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Context Driven Agile Leadership Managing Complexity and Uncertainty

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Title: Context Driven Agile Leadership Managing Complexity and Uncertainty


1
Context Driven Agile Leadership Managing
Complexity and Uncertainty
Todd Little Sr. Development Manager
2
Managing the Coming Storm Inside the Tornado
Project Kickoff
Team Unity
3
Were not in Kansas Anymore
Developer Hero
Reorg
Testing
4
Landmark sells shrink wrap software for Oil and
Gas Exploration and Production
  • Users are Geoscientists and Engineers
  • Subsidiary of Halliburton Energy Services
  • Integrated suite of 60 Products
  • 50 Million lines of code
  • Some products 20 years old
  • 80 of project team stays on same product

Geophysics
Engineering
Geology
5
Landmark wanted to understand and improve our
software development process
  • Maximize our Value Delivery
  • Scaling to project conditions
  • Manage Uncertainty and Complexity
  • Organizational commonality without being overly
    prescriptive
  • Core processes
  • Adaptive processes
  • What is barely sufficient?

6
Agile Manifesto
  • We are uncovering better ways of developing
    software by doing it and helping others do it.
    Through this work we have come to value
  • Individuals and interactions over processes and
    tools
  • Working software over comprehensive documentation
  • Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
  • Responding to change over following a plan
  • That is, while there is value in the items on the
    right, we value the items on the left more.
  • Kent Beck, Mike Beedle, Arie van Bennekum,
    Alistair Cockburn, Ward Cunningham, Martin
    Fowler, James Grenning, Jim Highsmith, Andrew
    Hunt, Ron Jeffries, Jon Kern, Brian Marick,
    Robert C. Martin, Steve Mellor, Ken Schwaber,
    Jeff Sutherland, Dave Thomas

7
Auditor Manifesto
  • We are uncovering painful ways of auditing
    software teams and enjoy making others do what we
    tell them. Through this work we have come to
    value
  • Processes and tools over individuals and
    interactions
  • Comprehensive documentation over working software
  • Contract negotiation over customer collaboration
  • Following a plan over responding to change
  • That is, while there is value in the items on the
    right, we value the items on the left more.

8
Cockburns Crystal Methodology according to
(project size, system criticality, team
priorities)
Prioritized for Legal Liability
Prioritized for Productivity Tolerance
Life (L)
Criticality (defects cause loss of...)
Essential money (E)
Agile Sweet Spot
Discretionary money (D)
Comfort (C)
1 - 6
- 20
- 40
- 100
- 200
- 500
- 1,000
Number of people involved
20
9
Balancing Agility and DisciplineBoehm and Turner
10
Boehm and Turner Observations on Balancing
  • It is better to build your method up than to
    tailor it down
  • Methods are important, but potential silver
    bullets are more likely to be found in areas
    dealing with
  • People
  • Values
  • Communications
  • Expectations management
  • Neither agile nor plan-driven methods provide a
    silver bullet
  • Agile and plan-driven methods have home grounds
    where each clearly dominates
  • Future developments will need both agility and
    discipline
  • Some balanced methods are emerging

11
Agile Manifesto 5 Years Later Dealing with the
Right
  • Processes and tools that support agility and
    individuals and interactions (e.g. wikis,
    collaboration environments, etc.)
  • Documentation that leads to working software.  A
    focus on documentation as a consumable rather
    than as a deliverable.
  • Contracts that are written in a manner consistent
    with collaboration and agile delivery
  • Plans that anticipate and expect change

12
Landmark studied its project portfolio and
identified several project and team attributes
  • Project Complexity
  • Team size
  • Mission criticality
  • Team location
  • Team capacity
  • Domain knowledge gaps
  • Dependencies
  • Uncertainty
  • Market Uncertainty
  • Technical Uncertainty
  • Project Duration
  • Dependents

13
We scored the Complexity Attributes on a scale
from 1 to 10
Attribute 1 10
Team Size 1 100
Mission Critical Speculative Safety Critical with significant exposure
Team Location Same Room Multi-site, World Wide
Team Capacity Established Team of experts New team of mostly novices
Domain knowledge gaps Developers know the domain as well as expert users Developers have no idea about the domain
Dependencies No dependencies Tight Integration with several projects
14
And we scored the Uncertainty Attributes
Attribute 1 10
Market Uncertainty Known deliverable, possibly defined contractual obligation New market that is unknown and untested
Technical Uncertainty Enhancements to existing architecture New technology, new architecture. May be some "R"
Project Duration 1-4 week 24 months
Dependents/ Scope Flexibility Well defined contractual obligations or Infrastructure Independent
15
We cross plotted the results and divided the
chart into four quadrants
16
Refactored for Simplicity
17
This looked a lot like the Boston Matrix
18
So we named it the Houston Matrix and gave animal
names to the quadrants
19
We looked at an overall process flow and how it
would be adaptable.
Iterations
Adaptive Activities
Inputs Pre-conditions
  • Outputs
  • Post-conditions
  • Released Software

CORE Activities
Project Sanction
RTM
20
We Identified a set of Core Processes for all
projects to use
  • Aggregate Product Plan
  • A/B/C List
  • Quality Agreement
  • Continuous Integration
  • Expert User Involvement
  • Project Dashboard

