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Title: Social%20cognition:%20ability%20to%20understand

  • Social cognition ability to understand
  • psychological differences in others
  • Adopt others perspectives
  • Theory of Mind False Belief Task
  • Where will Sally look for marble when she
    returns? (See next slide)
  • Used to predict and explain human behavior before
    4 yrs of age
  • he wanted to. . . he intended to. .

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  • Figure 13.1

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Developing a Theory of Mind
  • Attentive parents
  • Joint attention
  • Pretend play
  • Imitation
  • Social experiences
  • Talking about mental states
  • Sensitivity to feelings of others

Chimpanzees must make a begging response to one
of two caretakers to get a treat. One caretaker
can see, whereas the other cannot. For the three
conditions shown here, chimpanzees responded
randomly, behaving as if they do not understand
that eyes possess knowledge.
Basic Perceptual Abilities of Neonates
  • Olfaction
  • Taste
  • Pain
  • Audition
  • Vestibular
  • Vision
  • Accommodation
  • Convergence
  • Coordination
  • Visual acuity 20/400 to 20/600

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  • Control of sucking (operant conditioning)
  • DeCasper Spence Prenatal auditory conditioning
  • Visual preference paradigm Fantz
  • Habituation/dishabituation

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Young childrens attention is attracted by high
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Attention of Human Face
  • Bias at birth?
  • Attention to eyes
  • Preference for attractive faces

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Newborns are attracted by eye movements,
particularly by mutual gaze (like left face
Unlike chimpanzees, the whites, or sclera, of
human eyes are large, resulting in substantial
contrast between the colored iris and the white
background. This makes eye highly salient for
people, allowing us to use the eyes to gain
information about what someone else may be
thinking or feeling, as well as what he or she is
looking at.
Auditory Development
  • Speech perception
  • Discrimination of phonemes
  • Loss of discrimination abilities for sounds not
    found in mother tongue
  • Music perception
  • Preference for natural musical patterns

According to the core knowledge systems
perspective, human infants are endowed with at
least four, and possibly five, core knowledge
systems to represent and make inferences about
relevant aspects of their surrounding environment
(Adapted from information in Spelke and Kinzler,
  • Core knowledge system 1 Inanimate objects and
    their mechanical interactions
  • Cohesion, continuity, contact
  • Core knowledge system 2 Persons and their
  • Shared attention
  • Core knowledge system 3 Numbers representation
  • Intuitive mathematics
  • Core knowledge system 4 Geometry of the
  • Sensitive to distances, angles, and relations
    among features
  • Core knowledge system 5 (still a candidate)
    In-group membership
  • same-race effects in face recognition

Example of possible and impossible events for
object support. From Baillargeon (1994)
Sequence of events for the 1 1 2 (possible)
outcome and the 1 1 1 (impossible) outcome
from the experiment by Wynn (1992).
Two- to 3-day old infants imitating (a) tongue
protrusion (b) mouth opening, and (c) lip
protrusion, demonstrated by an adult
Average age at which infants reached the
criterion as a function of when training was
begun. As you can see, perhaps somewhat
counterintuitively, the earlier training began,
the older infants were before they mastered the
task. SOURCE Papousek (1977).
Educational DVDs/videos for infants
  • Lapware computer programs designed for infants
    and toddlers, as young as 6-months old, to be
    played while sitting in mom or dads lap
  • ToddleToons allows babies and toddlers to build
    language skills and to learn concepts such as
    cause and effect, big and little, up and down,
    happy and sad, colors and shapes, body parts, and

Relationship between receptive language and baby
DVD/video viewing (8 to 16 month olds)
(Zimmerman, Christakis, Meltzoff, 2007)
  • Every hour of baby DVD/video watching
    corresponded to about 6 to 8 fewer words in their
    receptive vocabularies.

