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Unit Two Sports

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Title: Unit Two Sports


1
Unit Two Sports RecreationText 3
Music
2
  • What makes young people love pop music
    passionately?

3
  • rock music loud music with a strong beat usually
    played or sung by a small group of people using a
    variety of instruments including electric guitars
    and drums
  • Elvis Presley, Michael Jackson ,Madonna

4
  • excerpt (n) a passage or segment taken from a
    longer work, such as a literary
  • The excerpts contain the essential points of the
    report.
  • (v) to select or use material from (a longer
    work).
  • This passage of text has been excerpted from her
    latest novel.
  • late dead, especially if only recently deceased
    (compare it with diseased)
  • in memory of the late explorer.
  • his late wife
  • menace (n.) (to) something which suggests a
    threat or brings danger
  • eg. the menace of nuclear war
  • Uncollected garbage is a menace to life and
    health.
  • In my view, drunk drivers are a social menace.
  • A man who drives fast is a menace to other people.

5
  • menace (v.) -- menacing ( adj. )
  • eg. Two men menaced him with weapons and forced
    him to give up his money.
  • The weather becomes more menacing here when
    winter arrives.
  • The people are being menaced by the threat of
    war.???????????
  • go as/so far as to do sth. to be bold or direct
    enough to do something to behave in a way that
    seems surprising or extreme??(????)
  • eg. I wouldn't go so far as to say that she is a
    liar, simply because she doesn't always tell the
    truth.
  • He went so far as to criticize his parents for
    incompetence.
  • denounce to condemn openly as being evil or
    reprehensible.
  • The government's economic policy has been
    denounced on all sides.
  • We must denounce injustice and oppression.
  • denunciation
  • The minister's speech contained a strong
    denunciation ( public criticism) of the policies
    of the opposing parties. C
  • Denunciation of the government's failure to help
    lower-paid workers is not enough - we need to
    take action. U

6
  • formidably (adv.) impressively in a manner that
    causes fear, doubt, anxiety, etc. -- formidable (
    adj. )
  • eg. The jeeps were driven by army drivers, each
    formidably armed.
  • She is not only beautiful but formidably
    intelligent.
  • formidable difficult to undertake, surmount, or
    defeat
  • a person with a formidable appearance??????
  • a formidable challenge???????
  • a formidable question
  • a formidable opponent ???????
  • There are formidable obstacles in her path.
  • He has earned the reputation of being a
    formidable opponent.
  • The head of the research section was a formidable
    old professor.??????????????????
  • They faced formidable difficulties in their
    attempt to reach the mountain summit.?????????????
    ????????

7
  • stunning (adj.) unusually or unexpectedly
    astonishing greatly surprising
  • eg. The Prime Minister resigned last night after
    a stunning defeat.
  • He won the heavyweight gold medal with stunning
    ease.(??????????)
  • All the ideas have a stunning simplicity.
  • stunningly (adv.) stun (v. ) stunner (n.)
  • eg. Sometimes the citizens of one country are
    quite stunningly rude to those of another.
  • Many cinema-goers were stunned by the film's
    violent and tragic end.
  • Last week's inflation figures were a stunner.
  • He's stunningly naive for a person of his age.
  • to shock or surprise (someone) very much
  • News of the disaster stunned people throughout
    the world.
  • She was stunned by the amount of support she
    received from well-wishers.(???)
  • He was stunned by the sudden news.????????????????
  • fuel (v.) to provide with something that
    increases anger or any other strong active
    feeling- fuel (n.)
  • eg. Bank interest cuts will only fuel inflation
    rather than checking it.
  • His newly published commentary has fuelled the
    debate on the project.
  • Wood, coal, oil, and gas are different kinds of
    fuel.

8
  • controversy (n.) (an) argument about something
    over which there is much disagreement --
    controversial ( adj. )
  • eg. The heart of the controversy is not whether
    we should do it, but whether we can do it.
  • The prime minister's speech has caused a fierce
    controversy over college education.
  • Immigration is a controversial issue in many
    countries.
  • There's been (a) fierce/bitter/heated controversy
    over the policy ever since it was introduced. C
    or U
  • a controversial issue/decision/speech/policy/figur
    e/film
  • He wrote a very controversial book

9
  • Paragraph one
  • emphatically (adv.) in a way that shows that a
    statement is particularly important most
    certainly emphatic (adj.)
  • eg. He is emphatically an excellent
    student.???/???
  • I am emphatically not in agreement with that
    statement.
  • Johnson has emphatically denied the allegations
    against him.
  • I emphatically support the proposals for reform.
  • singular (adj.) (liter.) very noticeable because
    unusual (n. singularity) (plural, opp, adj /n))
  • eg. I have no idea why he holds so singular an
    opinion about this project.
  • She was a woman of singular beauty.
  • He showed a singular skill in painting.
  • Mary doesn't like the singularity of his
    character.
  • the states of soul different emotions and
    feelings
  • proportion (n.) (of) a part or share (as
    measured in amount and compared with the whole)
  • eg. The proportion of women in the profession has
    risen to 17.3.
  • A large proportion of the students were sick last
    week.???????????

