Global Update and Future Direction of Avian Influenza Control (in context of influenza pandemic preparations) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Global Update and Future Direction of Avian Influenza Control (in context of influenza pandemic preparations) PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 226a64-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Global Update and Future Direction of Avian Influenza Control (in context of influenza pandemic preparations)

Description:

Over time countries have become more dependant on loans as the availability of ... Development of new vaccines and diagnostics. Improvement in Public Health Capacity ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:69
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 39
Provided by: caft
Learn more at: http://www.cafte.gov.cn
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Global Update and Future Direction of Avian Influenza Control (in context of influenza pandemic preparations)


1
Global Update and Future Direction of Avian
Influenza Control (in context of influenza
pandemic preparations)
  • ASEM Workshop on Avian Influenza Control
  • Presentation by David Nabarro
  • UN System Influenza Coordinator
  • Tuesday November 12th 2007

2
Outline of Content
  • Influenza Pandemic Prevention Responses to the
    threat of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1
  • Pandemic Preparedness The importance of
    multi-sectoral approaches to human health
    security
  • Pandemic Readiness Testing preparedness to
    assess state of readiness
  • Inter-Governmental Approaches Encouraging joint
    action by countries
  • Future Directions Preventing and being ready to
    respond to animal diseases that affected humans

3
(No Transcript)
4
1918-19 a two year global crisis caused by an
Influenza Virus
06/18
?
04/18
03/18
06/18
05/18
?
01/19
06/18
C.W. Potter, Textbook of Influenza, 1998
5
1 Influenza Pandemic Prevention
  • The threat from Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza
    H5N1

6
(No Transcript)
7
GLOBAL AVIAN INFLUENZA SITUATION
  • 15 countries have been affected by end 2005, 55
    by end 2006, and 60 by November 2007
  • Powerful efforts to respond to outbreaks
    successful in most cases.
  • Continued, often silent, transmission of H5N1 in
    bird population in parts of Indonesia, Egypt,
    Nigeria, Bangladesh, Vietnam and China
  • Potential for a marked increase in outbreaks
    during next few months
  • Uncertain epidemiology
  • Contribution of migrating birds?
  • Contribution of in-country and cross-border trade?

8
SPORADIC HUMAN CASES OF AVIAN INFLUENZA
  • Human infection with H5N1 is rare, and usually
    the result of virus transmission from birds to
    humans
  • H5N1 infected over 300 people since 2003
  • Over 200 have died, mostly children and young
    adults
  • Genetic make-up of virus evolves but there is no
    evidence of sustained human to human
    transmissibility

9
Cumulative Number of Confirmed Human Cases of
Avian Influenza A/(H5N1) Reported to WHO 5
November 2007
Country   2003 2003 2004 2004 2005 2005 2006 2006 2007 2007 Total Total
Country   cases deaths cases deaths cases deaths cases deaths cases deaths cases deaths
Azerbaijan 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 5 0 0 8 5
Cambodia 0 0 0 0 4 4 2 2 1 1 7 7
China 1 1 0 0 8 5 13 8 3 2 25 16
Djibouti 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
Egypt 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 10 20 5 38 15
Indonesia  0 0 0 0 20 13 55 45 37 32 112 90
Iraq 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 0 3 2
Laos 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2
Nigeria 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
Thailand 0 0 17 12 5 2 3 3 0 0 25 17
Turkey 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 4 0 0 12 4
Viet Nam 3 3 29 20 61 19 0 0 7 4 100 46
Total 4 4 46 32 98 43 115 79 71 47 334 205
10
TECHNICAL AND FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRESS
SINCE 2006
  • Of the 2323 million pledged in 2006, 1678
    million (72) has been committed and 1018 (43)
    has been spent
  • The figures suggest that considerable funds are
    available for spending, but this is not the case.
    The original pledge included 1340 million of
    grant funds and 983 million of loan funds
  • Of the 1340 million grant funds that were
    pledged reveals that 1287 million (96) has
    already been committed. 955 million (74) of
    the committed grant funds have already been
    disbursed.
  • Over time countries have become more dependant on
    loans as the availability of grants has declined.
  • Of the 983 million loan funds that were pledged,
    approximately 592 million remained uncommitted
    as of end-June 2007.
  • Loans are used to finance medium-term integrated
    country programs, which take time to prepare, and
    developing countries prefer to use grants, rather
    than loans, to finance their integrated programs

11
Funding status
Commitments and Disbursements Received by International Organizations, million Commitments and Disbursements Received by International Organizations, million Commitments and Disbursements Received by International Organizations, million
  Commitments Disbursements
WHO 178.5 126.8
FAO 89.9 65.8
OIE 28.5 20.4
UNICEF 68.5 66.9
Other a/ 67.6 36.8
Total 433.0 316.7
Source Donor reports to the World Bank polling exercise as of June 30, 2007. Source Donor reports to the World Bank polling exercise as of June 30, 2007. Source Donor reports to the World Bank polling exercise as of June 30, 2007.