Development of Visual Preferences
  • Contrast
  • Movement
  • Symmetry
  • Curvature
  • Familiarity/novelty

Perceptual aging Vision
  • Lens gradually thickens by age 60, eye gets 30
    less light than at 20, resulting in gradual loss
    of visual acuity
  • Loss of elasticity of lens results in reduction
    of accommodation, beginning around 45 years
    results in difficulty seeing things up close
  • Loss of dark adaptation, beginning around age 60,
    with sharp decline around age 65

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Perceptual aging
  • Audition (hearing) Loss of ability to hear
    higher tones begins around age 30
  • By age 65 about one-third of people have
    significant hearing loss, more common in men
  • Taste and smell (olfaction) Abilities decline
    beginning in early 30s, becoming more noticeable
    around 65 to 70, especially in men (number of
    taste buds decline reduction in saliva)

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Biologically Primary Abilities(Geary, 1995)
  • Have undergone selection pressure and evolved to
    deal with problems faced by our ancestors
  • Are acquired universally
  • Are acquired by children in all but the most
    deprived of environments
  • Children are intrinsically motivated to exercise
    biologically primary abilities and do so
  • Most children attain expert level of

Biologically Secondary Abilities
  • Do not have an evolutionary history but are built
    upon biologically primary abilities
  • Are culturally dependent, reflecting the
    cognitive skills that are important in a
    particular culture (such as reading in literate
  • Children are not intrinsically motivated to
    exercise them and must often be pressured by
    adults to acquire these skills
  • Tedious practice is sometimes necessary to master
    biologically secondary abilities

Some Assumptions of Piagets Theory
  • Structures (schemes) are unobservable mental
    systems that underlie intelligence.
  • Structures are most simply viewed as some
    enduring knowledge base by which children
    interpret their world.
  • Intrinsic Activity
  • Children are active initiators and seekers of
  • Structures are intrinsically active and must be
    exercised so that they can be strengthened,
    consolidated, and developed.
  • Piaget made the child not only the focus of
    development but also its major perpetrator.

Piaget on Education
  • Piaget emphasized that the role of teachers
    should not be to instruct children (that is, to
    transmit knowledge), but rather to provide
    opportunities for them to discover knowledge.
  • Children should be able to do their own
    experimenting and their own research. Teachers,
    of course, can guide them by providing
    appropriate materials, but the essential thing is
    that in order for a child to understand
    something, he must construct it for himself he
    must reinvent it (Piaget, 1972, p. 27).

The Constructive Nature of Cognition
  • We interpret the world through our own personal
    perspective, and reality is a construction based
    on the information in the environment and in our
  • Knowing is an active, constructive processan
    interaction between the environment and the
    active individual constructivism.

Functional Invariants
  • Organization
  • The tendency to integrate structures into
    higher-order systems or structures.
  • Every intellectual operation is related to all
    other acts of intelligence.
  • Adaptation
  • Assimilation is the incorporation of new
    information into already-existing schemes.
  • Accommodation is the modification of a scheme to
    incorporate new information.
  • Equilibration
  • the organisms attempt to keep its cognitive
    structures in balance.

Stages of Development
  • The Sensorimotor Stage birth 2-years
  • Preoperational Period 2 7-years
  • Concrete Operational Period 7 11-years
  • Formal Operational Period 11 16-years

Sensorimotor Period
  • Substage 1 The use of reflexes (birth to 1
    month). Infants enter the world with a set of
    inherited action patterns, or reflexes, through
    which they interpret their experiences.
  • Substage 2 Primary circular reactions (1 to 4
    months). Reflexes are extended so that new
    patterns of behavior are acquired that were not
    part of the basic biological apparatus with which
    the child was born.
  • Substage 3 Secondary circular reactions (4 to 8
    months). repetitive behaviors that are not based
    on reflexes but represent the first acquired
    adaptations of new (that is, not reflexive)

Sensorimotor Period
  • Substage 4 Coordination of secondary circular
    reactions (8 to 12 months). One circular reaction
    can be used in the service of another. The first
    incidence of goal-directed behavior and the
    beginning of the differentiation between means
    and ends (that is, cause and effect).
  • Substage 5 Tertiary circular reactions (12 to 18
    months). Children can now make subtle alterations
    in their existing schemes that are directly
    related to obtaining a solution to their
    conundrum. This, Piaget stated, reflects a
    process of active experimentation.
  • Substage 6 Invention of new means through mental
    combinations (18 to 24 months). Advent of
    symbolic function and transition to
    preoperational period.