10
  • live for regard sth as the the aim of ones life
  • She lived for her work.(workholic)
  • After she died, he had nothing to live for.
  • Live for ones children
  • alien to dissimilar, inconsistent, or opposed,
    as in nature
  • It is alien to the school discipline.??????????
  • Their ideas are quite alien to our own.
  • be longing to do sth be eager to do sth
  • plug (v.) to make a connection using a small
    plastic object with two or three metal prongs
    pushed into an electric power outlet to obtain
    power for a (usually) movable apparatus plug??,
    ??
  • eg. He took the machine from its bag and plugged
    it into the wall socket.(?????)
  • plugged a cork in the bottle.????????
  • How can I plug the hole in this
    bucket???????????????
  • All passengers are plugged into a stereophonic
    system.
  • paraphrase ... they are longing to plug
    themselves back into their music.
  • ... they are eager to go back into their music
    world

11
  • at best Interpreted most favorably at the
    most?????
  • no more than 40 people at best in
    attendance.??????40???
  • Under the most favorable conditions??????
  • has a top speed of 20 miles per hour at
    best.????????20??
  • neutral (adj.) in a position between opposite or
    different choices with no qualities of the
    stated kind, as of something very weak or
    colorless
  • eg. He had departed from his prepared testimony
    which was considered to be neutral.
  • I waited for a reaction, but even her eyes
    remained neutral.
  • She is neutral in this argument she doesn't care
    who wins.???????????,????????
  • Both sides have agreed to attend a peace
    conference on the condition that it is held in a
    neutral country.
  • Many newspapers claim to be politically neutral,
    but few actually are.
  • neutral noun C
  • Sweden and Switzerland were neutrals during the
    war.
  • I don't want to get involved in this argument -
    I'm a neutral on this.
  • neutrality noun U
  • It is unlikely that Sweden will ever abandon its
    traditional neutrality and join a military
    alliance.
  • The Queen has maintained political neutrality
    throughout her reign.

12
  • impediment (to) (n.) a fact or event which makes
    action difficult or impossible ??, ???
  • eg. He was satisfied there was no legal
    impediment to the marriage.
  • The lack of a sufficient water supply has become
    a major impediment to economic growth.
  • drain (of) (v.) to (cause to) become gradually
    dry or empty
  • eg. His face was suddenly drained of color at the
    sight of his wife.
  • I felt drained of thought.
  • down the drainTo or into the condition of being
    wasted or lost
  • All of our efforts are down the drain. ?????
  • rebel against The students rebelled against
    their government.?????????????
  • At best that ordinary life is neutral, but mostly
    it is an impediment, drained of vital content,
    even a thing to be rebelled against.
  • paraphrase At the very most, everyday life is a
    weak and colorless existence. Under most
    circumstances, everyday life is an obstacle that
    is meaningless and tasteless. Everyday life is
    even something that has to be fought against.

13
  • Why does the author say that young people's life
    is neutral at best?
  • Can you see the parallel between the German
    passion for Wagner's operas and the current
    passion for rock music? Why/why not?

14
  • indulge (v.) to gratify to give way to and
    satisfy ( desires, etc, ) overlook the faults
    of??
  • eg. You can indulge yourself without spending a
    fortune.
  • He indulges in daydreams.??????????
  • His parents never indulged him.
  • His father sometimes indulges in a
    cigarette.?????????????
  • indulgence (n.) --indulgent (adj.)
  • eg. His indulgence in alcohol ruined his
    marriage.
  • He is an indulgent father.
  • wait on (infml. AmE) to wait for something to
    happen await
  • eg. We cannot wait on the management to make the
    necessary changes in our company.
  • We wait on your reply to our letter.
  • Another use
  • wait on to attend (someone) as a servant,
    helper, follower, etc. to serve (someone) food
    and drink in a restaurant
  • eg. Dramas about ancient feudal China portray the
    eunuchs constantly waiting on the emperor.
  • Is there no waitress here to wait on us?

15
  • output ( n. ) ( usu. sing. ) production
  • eg. Manual workers need a good breakfast for a
    high-energy output.
  • The factory has an output of two thousand cars a
    year.
  • worshipper (n.) a person who shows great
    respect, admiration, etc., for something or
    someone????, ???
  • eg. I am not a worshipper of money.
  • worship (v.) worship (n.)
  • eg. A church is a place of worship.?????????
  • The Greeks used to worship many gods.
  • Christians worship God.
  • worship the ground sb. treads on???????
  • Fans of F4 worship the ground the band walks on.
  • stereo (n.) sound that is directed through two
    or more speakers so that it seems to surround the
    listener and to come from more than one source
    stereophonic sound?????, ???

16
  • exclusively ( adv. ) only and nothing/no one
    else ( adj. ) exclusive
  • eg. This room is exclusively for women.
  • Instruction in undergraduate classes in these
    subjects is almost exclusively through lecture.
  • This dining room is for the exclusive use of the
    students.
  • This dining room is for the distinguished guests'
    exclusive use.
  • exclusive of?,??
  • The ship had a crew of 48, exclusive of
    officers.?????48?,??????
  • The hotel charges 150 a day, exclusive of
    meals.?????????????,??????
  • on the air
  • If a program or a person is on/off (the) air,
    they are/are not broadcasting on radio or
    television.
  • The radio station is on air from 6.00 a.m.
  • As soon as the war started, any broadcasts with a
    military theme were taken off the air.

17
  • nonstop (adv.) without a pause or interruption
  • eg. Amy and her group had driven nonstop through
    the forest.
  • The snow fell nonstop for two hours.
  • music playing nonstop all night
  • (adj) Unceasing, Made or done without stops
  • nonstop criticism.??????
  • a nonstop flight from Hong Kong to
    Beijing??????????
  • commune (with) (v.) ( esp. lit poet) to get
    very close to someone or something by exchanging
    feelings or thoughts to exchange thoughts,
    ideas, or feelings
  • eg. Commune with nature, and you will feel
    refreshed.
  • Lying naked in the grass, among the trees and
    birds, he felt he had communed with nature.
  • communion noun U literary
  • What he wants is a spiritual communion between
    East and West - to bring them to a closer
    understanding of each other.
  • They wanted no communion with America - the place
    or its people.
  • He lived in close communion with nature/God.
  • above all most important of all especially
  • He hopes to see his family again.