12
Recipients
Countries Receiving 10 million or More in Commitments ( million) Countries Receiving 10 million or More in Commitments ( million) Countries Receiving 10 million or More in Commitments ( million)
Country Commitments Disbursements
Vietnam 107 39
Indonesia 97 53
Nigeria 54 25
Turkey 47 12
Romania 42 4
India 35 3
Cambodia 28 13
Lao PDR 25 12
Nepal 19 1
Bangladesh 18 2
Egypt 15 7
Afghanistan 14 1
West Bank Gaza 14 4
Armenia 13 5
Georgia 11 3
Moldova 11 2
China 11 8
13
Human Cases, Deaths from H5N1 and Countries
Affected
14
H5N1 still a global issue end 2007.
15
CONTRIBUTION OF ASIAN AND EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
  • Improvements in Animal Health Surveillance
    Systems
  • Capacity for Disease Detection and Response
  • Improvements in Bio-Security in both family and
    commercial poultry production and in markets
  • Mass Information to the General Public
  • Widespread Vaccination Programmes
  • Capacity to Monitor and Adjust for better
    performance
  • Development of new vaccines and diagnostics
  • Improvement in Public Health Capacity
  • Pandemic Preparedness Planning

16
NEXT STEPS IN AVIAN INFLUENZA CONTROL 2008 ONWARDS
  • Using a livelihoods perspective, regularly
    analyze the epidemiological determinants of
    outbreaks in poultry and of human cases
  • Using epidemiological and economic data,
    encourage long-term reduction in risk of HPAI and
    other diseases through improving biosecurity in
    (a) family poultry and (b) commercial poultry
    production and marketing systems
  • Intensify an monitor efforts to control HPAI in
    settings of continuous transmission (including
    with vaccination), maintaining an overview of
    implementation and impact of poultry vaccination

17
2 Multi-sectoral Pandemic Preparedness
  • Getting ready to detect and act decisively

18
THE CURRENT THREAT LEVEL?
Inter-pandemic period Phase 1 No new influenza virus detected in humans. If a new influenza virus presents in animals, the risk of human infection is considered to be low.
Inter-pandemic period Phase 2 No human infections, but a circulating animal influenza virus poses a risk to humans.
Pandemic alert period Phase 3 Human infection(s) with a new virus, but no (or very infrequent) human-to-human spread.
Pandemic alert period Phase 4 Small cluster(s) with limited human-to-human transmission but spread is highly localized.
Pandemic alert period Phase 5 Larger cluster(s) but human-to-human spread still localized
Pandemic period Phase 6 Increased and sustained transmission in general population.
UN System Influenza Coordination
19
POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF AVIAN PANDEMIC INFLUENZA
Livelihoods
  • Food and income loss from poultry deaths, culling
    decreased economic activity
  • High illness potentially higher death rates
  • Overstretched health facilities
  • Disproportionate impact on vulnerable

Human Health
  • Increased demand for governance security
  • Higher public anxiety
  • Reduced capacity due to illness death

Governance Security
  • Deterioration of coping support mechanisms
  • Interruption in public services
  • Quarantine policies

Social Humanitarian Needs
  • Trade commerce disruptions
  • Degraded labour force
  • Interruption of regular supply systems

Economic Systems
20
PANDEMIC IMPACT RELATED TO CONTINUITY OF
  • 1 Health Services
  • Medicines, Commodities, Equipment, R and D,
    Patient Care, Lab services
  • 2 Financial Services
  • Banking (cash and settlements), financial
    regulation, risk management and insurance
  • 3 Food and its distribution
  • Agriculture and livestock, Distribution and
    retailing
  • 4 Utilities, Logistics, Personal Services
  • Electricity, Water, Telecoms, Transport and
    Logistics, Postal services,
  • 5 Leisure and Recreation
  • Tourism and Travel, Airports, Sports
  • 6 Government, Security, Military
  • Public Services, Law and Order, Judiciary and
    Correction, Private Security, Human Rights
  • 7 Media
  • Broadcast, Print Podcast and Blog
  • 8 Environment and hygiene
  • Wildlife conservation, Cleaning, Maintenance,
    Refuse management.