Object permanence
  • the knowledge that objects have an existence in
    time and space independent of ones perception or
    action on those objects.
  • A-not-B task
  • Invisible displacement

Piagets A-not-B Task
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  • Imitation is the purest example of accommodation.
  • Mutual imitation
  • Neonatal imitation Meltzoff Moore (1977)
  • active intermodal mapping
  • Innate releasing mechanisms (fixed-action
  • ontogenetic adaptations
  • Deferred Imitation

Expressions of the Symbolic Function
  • deferred imitation
  • language
  • symbolic play
  • mental imagery

Preoperational Stage
  • Ages 2 7 preschool
  • May have imaginary companions
  • Egocentric thinkers
  • Problem solving limited
  • Classification and Seriation problems
  • Lack conservation
  • Perceptual salience
  • Irreversible thinking
  • Centration

Preoperational children are prone to magical
thinking, as seen in these statements reflecting
what Piaget referred to as animism,
artificialism, realism, and finalism.
  • Animism The tendency to attribute
    human-biological properties to inanimate things.
  • At breakfast on a cloudy day, Carlas (age 4)
    uncle asked her, Why do you think the suns not
    out today? Carla replied, Because its mad.
  • A child (Bad, 30 years) when listening the bells
    says The bells are already awake, arent they?

Young children often attribute living
characteristics to nonliving things, or human
characteristics, such as emotions, to nonhuman
entities, such as trees.
Artificialism The tendency to believe that
natural things and events are the product of
human creation
  • Dan was talking with his Aunt and she asked him,
    Do you know where rain comes from? He replied,
    The rainmaker pulls a trigger in the sky, and it
    falls from the clouds.
  • A child (Frez, 40 years) when asked about the
    origin of mountain and trees says Some men made
    them How? With wood. They found wood, found
    flowers, and after they put them all in the

Realism The tendency to think about
abstract/nonmaterial concepts in concrete ways
  • A preschool girl questioning her mother on a
    rainy day following the recent death of her
    grandfather (the parents told her that, after
    passing away, he was in heaven) Mom, its
    raining now will Grandpa José fall down today?
  • A child described thinking as the mouth in the
    back of my head that talks to the mouth in

Finalism The tendency to look for a cause for
everything, even for events that would be
considered accidental
  • A child was asked, Why do you think are there
    big and small mountains? She responded Because
    one is needed for long walks and the other for
    the short ones
  • A child is asked, Why are tree leaves green? He
    replies Because it makes trees beautiful.

Keleman (2004) refers to such thinking a
promiscuous teleology. Teleology refers to the
tendency to reason about events and objects in
terms of purpose what they are for.
  • Children as intuitive theists
  • Bering Parker (2006) Princess Alice

Only older children who were told that Princess
Alice wants to help you win the prize were more
likely to move their hand from one box to the
other (that is, make a receptive response) than
children who did not hear the story about
Princess Alice. (from Bering Parker, 2006)
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Concrete Operations
  • Age 7-11
  • Can conserve
  • Decentration
  • Reversible thinking
  • Logical thinking (limited to reality)
  • Seriation and classification
  • Transitive thinking
  • If J is taller than M, and M is taller than S,
    who is taller J or S?

Formal Operations
  • Adolescence/puberty
  • Logical thinking about ideas
  • Hypothetical and abstract thinking
  • Hypothetical-deductive reasoning
  • Decontextual thinking
  • Ability to separate prior knowledge/beliefs from
    new evidence to the contrary

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Expertise and formal operations. College students
show the greatest command of formal-operational
thought in the subject area most related to their
Formal Operations 2
  • Adolescent egocentrism
  • Differentiating own thoughts from others
  • Imaginary audience
  • Also, learning to present themselves to a real
  • Personal fable
  • No one has ever felt like this before!
  • I drive better when Im drunk!

Cognition in Adulthood
  • Formal operations requires
  • Normal intelligence
  • Higher education (scientific thinking)
  • Lower performance on formal operations
  • Use only in field of expertise
  • Postformal thought
  • Relativistic thinking Labouvie-Vief
  • No absolute answer in many situations

Sociocultural Perspectives on Cognitive
  • Cognitive development is an active constructive
    process that involves beings who are
    evolutionarily predisposed to live and learn in
    social context with other like-minded beings.
    They are like-minded in terms of both the
    neurological system available and the social
    requirements that are in place
  • Mary Gauvain, 2001

Lev Vygotsky
  • Development should be evaluated from the
    perspective of four inter-related levels
  • Phylogenetic
  • Ontogenetic
  • Microgenetic
  • Sociohistorical

  • The Social Construction of Mental Functioning
    Childrens thinking develops (or is constructed)
    through interactions with more competent members
    of their society. Adults foster childrens
    cognitive development by working within
    childrens zone of proximal development and
    scaffolding their problem solving.
  • Sociohistorical Influences Historical changes in
    a culture influence higher psychological
    processes, and if these changes are sustained
    over many generations (reading, writing, and
    formal school, for example, are not about to
    disappear from the modern world), cognitive
    development, and thus eventually how adults
    think, will change as well.