18
  • tropically (adv.) found in and/or characteristic
    of the tropics (the area between the two
    imaginary lines of latitude drawn around the
    world at about 23.5 north (the tropic of Cancer)
    and south (the tropic of Capricorn) of the
    imaginary line round the middle of the world
    (equator)
  • paraphrase...the musical soil has become
    tropically rich.
  • ... the environment of rock music is as fertile
    as the soil in the tropical areas on the earth.
  • genius (n.) great ability, especially in
    producing works of art a person of such ability
  • eg. Its very title is a stroke of genius
  • Chaplin was not just a genius, he was among the
    most influential figures in the film industry.
  • Einstein was a genius. ?
  • Hes a genius at mathematics.
  • dearth (of) ( n. ) (fml.) a lack (of) shortage
    (of)
  • eg. There will be a dearth of talent in China's
    IT industry for a long time.
  • The university used to suffer from a dearth of
    facilities for handicapped students.
  • The factory's closure has been blamed on the
    dearth of orders for its products during the
    recession.

19
  • startling (adj.) surprisingly different,
    unexpected, or remarkable
  • eg. The police have found some startling
    evidence.
  • a startling ( very surprising)
    admission/achievement
  • startling results
  • The news from the famine area was startling.
  • Startle to do something, esp. unexpected which
    surprises and sometimes worries a person or
    animal
  • She was concentrating on her book and his voice
    startled her.
  • The noise of the car startled the birds and the
    whole group flew up into the air.
  • Her article on diet startled many people into
    changing their eating habits.
  • startlingly adverb
  • startlingly ( surprisingly) poor results
  • Even though none of the witnesses had met they
    all gave startlingly similar stories of what had
    happened.

20
  • The Merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare
  • ACT V SCENE I. Belmont. Avenue to PORTIA'S
    house.
  • (Excerpt)
  • Music
  • JESSICA I am never merry when I hear sweet
    music.
  • LORENZO The reason is, your spirits are
    attentive
  • For do but note a wild and wanton
    herd,
  • Or race of youthful and unhandled
    colts,
  • Fetching mad bounds, bellowing and
    neighing loud,
  • Which is the hot condition of their
    blood
  • If they but hear perchance a trumpet
    sound,
  • Or any air of music touch their
    ears,
  • You shall perceive them make a mutual
    stand,
  • Their savage eyes turn'd to a modest
    gaze
  • By the sweet power of music
    therefore the poet
  • Did feign that Orpheus drew trees,
    stones and floods
  • Since nought so stockish, hard and
    full of rage,
  • But music for the time doth change
    his nature.
  • The man that hath no music in
    himself,

21
Paragraph 2
  • effect (v.) (fml.) to accomplish to cause,
    produce, or have as a result ??, ??, ??(???)
  • eg. I shall effect my purpose no one shall stop
    me!
  • The war effected changes all over the world.
  • The reform was effected.
  • The new minister hopes to effect changes in the
    government's policy.???????????????
  • The new manager effected several changes in the
    company.??????????????????
  • restoration (n.) the act of giving something
    back the act of introducing again- restore (v.)
  • eg. I owe the restoration of my hearing to this
    remarkable new hearing aid.
  • Prime Minister Blair's visit is expected to lead
    to the restoration of diplomatic relations
    between the two countries.
  • The army has recently been brought in to restore
    order after the violence.
  • restore law and order.???????
  • to restore stolen property????

22
  • classical music the kind of music that is put
    together and arranged with serious artistic
    intentions and having an attraction that lasts
    over a long period of time (as opposed to popular
    or folk music)
  • assertion (n.) a forceful statement or claim
  • eg. There is no concrete evidence to support
    assertions that the recession is truly over.
  • Despite her assertion that she was innocent, she
    was found guilty. that clause
  • assert (v. ) to state (an opinion), claim (a
    right) or establish (authority) forcefully
    --assertive (adj.) ???, ?????
  • eg. He asserted his belief that she was not
    guilty.
  • It is nonsense to assert that smoking does not
    damage people's health. that clause
  • Someone who is assertive behaves confidently and
    is not frightened to say what they want or
    believe.
  • If you really want the promotion, you'll have to
    be more assertive.
  • Women have become more assertive in the past
    decade.
  • dispute (v.) to disagree about to call into
    question doubt
  • eg. Nobody disputed that Jane was clever.
  • I won't dispute you on that point.

23
  • tidal (adj.) of, having, or related to a
    movement, as of public opinion
  • eg. We must wait for a tidal change in public
    opinion before introducing this unpopular law.
  • Another use
  • tidal (adj.) relating to or produced by tides
  • eg. The tidal stream gradually decreases in the
    shallows.
  • proliferation (n.) rapid increase or
    spreadincrease greatly and suddenly in number
    (v.) proliferate ????
  • eg. In recent years commercial, cultural, tourist
    and other contacts have proliferated between
    Europe and China.
  • Small businesses have proliferated in the last
    ten years.
  • China opposes the proliferation of nuclear
    weapons.
  • Over the past two years we have witnessed the
    proliferation of TV channels.
  • undeniable (adj.) that can not be denied
    undoubtedly true adj.?????(deny/ denial)
  • eg. Her charm is undeniable.

