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Decreasing Child Mortality in Developing Countries An Introduction

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Title: Decreasing Child Mortality in Developing Countries An Introduction


1
Decreasing Child Mortality in Developing
CountriesAn Introduction
  • Prepared by Cindy Jian
  • March 2006

2
How serious is this issue?
  • Close to 11 million children die every year
    before reaching their fifth birthday. (World
    Health Organization WHO, 2006).
  • That equates to about 20 per minutes
  • Or 30 thousand per day
  • (WHO)

3
What are some major causes?
  • Most of the child deaths are related to numerous
    causes such as
  • Pneumonia
  • Diarrhoea
  • Measles
  • Malaria
  • Neonatal Causes
  • Malnutrition
  • (WHO, 2006)

4
Where do most of the deaths occur?
  • Almost all of the deaths occur in low and
    middle-income countries, namely countries in
    sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia (WHO, 2006).
  • The child mortality rates at Kenya are as high as
    126 in males and 120 in females per 1000 live
    births (WHO, 2006).

5
What factors have shown a consistent relationship
with the change in mortality rate?
  • Fertility behaviours
  • Nutritional status
  • Breastfeeding
  • Maternal and child health status
  • Environmental health factors
  • Socioeconomic factors

(Rutstein, 2000)
6
What else can affect it?
  • Female autonomy
  • Education
  • The provision of accessible health services
  • Adequate nutrition
  • Immunization
  • Effective antenatal and obstetric services
  • (Sandiford, Morales, Gorter, Coyle, and Smith,
    1991).

7
What is the Force Field Analysis Model?
http//www.12manage.com/methods_lewin_force_field_
analysis.html
8
What are some restraining forces for this issue?
  • For some conditions leading to child mortality,
    the underlying causes and risk factors are not
    yet understood (Jones, Steketee, Black, Bhutta,
    Morris The Bellagio Child Study Survival Study,
    2003).
  • There is a large variation of major causes of
    death in different developing countries (Black,
    Morris Bryce, 2003).

9
What are some restraining forces for this issue?
(Contd)
  • The lack of appropriate and adequate resources,
    especially money in terms of the countries
    government and its individual people.
  • The lack of education among the people in the
    countries where they do not realize that their
    behavioural patterns contribute to the death of
    their children or that they do not know how to
    help their sick children.

10
What are some restraining forces for this issue?
(Contd)
  • Local governments policies on distribution of
    funding.
  • Military-oriented government.
  • More money to arm force
  • Unstable and non-peaceful life
  • Language barriers.
  • Different cultural background and beliefs.

11
What are some of the driving forces for this
issue?
  • The developed countries have recognized that
    child mortality in developing countries is an
    issue that needs change.
  • They realize that interventions need to be
    implemented as the determinants of health of the
    children are not being met.

12
What are some of the driving forces for this
issue? (Contd)
  • There are agencies available that are offering
    systemic supports for health professionals going
    abroad to provide voluntary work in developing
    countries.
  • Many valuable programs have been developed to
    target specifically on changing child mortality
    in developing countries.
  • Results have shown that the interventions
    implemented have proven to be effective.
  • (Bryce et al., 2003)

13
What are some of the driving forces for this
issue? (Contd)
  • Agencies, such as the WHO, have numerous valuable
    evidence-based research results that can support
    community practice and implementations in
    developing countries that would improve their
    child mortality rate.
  • WHO has the support of World Bank for mission
    funding.

14
What is currently being done and/or has been done
in the past?
  • Various international organizations, have already
    developed campaigns and other initiatives that
    help developing countries in many different ways.
  • World Health Organization (WHO)
  • World Vision
  • United Nation Childrens Fund (UNICEF)
  • In addition, there are internationally organized
    medical teams, where nurses, doctors and other
    health care professionals deliver health care in
    developing countries.
  • Doctors without Borders
  • Despite the positive results that have come from
    these campaigns and initiatives, interventions to
    reduce child mortality are not reaching the
    children who need them most, particularly in very
    poor countries
  • (Bryce et al., 2003).

15
  • Lets change it!

16
What strategies are we planning to utilize to
deal with this issue?
  • Child Survival Outreach Teams
  • Involving SchoolsSetting up a regular clinic in
    developing countries to count towards community
    practicum experiences.

17
What to teach the community?
  • The importance of breastfeeding to reduce
    neonatal deaths.
  • How to breastfeed correctly.
  • Complications of breastfeeding.
  • The importance of hand-washing to reduce the
    incidence of diarrhoea and other health
    conditions.
  • How to hand-wash properly.

18
What to teach the community? (Contd)
  • The importance of oral-rehydration for treating
    diarrhoea and other common childhood conditions.
  • The use of insecticide-treated nets to reduce
    mortality rates due to malaria.
  • Recognizing the signs of illness, when and where
    to seek medical help.

19
What can we do when we are students?
  • Establishing connections with WHO
  • Offering suggestions on modifying course
    curriculum
  • Designing a webpage
  • Preparing teaching tools
  • Fund raising
  • Starting up a clinic at Kenya
  • Offering workshops to local professionals
  • and enthusiastic individuals.

20
References
  • Black, R. E., Morris, S. S. Bryce, J. (2003).
    Where and why are 10 million children dying every
    year? The Lancet, 361(9376), 2226-2234.
  • Bryce, J., el Arifeen, S., Pariyo, G., Lanata, C.
    F., Gwatkin, D., Habicht, J., et al. (2003).
    Reducing child mortality Can public health
    deliver? The Lancet, 362(9378), 159-194.
  • Jones, G., Steketee, R. W., Black, R. E., Bhutta,
    Z. A., Morris, S. S., The Bellagio
    Child Survival Study. (2003). How many children
    deaths can we prevent this year? The
    Lancet, 362(9377), 65-71.
  • Rutstein, S.O. (2000). Factors associated with
    trends in infant and child mortality in
    developing countries during the 1990s. Bulletin
    of the World Health Organization, 78(10),
    1256-1270.
  • Sandiford, P., Moroles, P., Gorter, A., Coyle,
    E., and Smith, G.D. (1991). Why do child
    mortality rates fall? An analysis of the
    Nicaraguan experience. American Journal of Public
    Helath, 81(1), 30-37
  • 12manage. (2006). Force field analysis. Retrieved
    March 12, 2006 from http//www.12manage.com/method
    s_lewin_force_field_analysis.html
  • World Health Organization. (2006). Goal 4 Reduce
    child mortality. Retrieved March 10, 2006 from
    http//www.who.int/mdg/goals/goal4/en/index.htm
  • World Health Organization.(2006). Kenya, The
    world health report 2005. Retrieved February 27,
    2006, from http//www.who.int/countries/ken/en/ind
    ex.html
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