Tools of Intellectual adaptation
  • Methods of thinking and problem-solving
    strategies that children internalize from their
    interactions with more competent members of
    society that permit them to use basic mental
    functions more adaptively

Chinese and English number words from 1 to 20
  • Number Chinese word English word
  • 1 yee one
  • 2 uhr two
  • 3 sahn three
  • 4 suh four
  • 5 woo five
  • 6 lyo six
  • 7 chee seven
  • 8 bah eight
  • 9 jyo nine
  • 10 shi ten
  • 11 shi yee eleven
  • 12 shi uhr twelve
  • 13 shi shan thirteen
  • 14 shi suh fourteen
  • 15 shi woo fifteen
  • 16 shi lyo sixteen
  • 17 shi chee seventeen
  • 18 shi bah eighteen

Median level of counting (highest number reached)
by age for Chinese and U.S. preschoolers (Miller
et al., 1995
Zone of Proximal Development
  • ZPD the difference between a childs actual
    developmental level as determined by independent
    problem solving and his or her level of potential
    development determined through problem solving
    under adult guidance or in collaboration with
    more capable peers.
  • Scaffolding When experts are sensitive to
    abilities of a novice and respond contingently to
    the novices responses in a learnikng situation,
    so that the novice gradually increases his or her
    understanding of a problem

Apprenticeship in Thinking
  • Guided participation refers to adult-child
    interactions, not only during explicit
    instruction, but also during the more routine
    activities and communication of everyday life.
    Guided participation is the process and system
    of involvement of individuals with others, as
    they communicate and engage in shared activities
    (Rogoff et al., 1993, p.6)

Some functions of shared remembering in
childrens memory development from Gauvain, 2001)
  • Children learn about memory process, for example,
  • Children learn ways of remembering and
    communicating memories with others, for example,
    narrative structure
  • Children learn about themselves, which
    contributes to the development of the
  • Children learn about their own social and
    cultural history
  • Children learn values important to the family and
    the community, that is, what is worth remembering
  • Promotes social solidarity

Memory and Information Processing
Memory Information Processing
  • Information Processing Approach
  • Reflects the Cognitive Revolution
  • Used computer as model
  • Hardware is the computer itself
  • In humans it is the brain
  • Software programs- e.g., word processing
  • In humans how information is registered,
    interpreted, stored, retrieved and analyzed

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Memory Systems
  • Sensory register fleeting
  • With attention, encoding occurs
  • Storage
  • Short-term memory - limited to 6 items
  • Working memory - active STM
  • Long-term memory relatively permanent
  • Retrieval
  • Recognition Recall Cued Recall

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Implicit and Explicit Memory
  • Implicit memory
  • Unintentional, automatic
  • Information from everyday experiences
  • Does not change over lifespan
  • Explicit memory
  • Deliberate, effortful
  • Increases from infancy to adulthood

Short-term store
  • Digit span
  • Role of knowledge
  • Chi and chess champions
  • Working Memory
  • Speed of Processing

Some definitions of key concepts associated with
executive function
  • Executive function The processes involved in
    regulating attention and in determining what to
    do with information just gathered or retrieved
    from long-term memory.
  • Speed of processing How quickly any cognitive
    operation can be executed, which affects how many
    operations can be performed in a short period of
  • Memory span The number of items a person can
    hold in the short-term store, assessed by testing
    the number of (usually) unrelated items that can
    be recalled in exact order.
  • Working memory The capacity to store and
    transform information being held in the
    short-term system. Working-memory span is about
    two items less than memory span.
  • .