  • The fact that she was drunk driving is
    undeniable.
  • involve (v.) ( in, with) to cause (someone) to
    become connected or concerned with (something
    else)
  • eg. I seem to have involved myself in something
    strange.
  • John and I do everything together he involves me
    in everything.

24
  • reciprocal (adj.) given and received in return
    exchanged between two people or groups
    mutual???, ???, ???, ?????
  • eg. reciprocal tariff????
  • reciprocal trade????
  • Kindness is reciprocal.
  • They expected a reciprocal gesture before more
    hostages could be freed.
  • The two superpowers agreed to a reciprocal
    reduction of nuclear weapons.
  • reciprocity noun U formal
  • Reciprocity is behaviour in which two people or
    groups of people give each other help and
    advantages.
  • The two countries have signed a new agreement
    based on reciprocity in trade.
  • undeniable (adj.) that can not be denied
    undoubtedly true(adj.)
  • shorthand (n.) a rapid writing system using
    signs or shorter forms for letters, words,
    phrases, etc.
  • eg. She took class notes in shorthand.
  • paraphrase Classical music is ... not a common
    culture of reciprocal communication and
    psychological shorthand.
  • Classical music is ... not shared by all
    individuals in their daily emotional and
    spiritual communication.

25
  • partly adv. In part or in some degree not
    completely.
  • partly finished
  • partly true
  • I believe what he has said is partly true.
  • emotive ( adj. ) which causes or may cause
    strong feelings emotional
  • eg. Human cloning is an emotive issue.
  • an emotive speech??????
  • 'Home' is a much more emotive word than
    'house'.'?'???'??'??????????
  • makeup (n.) (usu. sing. ) the combination of
    qualities (in a person's character)
  • eg. Those of a nervous makeup are excitable.????,
    ????, ???
  • Lying is not in her makeup.??????
  • respond (to) (v.) to react to to be affected
    by(response)
  • eg. He likes children, and they responded to him.
  • He loved the theatre, and responded to the fine
    production.
  • The patient has responded rapidly to the
    treatment.???????????
  • distinction ( n. ) (between) the fact of being
    clearly different or separate
  • eg. There are obvious distinctions between the
    two wine-making towns.

26
  • swing (v.) to move from side to side in response
    to music ??, ??, ??, ??(swung)
  • eg. swing one's arms????
  • The dancers swung to the music.
  • She swung her leg in time to the music.(?????)
  • The boy swung on the rope tied to a
    tree.????????????????????
  • self-consciousness (n.) the quality of being
    nervous and uncomfortable about oneself
  • eg. You have far too much self-consciousness.
    Nobody at the swimming pool looked at you in your
    bathing suit.
  • His self-consciousness prevented him from
    entering the dance competition.
  • hip (adj.) (slang) following the latest
    fashions, for example in clothes and ideas
    trendy
  • eg. Baggy pants (???, ???)and loose-fitting
    shirts are very hip now for teenage boys.
  • snob (n.) a person who pays too much respect to
    social position or wealth, or who despises people
    of a lower social position (????, ???)
  • eg. Mary has become an arrogant, rude, social
    snob.
  • a musical snob?????????
  • snobbish / snobby (adj.) snobbishness /
    snobbery (n.)
  • eg. I had expected her to be snobbish/snobby but
    she was warm and friendly.
  • It is utter snobbishness / snobbery that you
    would only associate with the well off and ignore
    the lesser-equipped.

27
  • solidarity (n.) unity and agreement resulting
    from shared interests, feelings, actions,
    sympathies, etc.
  • eg. The electricians want to march tomorrow to
    show solidarity with the plumbers.
  • The situation raises important questions about
    solidarity among member states of the UN.
  • The lecturers joined the protest march to show
    solidarity with their students.
  • Idea n.
  • Ideal adj./n.
  • grow out of If children grow out of clothes,
    they become too tall or big to fit into the
    clothes. (outgrow. vt)
  • Tyler has grown out of her sundress.???,???
  • If you grow out of an interest or way of
    behaving, you stop having or doing it as you
    become older.
  • He wants to join the army when he leaves school,
    but I hope he'll grow out of it.
  • If an idea grows out of another one, it develops
    from it.
  • The idea for the story grew out of a strange
    experience I had last year.
  • paraphrase Many, or even most, of the young
    people of that generation also swung with Benny
    Goodman, but with an element of
    self-consciousness to be hip, to prove they
    weren't snobs, to show solidarity with the
    democratic ideal of a pop culture out of which
    would grow a new high culture.
  • Although the young people of that generation also
    danced to the highly rhythmic and fast music of
    orchestra leader Benny Goodman, they were aware
    that they were doing so to show they were in
    fashion and not snobbish, and to show that they
    were one with the belief that popular culture
    should be enjoyed by everybody. A new high
    culture(????, ????high brow)would grow out of
    this popular culture.

28
  • acquaintance (n.) information or knowledge, as
    obtained through personal experience rather than
    careful study
  • eg. I have some acquaintance with the subject.
  • They had little or no acquaintance with Chinese
    philosophy or history.
  • I have no acquaintance with this book.????????
  • I have some acquaintance with English, but I do
    not know it well.??????, ??????
  • Idiom
  • to make the acquaintance of sb. to make sb's
    acquaintance to get to know sb. (by being
    introduced)
  • eg. It is my pleasure to make the acquaintance of
    the renowned poet.
  • upon further acquaintance when known for a
    further period of time
  • People said him was selfish, but upon further
    acquaintance I found him generous and kind.
  • Another use
  • acquaintance (n.) a person or group of people
    whom one knows, especially through work or
    business, but who may not be a friend
  • eg. We are only casual acquaintances.
  • He has a large circle of acquaintances.
  • He has a wide acquaintance.
  • Problematic
  • Posing a problem difficult to solve
  • a problematic situation in the home.?????????

