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Molecules vs Morphology: Testing the Liverwort phylogeny with morphological characters

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Now, most phylogenies are based upon molecular data (DNA, protein sequences) ... Interface between the sporophyte foot and parent gametophyte ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Molecules vs Morphology: Testing the Liverwort phylogeny with morphological characters


1
Molecules vs Morphology Testing the Liverwort
phylogeny with morphological characters
  • Tamrya D. dArtenay
  • Renzaglia Lab
  • Southern Illinois University Carbondale

2
Acknowledgments
  • Liverwort Tree of Life grant
  • MORPH Grant
  • Renzaglia lab
  • Committee
  • My Husband

3
What are Bryophytes?
  • Paraphyletic assemblage of mosses, liverworts and
    hornworts
  • Earliest land plants
  • Gametophyte dominant, sporophyte non-branching
    and matratrophic

4
Why study Liverworts?
  • Earliest lineage of land plants
  • Survived 450-500 my of geologic and global
    changes
  • Crucial to understanding of land plant evolution
  • AND THEYRE COOL!

5
Liverwort Diversity
  • Made up of three lineages (4500-5000 sps)
  • Marchantiopsida, Complex thalloid (350 sps)
  • Marchantia polymorpha
  • Metzeriidae, Simple thalloid (500 sps)
  • Pellia epiphylla
  • Jungermanniopsida, Leafy (most of diversity w/
    4000-4500 sps)
  • Scapania nemorea

6
The Molecular Revolution
  • Historical, phylogenies were based upon fossils
    and morphological data
  • Now, most phylogenies are based upon molecular
    data (DNA, protein sequences)
  • Has morphology lost its place in phylogentics?

vs
7
Purpose of Study
  • Use the 18 target taxa from Liverwort Tree of
    Life
  • 2 basal lineages
  • 4 complex thalloids
  • 3 simple thalloids
  • 9 leafys
  • Test tree generated from molecular data against
    tree generated from a comprehensive morphological
    data set

8
Liverwort Tree of life based on 6 genes
Leafy II Leafy I Simple Thalloid II Simple
Thalloid I Complex Thalloid Treubia/Haplomitriu
m Moss/Hornworts/Tracheophytes
Modified from Forrest et al 2006
9
Characters drawn from
  • Spermatozoid reconstruction
  • Sporogenesis
  • Placental wall development

10
Spermatozoid Reconstruction
  • One of the most phylogenetically informative
    morphological characters in land plants
  • Complex thalloid reconstructions complete
  • Focus on
  • Simple Thalloid I
    (Pallavicinia lyelli)
  • Simple Thalloid II (Aneura
    pinguis),
  • Leafy II (Bazzania trilobata
    or

  • Scapania nemorea)

11
Sporogenesis
  • Suite of characters from conserved process
  • Tracing developmental pathways will elucidate
    patterns of diversification
  • Focus on
  • Basal lineage (Treubia
    lacunosa)
  • Leafy I (Porella navicularis
  • or Radula
    obconica)
  • Leafy II (Bazzania trilobata
    or
  • Scapania
    nemorea)

12
Placental Development
  • Interface between the sporophyte foot and parent
    gametophyte
  • Matrotrophic, Essential nutrient transfer
  • Focus on
  • Simple Thalloid I (Pellia
    epiphylla or

  • Pallavicinia lyelli)
  • Simple Thalloid II (Aneura
    pinguis)
  • Leafy I (Porella
    navicularis or Radula obconica)
  • Leafy II (Bazzania
    trilobata or Scapania

  • nemorea)

13
Character Assessment
  • Character selection prior to material preparation
  • Fresh material prepared for use in SEM and TEM
  • Character evaluation from micrographs

14
Data processing
  • Input character data into matrix
  • Perform phylogenetic analyses
  • Generate tree to compare with molecular tree

15
Preliminary Results
  • Final project for Zoo 557
  • Compared 6 gene phylogeny against morphological
    data of 67 characters as stands now
  • Several missing characters for some species

16
Molecular Tree
Morphological tree
17
MORPH Grant/Hasebe Lab
  • NIBB Okazaki, Japan
  • Techniques bring
  • SEM, TEM, Light microscopy
  • Techniques to learn
  • GUS assay, Reverse transcription PCR

18
MEDEA mutants
  • MEA essential for regular endosperm development
    in Arabidopisis
  • Maternal loss-of-function causes endosperm
    failure and seed death
  • MEA gene knock-out of Physcomitrella patens
  • Causes gametophytic protonemata to become
    branching sporphyte

19
What could be causing this?
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