  • Attention span The ability to concentrate, or
    sustain attention to a particular stimulus or
  • Incidental learning Acquiring knowledge about
    noncentral (incidental) aspects of a task or
  • Inhibition The ability to prevent from making
    some cognitive or behavioral response.
  • Resistance to interference The ability to ignore
    irrelevant information so that it does not impede
    task performance

The development of memory span. With increasing
age, children are able to hold more things in
mind (here digits) as once, and this affects
their ability to perform more complicated tasks
(from Dempster, 1981)
Chess-expert children had greater memory span
than adults for positions on a chessboard, but
not for digits. This research demonstrates the
effect that knowledge base can have on memory
The day/night task is one of a host of simple
tests that is used to assess executive function
in young children. Children must say day
whenever they see the picture of the moon and
night whenever they see the picture of the
sun. This is exactly opposite to what children
normally do, requiring them to inhibit a
well-established response before giving the
correct response
Young children often have a difficult time not
saying whatever is on their minds.
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Sieglers adaptive strategy choice model
  • A selectionist approach, based on Darwins
    theory of natural selection
  • Children generate a variety of strategies for any
    particular task
  • These strategies compete for use
  • Some strategies as selected and used more
    frequently than others
  • The average level of strategy sophistication
    increases with age
  • Less effective strategies are sometimes used when
    dominant strategies dont work


Sieglers Overlapping Wave Model
Microgenetic method
  • Looking at strategy change over brief period of
    time (months, weeks, or even trials) as opposed

Examples of Arithmetic Strategies
  • Strategy Typical Use of
    Strategy to Solve 2 3
  • SUM, adding from 1 Say 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
  • MIN, adding from larger addend Say 4, 5
    (or 3 . . . 4, 5)
  • MAX, adding from smaller addend Say
    3, 4, 5 (or 2 . . . 3, 4, 5)
  • Fact Retrieval Say 5 (within latency
  • Finger recognition Hold up 5 fingers
    and say 5
  • Decomposition Say 2
    and 3 is like 3 3 minus 1
  • Mental Arithmetic Say 5 (beyond lat.
  • Guessing Say 4 or 8

Sielger Jenkins (1989)
  • Microgenetic study with 4- and 5-year-old
    children, none of whom were using MIN at
    beginning of study
  • Children given series of single-digit addition
    problems over 11 weeks
  • All children used multiple strategies, with
    average sophistication of dominant strategy used
    increasing over weeks

Percentage use of each strategy (from Siegler
Jenkins, 1989)
Some influences on strategy use.
Memory Development in Infancy
  • Novelty preference
  • Conjugate reinforcement procedure
  • Deferred imitation

Apparatus used by Rovee-Collier et al.
Conjugate Reinforcement Procedures
  • Baseline kicking rate (3 minutes, unattached to
  • Reinforcement period (9 minutes, ribbon attached
    to apparatus)
  • Delay
  • Test period (unattached to apparatus)

Maximum duration of retention from 2 to 18 months
(from Rovee-Collier, 1999)
Deferred-Imitation Procedure
  • Demonstration of novel actions on objects
  • Touching box with head to turn on light
  • Placing bar across two posts, hang plate from
    bar, strike bar with mallet (Bauer et al.)
  • Delay
  • Test

The gong task. Infants watched as a model
performed a three-step sequence placing the bar
across two posts, hanging a plate on the bar, and
striking the plate with a mallet. Infants were
later given the opportunity to reproduce the
sequence, demonstrating evidence of deferred
imitation, and thus memory. (Thanks to Patricia
Percentage of 13-, 16-, and 20-month-old infants
displaying deferred imitation of three-step
sequences as a function of length of delay (from
Bauer et al., 2000)
Is deferred imitation a form of explicit memory?
  • McDonough et al. (1995) tested patients with
    amnesia on deferred-imitation task
  • Baseline
  • Demonstration
  • Delayed test
  • Various control groups

Mean number of actions correct (Max 12) by
group (from McDonough et al., 1995)
  • The Development of Autobiographical Memory

Infantile Amnesia
  • Freuds repression hypothesis

Are infant memories repressed?
Infantile Amnesia
  • Storage failure
  • Encoding differences
  • Later memory related to abilities at time of
    event, not time of testing (Simcock Hayne,
  • Childrens verbal reports were frozen in time,
    reflecting their verbal skills at the time of
    encoding, rather than at the time of test
  • Sense of self
  • Use of language in social interactions