29
  • inasmuch as (conj.) owing to the fact because
  • eg. We were doubly lucky inasmuch as my friend
    was living on the island and spoke Greek
    fluently.
  • Inasmuch as the waves are high, I shall not go
    out in the boat.
  • Inasmuch as you are ( Because of your position
    as) their commanding officer, you are responsible
    for the behavior of these men.
  • In somuch as/ that adv.??????, ??????(as, that)
  • The rain fell in torrents, insomuch that we were
    wet through.????, ?????????
  • complement ( v. ) to make (something) complete
    or perfect to supply what is lacking (in
    something) Complementary (adj)
  • eg. There will be a written examination to
    complement the practical test.
  • This wine complements the food perfectly.?????,???
    ????????
  • Compare compliment and complement
  • Your presence is a great compliment.????, ?????
  • A sincere compliment boosts ones
    morale.???????????????
  • compliments good wishes regards ????
  • Seasons compliments
  • utterly Completely absolutely
    entirely.????????

30
  • How did students of the earlier generation
    connect to music? How were they different from
    their contemporary counterparts?
  • Students of the earlier generation take music as
    nothing but an entertainment. They were taught to
    listen to classical music at home, but some of
    them gradually developed a fondness for rock and
    were uncomfortable about this change of taste. On
    the contrary, students today rarely listen to
    classical music instead, rock'n'roll has become
    the musical mainstream for the youth because it
    speaks to their emotional needs.

31
  • Paragraph 3
  • precede (v.) ( fml. ) to come, go, or happen
    (just) before in time
  • eg. He preceded his lecture with a humorous
    anecdote.???????????????
  • The tourists were preceded by their
    guide.??????????
  • He preceded his speech with welcome to the
    guests.???????, ?????????
  • The flash of lightning preceded the sound of
    thunder by two seconds.
  • Intensive negotiations between the main parties
    preceded the vote.
  • The witness said a gun battle had preceded the
    explosion.
  • precedence (n.) (priority)??, ??--precedent (n.)
    --precedented (adj.) --unprecedented (adj.)
    Having no previous example
  • eg. in order of precedence?????
  • National defense must take precedence over all
    other questions.????????
  • college students can explore friendship with the
    opposite sex, yet matters of study should take
    precedence.
  • Many legal verdicts(??, ??)are made on the basis
    of precedents.
  • Is there any precedented???(??)?example for your
    suggestion?
  • unprecedented economic growth.?????????
  • China is developing with an unprecedented pace.???

32
  • current (adj.) belonging to the present time of
    the present day
  • eg. The current situation is very different from
    that in 1990.
  • What is your current goal?
  • dominate (v.) to have the most important place
    or position ??, ???(domination)
  • eg. The book is expected to dominate the
    best-seller lists.
  • Sports, and not learning, seem to dominate (in)
    that school.
  • A great man can dominate others by force of
    character.??????????????
  • This criticism usually dominates over the
    newspaper.???????????????
  • dominant (adj)
  • appeal to to please, attract, or interest
  • eg. Does this piece of music appeal to you?
  • This film is intended to appeal to all tastes.
  • refinement (n.) ingenious or remarkable example
    of purity of taste, etc the delicate or clever
    development of something
  • refined (adj)
  • sentiment ( n. ) ( often pl. with sing. meaning)
    (a) thought or judgment arising from or marked by
    feeling??, ??, ??, ??

33
  • prevailing ( adj. ) most common or frequent ( in
    some place or at some time )????, ???, ???
  • eg. She wore her hair in the prevailing fashion
    and looked ever prettier.??????????,?????????
  • Yellow is the prevailing color in her room.??
  • prevail (v.) --prevalent (adj.) --prevailing
    (adj.) --prevalence (n.)
  • eg. The use of anti-biotic(???)prevails China's
    medical practice.
  • This old custom does not prevail
    now.??????????????
  • Eye diseases are prevalent in some tropical
    countries.
  • The habit of traveling by aircraft is becoming
    more prevalent each year. Control and
    compensation measures must be taken before the
    prevalence of bird flu effected damage to our
    agriculture.
  • The prevailing dietary trend in Shanghai is
    exotic cuisines.
  • Did you notice the prevalence of makeup-wearing
    among girl-students from cities than those from
    the countries?
  • prevailing ??????????????????, ?
  • a prevailing practice?????
  • prevalent ????????????????, ?
  • Whooping cough is very prevalent just now.
  • ??????????

34
  • different...than ( formal English "different
    from", informal British English "different to",
    informal American English "different than"
  • eg. This make of car is different from / to /
    than that one.
  • This movie is of a different nature than that
    movie.
  • Bourgeoisie The middle class.
  • avidly ( adv. ) eagerly keenly -- avid ( adj.
    )???, ???
  • eg. Western suppliers too are competing avidly
    for business abroad.
  • He is an avid moviegoer.
  • an avid sports fan. ????????
  • exquisite (adj.) (of power to feel) sensitive
    and delicate ???, ???, ???, ???
  • eg. He has an exquisite taste in music. ???
  • plays the piano with exquisite technique.?????????
    ???
  • sensibility (n.) (usu. pl.) (a) tender or
    delicate feeling about what is correct, as in art
    or behavior -- sensible (adj.) ???. Sensitive
    (adj) Receptiveness to impression, whether
    pleasant or unpleasant acuteness of feeling.??
  • eg. Young people must learn to respect others'
    sensibilities.
  • Her -ies are wounded.??????????
  • Daina used to be a sensible girl -- but I have no
    idea why she would offend her teachers in this
    way the other day! (????, ???, ?????)
  • Wearing high-heels is certainly not sensible if
    you are to climb a mountain.

