Labor%20Markets%20and%20the%20Aftermath%20of%20Regime%20Change%20in%20Albania:%20Estimating%20Labor%20Market%20Discrimination - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Labor%20Markets%20and%20the%20Aftermath%20of%20Regime%20Change%20in%20Albania:%20Estimating%20Labor%20Market%20Discrimination

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Men 2 times more in lawmaking, senior officials, leading executives ... Plant and Machine Operators and Assemblers. 8.37. 25.95. Craft and Related Trade Workers ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Labor%20Markets%20and%20the%20Aftermath%20of%20Regime%20Change%20in%20Albania:%20Estimating%20Labor%20Market%20Discrimination


1
Labor Markets and the Aftermath of Regime Change
in Albania Estimating Labor Market Discrimination
  • Juna Miluka
  • June 10, 2008

2
Motivation
  • System Changes
  • Major Transformations in the Labor Markets
  • Lack of Empirical Evidence

3
Purpose
  • Estimate returns to schooling by gender
  • Mincer Equation
  • Estimate Gender Wage Gap
  • Gender Wage Gap Decomposition
  • Counterfactual Analysis

4
Overview
  • Major Changes in Labor Markets
  • Price Liberalization
  • Competition
  • Lack of Social Support

5
In 2004 employment level 38.3 for women and
60.1 for men.
6
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7
  • Men 2 times more in lawmaking, senior officials,
    leading executives
  • Women higher as specialists and plain employees

8
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9
Data
  • 2005 ALSMS
  • 3680 households
  • 15,750 individuals
  • 5,746 individuals in the labor module
  • 3,898 individuals with reported wages

10
Descriptive Statistics
     
  Males Females Total P-Value
Ln Wage 9.98 9.50 9.84 0.00
Monthly Wage 28075 17011 25008 0.00
Age 41.12 37.89 40.22 0.00
Years of Schooling 10.36 11.17 10.58 0.00
Experience 25.76 21.72 24.64 0.00
No Diploma 0.15 0.47 0.24 0.30
Primary 4 5.27 2.63 4.54 0.00
Primary 8 40.75 33.74 38.81 0.00
Secondary 20.18 20.24 20.19 0.97
Vocational 23.49 22.96 23.34 0.76
University 9.98 19.75 12.69 0.00
Postuniversity_Alb 0.45 0.33 0.42 0.52
Postuniversity_Abrd 0.04 0.24 0.10 0.17
Total Observations 2667 1231 3898  
11
Main Occupations By Gender    
Occupations Males Females
Legislators, Senior Officials and Managers 6.67 2.19
Professionals 8.67 22.67
Technicians and Associate Professionals 6.07 15.35
Clerks 1.69 2.93
Service Workers and Shop and Market Sales Workers 12.56 15.59
Skilled Agricultural and Fishery Workers 20.13 19.82
Craft and Related Trade Workers 25.95 8.37
Plant and Machine Operators and Assemblers 11.70 4.63
Elementary Occupations 6.56 8.45
12
Empirical Strategy
  • Mincers Human Capital Equation (1974)
  • ln w c rS b1E b2E2 e
  • Oaxaca (1973), Blinder (1973)
  • Raw DifferentialE C U
  • Ediffering endowments, Cdiffering coefficients,
    Uunexplained portion of differential, DCU
  • Lemieux (2002)
  • Counterfactual Analysis

13
Results
  • Higher Return to Education for Women
  • No Differing Returns for Lower Educational Levels
  • Children have Negative Impact on Wages for Women
  • Evidence of Wage Discrimination Against Women

14
Results Cont.
Oaxaca Three Fold Decomposition (With Controls) Urban Rural
Endowments 0.067 (0.015) 0.037 -0.038 (0.016) (0.024)
Coefficients -0.534 (0.025) -0.452 -0.617 (0.027) (0.046)
Interaction 0.036 (0.017) 0.026 -0.054 (0.019) (0.035)
Observations 3898 2364 1534
15
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16
Conclusions
  • Noticeable Wage Disparity
  • Labor Market Discrimination
  • Close Look to
  • Income Inequality, Education of the future
    generations , Occupational Distribution, Womens
    Position and Opportunities, Intergenerational
    Inequality, and Ultimately Poverty.
  • Special Consideration to Education
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