Infantile Amnesia and Hypnotic Age Regression
  • Adults asked to perform conservation tasks (Nash,
  • Group 1 Age-regressed to 4-years of age
  • Group 2 Pretend youre a 4-year old
  • Neither perform like real 4-year olds
  • Regressed adults perform like adults who are
    pretending to be 4-years old

The Role of Parents in Teaching Children to
Children as Eyewitnesses
Three major interacting classes of variable in
interpreting childrens eyewitness memory and
suggestibility (from Lindberg, 1991)
Age Differences in Eyewitness Memory
  • For open-ended, free-recall questions, young
    children recall less than older children, but
    what they recall is usually central to the event
    and accurate
  • Correct and incorrect recall increases in
    cued-recall questions, reducing accuracy
  • Amount and accuracy of memory related to
  • Length of delay
  • IQ
  • Level of stress
  • Interviewer characteristics
  • Knowledge

Age Differences in Suggestibility
  • Responses to leading questions
  • False-memory creation

Percentage correct and incorrect responses by
age to misleading questions (from Cassel
Bjorklund, 1995)
Percentage correct and incorrect responses by age
to positive-leading questions (from Cassel
Bjorklund, 1995)
Percentage of false reports over sessions for
3/4-year olds and 5/6-year olds (from Ceci et
al., 1994)
What is Language?
  • Arbitrariness
  • Productivity
  • Language is creative, or generative
  • Semanticity
  • Can represent objects, actions, events, ideas
  • Displacement
  • Past, future, different location
  • Duality
  • Phonology
  • Syntax
  • semantics

Describing Childrens Language Development
  • Receptive language gt productive language
  • Early language is telegraphic
  • Phonological development
  • Babbling
  • Morphological development
  • Morpheme
  • Free morphemes vs. bound morphemes
  • Mean length of utterance (MLU)
  • Overregularization
  • Wug test

Example from wug test (from Berko, 1958)
Syntactic Development
  • Negatives
  • Questions
  • Passives
  • Relating events in sentences

Semantic Development
  • Word spurt productive vocabulary
  • Productive vocabulary 22-37 mos.
  • Receptive vocabulary 12-17 mos.

Childrens receptive vocabulary, words they can
comprehend, increases rapidly between 8 and 16
months for both English- and Italian-speaking
children. In contrast, the rate of productive
vocabulary is much slower over this same time
(from Caselli et al., 1994)
Constraints on word learning
  • whole-object assumption Children assume that a
    word refers to the whole object and not to a part
    of it.
  • taxonomic assumption Children initially assume
    that words refer to other things that are
  • mutual exclusivity assumption Children assume
    that different words (for example, rabbit and
    mouse) refer to different things.
  • Overextentions
  • Underextensions

Nativist Perspective on Language Development
  • Noam Chomsky
  • Surface vs.deep structure
  • Generative grammar
  • Language acquisition device (LAD)
  • Universal Grammar

Eric Lenneberg
  • Language is
  • Species specific
  • Species uniform
  • Difficult to retard
  • Develops in a regular sequence
  • Has specific anatomical structures
  • Associated with genetically-related disabilities

This figure shows two views of the left
hemisphere. Figure A shows possible networks for
various language functions. Figure B shows the
grammar center and other areas involved in
language, as proposed by Sakai (2005). The green
area is selectively involved in comprehending
sentences. The red areas are specifically
involved in syntactic processing and can be
regarded as the grammar center (from Sakai, 2005,
p. 817).
Universal Grammar
  • All languages have
  • Extensive vocabularies divided into different
    parts-of-speech categories
  • Words organized into phrases following similar
    rule structure (X-bar system)
  • All permit movement of grammatical categories
  • All use suffixes and prefixes

Is there a critical period for learning language?
  • Social deprivation (feral children)
  • Second-language learning
  • Johnson Newport proficiency in English as
    function of age of arrival in U.S.
  • First-language learning of deaf people
  • Newport Proficiency in ASL as function of age of
  • Children invent Nicaraguan Sign Language (Senghas
    et al., 2004)
  • Recovery of function after brain damage

The relationship between age at arrival in the
United States and total number of correct answers
on a test of English grammar. The younger people
were when they moved to the United States, the
better was their command of English grammar
Social-Interactionist Perspectives of Language
  • Social-pragmatic view Childrens initial skills
    of linguistic communication are a natural
    outgrowth of their emerging understanding of
    other persons as intentional agents (Carpenter
    et al., 1998)