35
  • tenuous (adj.) (of ideas, opinions, etc. )
    having little meaning slight
  • eg. The cultural links between the two countries
    are very tenuous.
  • The relationship between the two ideas is very
    tenuous.
  • cosmetic (n.) (usu. pl. ) substances such as
    lipstick or powder, which people put on their
    face to make themselves look more attractive
    measures or changes that are designed to improve
    the appearance of a situation or thing but do not
    change its basic nature -- cosmetic (adj. lacking
    depth or significance superficial)
  • eg. Cosmetics were in common use among males in
    the 18th century.
  • The government has decided upon various measures
    to control inflation. However, these measures are
    mainly cosmetic.
  • She made a few cosmetic changes when she took
    over the company.????????????????
  • susceptible to (adj.) easily influenced by
  • eg. Walking with weights makes the shoulders very
    susceptible to injury.
  • be susceptible to cold????
  • ridicule Words or actions intended to evoke
    contemptuous laughter at or feelings toward a
    person or thing

36
  • groove(slang) a settled routine??,?????,??
  • get into the groove of a nine-to-five
    job.???????????
  • restive resisting control difficult to control
  • A restive person ????
  • The crowd grew restive.?????????
  • coarse of low, common, or inferior quality
    lacking in delicacy or refinement????
  • coarse manner?????
  • tyranny absolute power, especially when
    exercised unjustly or cruelly.??,?????
  • tyrant (n
  • opposed adjective
  • As opposed to rather than, in contrast to)
  • Two opposed ( completely different so not both
    able to be right) interpretations of the facts
    have been presented.
  • a) be opposed to something to disagree with
    something such as a plan or system
  • Most of us are opposed to the death penalty.
  • His view of the situation is very strongly
    opposed to mine.
  • b) two ideas that are opposed to each other are
    completely different from each other

37
  • reign to be predominant or prevalent?????????(v
    /n)
  • Panic reigned as the fire spread.???????????
  • After the storm, quietness reigned.??????????
  • Chaos reigned in the classroom.??????
  • In the resign of sb
  • unabashed not disconcerted or embarrassed
    poised not concealed or disguised obvious
  • eg. unabashed disgust.???????
  • He seems unabashed by his recent defeat.
  • They were completely unabashed in praising
    themselves.???
  • Unabashed by her critics, she continued writing
    simple optimistic romances.
  • abash
  • Your kindness quite abashed me.???????????
  • abashed
  • stand abashed???? ????
  • be abashed/ feel abashed
  • speak of (simple tenses) to suggest the idea of
    (something) ??
  • eg. This gift of money speaks of your generosity.

38
  • Paragraph 4
  • symptomatic (of) (adj.) acting as an outward
    sign of inner change, new feelings, etc.- symptom
    (n.)???, ???, ???, ????, ??...???
  • If something bad is symptomatic of something
    else, it is caused by the other thing and is
    proof that it exists.
  • eg. Jealousy within a relationship is usually
    symptomatic of low self-esteem in one of the
    partners.
  • His behavior was symptomatic of his character.
  • symptom noun C any feeling of illness or
    physical or mental change which is caused by a
    particular disease
  • He's complaining of all the usual symptoms of flu
    - a high temperature, headache and so on.
  • (figurative) A symptom is also any single problem
    which is caused by and shows a more serious and
    general problem.
  • Calls for import controls were symptoms of the
    country's economic problems.
  • By putting homeless people into temporary
    accommodation, the government is treating the
    symptoms and not the cause.?????

39
  • liberal (n.) a person with wide understanding
    and willingness to accept new ideas
  • eg. There are a host of free-thinking liberals in
    this country.
  • (adj)Favoring proposals for reform, open to new
    ideas for progress, and tolerant of the ideas and
    behavior of others broad-minded.????????????????
    ,?????????????????
  • She's a Liberal ( a member or supporter of the
    Liberal Party).
  • In Britain, the Liberal Democrats are a political
    party that believes in more power for local
    government, more personal freedom and a gradual
    development towards a fairer sharing of wealth
    and power within society. ???????
  • In Britain, the Liberal Party was a political
    party that joined with the Social Democrats to
    become the Liberal Democrats.???
  • indignant (at, about, over) (adj.) shocked and
    angry about something unjust or unfair --
    indignation (n.) anger (against something wrong)
  • eg. The football player was indignant at the
    umpire's judgment. (Sports A person appointed to
    rule on plays, especially in baseball.???????????
    ??????)
  • He was indignant because he felt that he had been
    punished unfairly.??????,????????????????
  • The indignant passengers beat the pickpocket
    up.?????????????????
  • I expressed my indignation at being unfairly
    dismissed.

