 inch apart

100
Harvesting Spinach
  • 35-50 days after planting.
  • 5-7 leaves per plant.
  • Remove outer leaves first.
  • Continued harvest until seed stalk forms.
  • Store at 32F.

101
Asparagus Asparagus officinalis
  • Family Liliaceae
  • Native to the eastern Mediterranean.
  • Cultivated for over 2000 years.
  • Hardy, cool season perennial.
  • Dioecious or all-male.

102
Cultivar Selection
  • Select rust resistant varieties
  • Mary Washington (OP)
  • Martha Washington (OP)
  • All-male varieties
  • Jersey Giant (male)
  • Jersey Knight (male)
  • Jersey Supreme (male)
  • Purple Passion (male)

103
Asparagus Culture
  • Plant crowns 12-36 apart in a trench 8 deep.
  • Gradually fill in as spears grow.
  • Dont harvest the 1st or 2nd years.
  • Fertilize at the end of the harvest season.

104
Harvesting Asparagus
  • Harvest season is about 8 weeks.
  • Spears should be 8-10 long with tightly closed
    tips.
  • ½-? diameter.
  • Snap or cut at the soil line.
  • Stop harvest when spears smaller than a pencil.
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