Child-Directed Speech
  • AKA infant-directed speech (IDS) motherese
  • Language acquisition support system (LASS,
  • Prosodic features of IDS
  • Higher acoustic frequency
  • Wider range of frequencies
  • Greater incidence of rising countours
  • Short, grammatical sentences

Child-Directed Speech
  • Used across cultures (in varying degrees)
  • Infants more attentive to adults using IDS as
    opposed to adult-directed (A-D)speech (Cooper
    Aslin, 1990 1994)
  • Mothers of deaf children use exaggerated signs to
    their infants ad infants are more attentive to
    I-D signs than A-D signs (Masataka, 1998)
  • Infants can discriminate sounds better in I-D
    than A-D speech (Trehub et al., 1993)
  • I-D speech used to regulate infants behavior and
    emotions (Fernald, 1992)

Approaches to the Study of Intelligence
  • Intelligence is the mental activities necessary
    for adaptation to, as well as shaping and
    selecting of, any environmental context. . .
    (I)ntelligence is not just reactive to the
    environment but also active in forming it. It
    offers people an opportunity to respond flexibly
    to challenging situations (Sternberg, 1997)

The Psychometric Approach to the Study of
  • Psychometric theories of intelligence have as
    their basis a belief that intelligence can be
    described in terms of mental factors and that
    tests can be constructed that reveal individual
    differences in the factors that underlie mental
  • Factors are related mental skills that
    (presumably) affect thinking in a wide range of

Factor analysis
  • Vocabulary
  • Reading comprehension
  • Story completion
  • Verbal analogies
  • Verbal factor
  • 3-D rotation
  • Maze learning
  • Form-board performance
  • Spatial factor

How many factors of intelligence are there?
  • Spearmans g general intelligence
  • Guilfords structure-of-the-intellect model 180
  • Raymond Cattells theory which recognizes g and
    two second-level factors
  • fluid intelligence biologically determined and
    is reflected in tests of memory span and most
    tests of spatial thinking
  • crystallized intelligence best reflected in
    tests of verbal comprehension or social
    relations, skills that depend more highly on
    cultural context and experience

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IQ Tests
  • Stanford-Binet
  • Wechsler scales

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Wechsler scales
  • WPPSI (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of
  • WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children)
  • WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale)

Verbal IQ
  • Information
  • Similarities
  • Arithmetic
  • Vocabulary
  • Comprehension
  • Digit Span (optional)

Performance IQ
  • Picture Completion
  • Coding
  • Picture Arrangement
  • Block Design
  • Object Assembly
  • Symbol Search
  • Mazes (optional)


Example from the Raven Progressive Matricies Test
Mean of Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI)
items for boys and girls from 2 to 12 years old
in a normative sample of the Dutch-community in
Belgium (Schoentjes Deboutte, 1999). Adults
rated the incidence of each of 44 sex-related
behaviors in children. Sex-related behaviors were
highest in children 5 years of age and younger
and declined steadily to the preteen years.
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The Adult
  • Strong relationships between
  • IQ and occupational prestige
  • IQ and job performance
  • IQ and good health/longevity
  • IQ decline by age 80 (longitudinal studies
  • C-S studies show cohort effects
  • Fluid IQ peaks at about age 24
  • Crystallized (verbal)unchanged until 80s

Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
  • Contextual subtheory
  • Adaptation
  • Selection
  • Shaping
  • Cultural relativism
  • Experiental subtheory
  • The ability to deal with novelty and the degree
    to which processing is automtized.
  • The job of the child in development is to render
    the novel familiar (Rheingold)
  • Componential subtheory
  • Metacomponents
  • Performance components
  • Knowledge-acquisition components

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Typical pattern of IQ change for experimental
children attending compensatory education
programs and control children while attending the
preschool programs (2 to 6 years) and after.
Gardners Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Criteria for Intelligence
  • Potential isolation by brain damage
  • The existence of savants and prodigies
  • An identifiable core operation or set of
  • A distinctive developmental history, along with a
    definable set of expert end-state performances
  • An evolutionary history and evolutionary
  • Support from experimental psychological tasks and
    from psychometric findings
  • Susceptibility to encoding in a system