40
  • censorship ( n. ) the acts, practice, or duties
    of an official who examines printed matter,
    films, or (sometimes in war) private letters with
    the power to remove anything offensive or (in
    war) judged helpful to the enemy
  • eg. The government today announced that press
    censorship was being lifted. ????, ????
  • inquiry (n.) enquiry the process of asking
    about or investigating something in order to find
    out more about it -- inquire (v.) enquire (v.)
  • eg. Truth is the goal of all scientific and
    philosophical inquiry.
  • She made an inquiry as to where the person had
    gone.
  • Two police went in the shop to inquire about the
    theft last night.
  • I'll inquire about the flights.????????????
  • Usage
  • to make inquiry into/about sth. to inquire into
    sth. to investigate sth.
  • eg. A government inquiry into the air crash is to
    be launched soon.
  • The court demanded the bank to inquire into the
    conduct of its clerks.
  • to inquire sth. of sb. to ask sb. about sth.
  • eg. May I inquire of you the date of the final
    tax-return application?
  • The director inquired of me about / concerning
    our work.???????????????
  • to inquire after sb./sth. to ask about the
    health or well-being of sb./sth.
  • eg. Lucy must have met John before otherwise she
    wouldn't have inquired after his wife.
  • She inquired after my mother's health.????????????

41
  • to the extent that????????...(to the degree that
    )
  • Apes are like people to the extent that they have
    some human characteristics ( because they have
    some of the same characteristics as people)
  • Sales have fallen so badly this year, to the
    extent that ( we have reached the stage where)
    we will have to close some of our shops.
  • The car was damaged to the extent ( so much)
    that it could not be repaired.
  • treatise (on) (n.) a book or article that
    examines the facts and principles of a particular
    subject and gives the writers opinions about it
    ??, ??
  • paraphrase They hardly paid attention to the
    discussion of music itself and, to the extent
    that they even thought about it, were really
    puzzled by Plato's devoting time to rhythm and
    melody in a serious treatise on political
    philosophy.
  • They paid no attention to the discussion of music
    itself. Even if they thought about it, they
    couldn't understand why Plato spent so much time
    in discussing music in a serious dialogue about
    political philosophy.

42
  • indifference (to, towards) (n.) the state of
    showing an absence of interest or feeling about
    something -- indifferent (adj.)
  • eg. She was much distressed by his indifference
    to her.
  • I can bear love or hate, but not indifference.
  • I am absolutely indifferent to the results of the
    new policy.
  • Many native speakers of a language show
    indifference to/towards grammatical points.
  • His attitude to his work was one of bored
    indifference.
  • The accident happened as a result of years of
    indifference on safety conditions????
  • indifferent (NOT INTERESTED) (completely)
    lacking in interest or feeling unconcerned
  • Why don't you vote - how can you be so
    indifferent (to what is going on)!
  • In the past, governments have seemed indifferent
    to environmental issues.
  • He found it very hard teaching a class full of
    indifferent teenagers.
  • profoundly (adv.) deeply completely in a way
    that is very strongly felt
  • eg. I am profoundly grateful to you all.
    ?????????
  • I am profoundly grateful to my neighbors for
    their help in my time of trouble. ????

43
  • rob sb of sth to deprive unjustly of sth
    belonging to, desired by, or legally due
    sb??????(??)???
  • Robbed her of her professional standing ????????
  • They robbed the company of 2 million.
  • (saying) 'To rob Peter to pay Paul' means to
    borrow money from one person to pay back money
    you borrowed from someone else.
  • robber noun C
  • The robbers shot a policeman before making their
    getaway.
  • He's a famous bank robber.
  • robbery noun
  • The gang admitted they had committed four recent
    bank robberies. C
  • He is in prison for armed robbery. U????
  • draw to cause to move in a given direction or to
    a given position, as by leading attract
  • The teacher drew the children into the room to
    see the decorations. A parade draws a large crowd.

44
  • center concentrate or focus ?????
  • Tried to center the discussion on the main issues
    ?????????????
  • Our thoughts centre on how to fulfill the plan
    this year.???????????????????
  • The discussion centers on a reasonable agreement
    about 'cease fire' between the two warring
    parties. ???????????'??'??????????
  • The discussion centers round the problems the
    broad masses of the people are concerned about
    most. ?????????????????
  • evaluate (v.) to consider (something or someone)
    in order to arrive at a judgment about them
  • eg. The market situation is difficult to
    evaluate.
  • How do you evaluate yourself as a human being?
  • The research project has only been under way for
    three months, so its too early to evaluate its
    success.??????????????,?????????????????
  • encounter (n.) a meeting that involves conflict
    or opposition a battle, a combat a meeting with
    a person or thing, especially casually or
    unexpectedly
  • eg. He once had a very frightening encounter with
    a wild pig.
  • It was a bloody encounter between the two armies.
    ???(?)????
  • The two of them had an encounter of
    wits.??????????????
  • This meeting will be the first encounter between
    the parties since the election.
  • He encountered an old friend in the street.
  • Encounter numerous obstacles.

45
  • illuminate to provide or brighten with lightTo
    make understandable clarify.
  • The streets were illuminated with strings of
    colored lights.
  • (figurative) The results of the recent research
    will illuminate the mystery of the creation of
    the Universe.
  • (formal) An illuminated book or other piece of
    writing is one decorated with added color, gold
    paint and small pictures.
  • an illuminated manuscript????
  • illuminating adjective (formal)
  • The book is full of illuminating ( helping to
    explain) detail on the causes of the war.
  • illumination noun U formal
  • The only illumination ( light) was from a
    skylight.

46
  • Why is the author so worried about students'
    addiction to rock music?
  • The author is concerned with students' addiction
    to rock because many students lack reflection on
    why they are so frantic about this particular
    type of music. He mentions Plato's Republic to
    illustrate the view-point that un-examined
    passion equals to irrationality.