21
3 Getting Ready The importance of checking
preparedness to decide State of Readiness
22
PANDEMIC READINESS
  • IS THERE A RISK-BASED APPROACH TO PLANNING?
  • Use of epidemiology, modeling, risk-based
    planning
  • Engage professionals from different levels
  • Ensure high level of popular awareness and
    understanding
  • IS THE STRATEGY WIDELY UNDERSTOOD?
  • Early Detection, Investigation and Confirmation,
    Containment
  • Social distancing, personal protection, movement
    restriction, maintenance of essential
    infrastructure
  • Systematic use of anti-viral therapy
    (oseltamivir)
  • Rapid development and equitable distribution of
    effective vaccines (Major controversy will poor
    countries have access)
  • HAVE PROCEDURES BEED TESTED AND MODIFIED?
  • Crisis plan to mitigate effects of pandemic on
    Economies, Governance, Basic Needs, Border
    Movements
  • Protocols developed for use of stockpiles,
    emergency operations
  • Humanitarian NGOs, local government, Private
    Sector synchronized
  • Communications system
  • Plans Simulated and Lessons Applied

23
GLOBAL READINESS - SEPT 2007
  • Preparedness Plans not always fully tested
  • Containment protocols still to be taken forward
    by groups of countries
  • Civil Society and Private Enterprise NOT always
    involved
  • Importance of identifying and working with
    vulnerable populations
  • Value of clear communications protocols
  • Readiness being tracked by UN (PIC) and by
    regional bodies (eg ECDC and APEC)

24
5 Inter-Governmental Approaches
  • Encouraging joint action by countries

25
Governments Working Together
  • GLOBAL STRATEGY
  • FAO/OiE/WHO/World Bank and Partners strategy
    meeting (Geneva November 2005) and review meeting
    Rome June 2006)
  • INTERGOVERNMENTAL SOLIDARITY
  • Financial and political (Beijing and Bamako
    pledging Conference, Washington, Ottawa and
    Vienna High Level meetings)
  • EXTERNAL ASSISTANCE
  • Technical and financial support by specialized
    and donor agencies

26
Support to Integrated National Programmes
27
PREREQUISITES FOR SUCCESS
  • Political Commitment - to joint and effective
    action based on agreed strategies
  • Resources sufficient for incident response
  • Functioning Alliances government, public,
    private, media
  • Combined operations peoples health, livestock
    health, informed population, regulations properly
    enforced, data and samples shared
  • Adequate incentives to report, to cull, to
    improve safety
  • Mobilized populations informed and ready to act
    for safe food, healthy animals and health

28
6 A Way Forward Popular Movements and
Networks for Human Health Security Case study
from Indonesia
29
Engaging community members
30
Understand perspectives of
Care-givers and children
31
Understand concerns of Householders
32
Appreciate the position of market workers
33
Use Clear Messages
34
Explain Messages Repeatedly Public Service
Announcementsviewed by more than 120 million
people
35
Involve Leaders Politicians, Imams, Government
Officers, Professionals
36
  • Our societies are threatened by microscopic
    adversaries that are well-equipped to invade,
    evade, and surprise
  • 70 of them come from the animal kingdom
  • They pose a threat to the economic, social and
    human security of people throughout the world
  • Countries are responding together, within the
    framework of the International Health
    Regulations.
  • Collective response calls for shared
    responsibility, systems and costs

37
HUMAN SECURITY - ONE WORLD, ONE HEALTH
  • Diseases do not respect borders and can emerge
    without warning
  • 70 of emerging diseases will come from Animals
  • Importance of convergence animal health,
    environmental health, food safety, human health
  • Importance of governments, voluntary sector,
    business and community responding together

38
Recap of Content
  • Influenza Pandemic Prevention Responses to the
    threat of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1
  • Pandemic Preparedness The importance of
    multi-sectoral approaches to human health
    security
  • Pandemic Readiness Testing preparedness to
    assess state of readiness
  • Inter-Governmental Approaches Encouraging joint
    action by countries
  • Future Directions Preventing and being ready to
    respond to animal diseases that affected humans
About PowerShow.com