47
  • profitably (adv.) gaining some advantage or
    benefit from something
  • eg. In fact he could scarcely have spent his time
    more profitably.
  • It took several months before the company started
    to trade profitably.
  • profit noun
  • money which is earned in trade or business, esp.
    after paying the costs of producing and selling
    goods and services
  • She makes a big profit from selling waste
    material to textile companies. C
  • He bought his house a long time ago so he sold it
    at a profit. U
  • profit verb I usually preposition
  • To profit by/from something is to achieve an
    advantage from it.
  • I certainly profited from the two years I spent
    in that company.
  • profitable adjective
  • Profitable means resulting in or likely to result
    in a profit or an advantage.
  • Over the years it has developed into a highly
    profitable business.
  • I made profitable use of my time ( used my time
    to get advantages or benefits).
  • profiteer noun C disapproving ??,????????

48
  • engage with to connect with (something) as in
    machinery ( fig. ) to begin to fight or struggle
    (with something)
  • eg. The students are seriously engaged with
    English grammar.
  • We are too weak to engage with such a strong
    force. I
  • The engagement ( act of beginning to fight) with
    the enemy will begin at dawn.
  • engage (someone) in something phrasal verb T
    object object
  • to (cause to) take part in or do (something)
  • A group of dissidents have been demanding the
    right to engage in politics.
  • In his spare time, he engages in volunteer work.
  • Once she engages you in conversation, you're
    stuck with her for at least half an hour.
  • paraphrase This encounter not only helps to
    illuminate the phenomenon of contemporary music,
    but also provides a model of how contemporary
    students can profitably engage with a classic
    text.
  • Their reading of this text of Plato about the
    experience of music sheds light on their love for
    today's rock music. It also illustrates how
    today's students can study classic works and
    learn something relevant from them.

49
  • fury ( n. ) very great anger. furious (ANGRY).
    (infuriate .v)
  • eg. Fly into a fury for the slightest reason
    ????????
  • In a fit of fury he thumped his fists down on the
    desk.
  • The minister made no attempt to contain his fury.
  • At last the fury of the storm lessened.???????????
    ?
  • little (adv) not much, scarcely(less/least)
  • Works long hours but sleeps little
  • not in the least not at all
  • They little expected such a generous
    gift.?????????????????
  • resistant (to) (adj.) having or showing
    opposition to having or showing the power to
    remain unchanged or unharmed by
  • eg. Many pests have become resistant to poison.
  • That fat man is very resistant to the idea of
    exercise.
  • The body may be less resistant to disease if it
    is cold.
  • paraphrase ... it is most resistant to cool
    analysis.
  • to analyze their experience in an unemotional and
    objective way is beyond their immediate ability.

50
  • cosmos (n.) the whole universe considered as an
    ordered system
  • eg. There may be other intelligent life elsewhere
    in the cosmos.
  • cling to remain emotionally attached hold on
    ??????????
  • Clinging to outdated customs????
  • convert to persuade or induce to adopt a
    particular religion, faith, or belief
  • She managed to convert him to her opinion
  • Convert defeat into victory
  • Many Africans were converted to Christianity.
  • paraphrase Indignation is the soul's defense
    against the wound of doubt about its own it
    reorders the cosmos to support the justice of its
    cause.
  • When one's soul is troubled by doubts of itself,
    the soul tries to defend itself by expressing
    itself in a violent way and people call this kind
    of expression indignation. The soul will provide
    a new explanation of the universe in order to
    show that its belief is correct.
  • paraphrase Recognizing indignation for what it
    is constitutes knowledge of the soul, and is thus
    an experience more philosophic than the study of
    mathematics.
  • After one understands what indignation really
    means, one knows more about one's soul. This
    process requires more reasoning power than the
    study of mathematics.

51
  • constitute to be the elements or parts of
    compose??
  • Correct grammar and sentence structure do not in
    themselves constitute good writing.
  • ??????????????????????
  • 7 days constitute a week???????
  • England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland
    constitute / compose / make up the United
    kingdom."
  • ???????????????????????
  • Make up One hundred years make up a
    century.?????????
  • Consist of New York City consists of five
    boroughs.???????????.
  • by nature adv. Typical qualities and
    characteristics of a person or an animal.
  • Motor-racing is by nature a dangerous sport.
  • against nature unnatural immoral
  • encompass (v.) to include to cover
  • eg. The study encompasses social, political, and
    economic aspects of the problem.
  • a survey that encompassed a wide range of
    participants.?????????????
  • thicket ( n. ) a dense growth of bushes and
    small trees all close together
  • eg. The fox hid in the thicket where the dogs
    could not reach it.

52
  • What is the author's advice for treating the
    "great corruption"? Is it justified to take the
    author as a snob? Why/why not?
  • The author's advice for treating this addiction
    to rock is that students should draw back and get
    a critical distance on what he clings to. If they
    can come to doubt the ultimate value of what they
    love, they will then be able to deal with their
    musical taste rationally. Our author is not a
    snob, for he does not deride rock at the expense
    of classical music. By asking the rock addicts to
    treat their passion clear-headedly, he offers not
    a biased judgment of music, but a criterion of
    evaluation.
  • How would you describe the tone of the essay?
  • The tone of this essay is serious but humorous
    to some degrees it is even ironic. Although in
    this extract the author did not denounce
    rock'n'roll as the "greatest corruption" ( as he
    later did in The Closing of the American Mind),
    yet some ironic turns of phrase reveal his
    attitude against rock subtly.
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