21
The Aggregate Product Plan sets the high level
vision and expectations
Project OpenWells Davenport Project Code 010265
Product OpenWells Target Date 3/30/2004
Version 2003.11.0.0 Release Date 3/31/2004
Product Manager Marcus Ridgway SDD David Field
VisionVersion 2.0 of the new Well Operations reporting and data analysis application. Will bring powerful new query, graphing and reporting capabilities. Comprehensive DWS input data and output reports will be supported including integration to Production suite. PlatformsWindows 2000 /Oracle 8.1.7Windows XP / Oracle 9i Windows 2000 XP /MSDE
Features18 additional reportsAddtnl apps - Data Anlyzr, NG Profile, AutoprintExtended Rig Equipment supportKnowledge Management - Technical limit drilling,lessons learned, non-productive time, and equipment failuresApplication enhancements (spreadsheet support andtailored well services tab and others) Strategic FitIntegrationWorkflow ( Prototype, plan, actual)Top quartile technology Target MarketsExisting DIMS customersUS IndependentsNOCsGovernment and regulatory organizationsCompanies requiring integrated offering w/decent wellbore schematic requirementsService companies
22
The A/B/C List sets proper expectations
A MUST be completed in order to ship the product.
B SHOULD be completed in order to ship the product.
C MAY be completed prior to shipping the product if time allows.
Only A features may be committed to customers.
A features must fit in a p90 confidence
schedule. No more than 50 of the planned effort
can be allocated to A items
23
A/B/C List
Backlog Plan
Typical Delivery
C
B
D
25
C
B
A
A
25
50
50
100
24
A/B/C List
25
We use a Quality Agreement similar to Thomsett
Attribute A Very Important B Important C Not Very Important
Completeness of Functionality    X  
Completeness of Testing    X     
Reliability    X      
Performance        X
Installation    X    
Usability      X  
Integration    X    
On Line Help        X
Training      X  
26
So we named it the Houston Matrix and gave animal
names to the quadrants
27
Dont throw novice project managers at a bull
project
28
Brooks law in action throw a developer at a
late bull project
29
Project Complexity and Uncertainty influence how
to scale our agile process
  • One size doesnt fit all
  • The assessment tool is a guide
  • Landmarks portfolio balance
  • 10 Bulls
  • 10 Cows
  • 20 Colts
  • 60 Dogs

30
Product Innovation Flow
Hot Items
Flexible Scope Backlog
Idea Filter
Iteration Backlog
Newly Discovered Items
Product Backlog
Project Sanction
RTM
Sales Services Customer Support
B C Release Backlog
Adaptive Activities
A Items
CORE Activities
Most Items for consideration in next release
B/C/D
Backlog Burnup
A
31
Nickoliasen Model for Idea Filter(Executive
Summit ADC 2004)
High
A
Focus and Allocate Resources
Partner Or convert To Mission Critical
Market Differentiating
Achieve Parity
Who Cares?
Low
High
Low
Mission Critical
32
Products Tend to follow a Lifecycle path
33
Business Process Value Chain
Market
Product Development
Sales
Product Company
Specifications
Development
Delivery
Contract Model
Business Need
Development
Delivery
Internal IT
34
Business Process Value Chain
   
Innovation Discovery of unanticipated features or other innovative ways of improving the product C C A
Integration Attention to cross product integration issues C B B
Development Velocity Speed of development of new product features C B A
Quality Product reliability B A B
Customer Responsiveness Business agility - ability to respond quickly to new customer needs C C B
Predictability Focus on accuracy of release date A B B
Project traceability Audit ability of project process. Traditionally very important for outsourcers. A B C
Cost Importance of a low Cost structure A A C
35
Portfolio Management and Dealing with Darwin (G.
Moore)
Create Change
Embrace Change
High
Deploy
Invent
Market Differentiating
Ad Hoc
Agile
Eliminate Change
Control Change
Manage
Offload
Low
Outsource
Structured
High
Low
Mission Critical
36
Follow the Yellow Brick Road
Oz never did give nothing to the tin man, that he
didnt, didnt already have
37
Early Release of Bull Project
38
Bull Program, Dog Project
39
Dont mistreat your cows
40
The Agile Project Leadership Network Declaration
of Interdependence (www.apln.org)
  • We increase return on investment by making
    continuous flow of value our focus.
  • We deliver reliable results by engaging customers
    in frequent interactions and shared ownership.
  • We expect uncertainty and manage for it through
    iterations, anticipation and adaptation.
  • We unleash creativity and innovation by
    recognizing that individuals are the ultimate
    source of value, and creating an environment
    where they can make a difference.
  • We boost performance through group accountability
    for results and shared responsibility for team
    effectiveness.
  • We improve effectiveness and reliability through
    situationally specific strategies, processes and
    practices.

David Anderson, Sanjiv Augustine, Christopher
Avery, Alistair Cockburn, Mike Cohn, Doug
DeCarlo, Donna Fitzgerald, Jim Highsmith, Ole
Jepsen, Lowell Lindstrom, Todd Little, Kent
McDonald, Pollyanna Pixton, Preston Smith and
Robert Wysocki
41
Relationship of the APLN to the AgileAlliance
Pair Programming Continuous Build TDD
Project Execution

APLN
Project Leadership
Collaboration Change Empowerment
Software
Beyond Software
42
Interdependence and Leadership
  • Context
  • Uncertainty
  • Value
  • Customers
  • Individuals
  • Teams

43
Boehm and Turner Observations on Balancing
  • It is better to build your method up than to
    tailor it down
  • Methods are important, but potential silver
    bullets are more likely to be found in areas
    dealing with
  • People
  • Values
  • Communications
  • Expectations management
  • Neither agile nor plan-driven methods provide a
    silver bullet
  • Agile and plan-driven methods have home grounds
    where each clearly dominates
  • Future developments will need both agility and
    discipline
  • Some balanced methods are emerging

44
Security and Value(Great Boss, Dead Boss)
Tribal Security - Tribal Security -
Individual Security Civil Service Purpose
Individual Security Outcasts Anarchy
Tribal Value - Tribal Value -
Individual Value ?? ?? ? ? ? ?
Individual Value ?? ? ? ? ? ? ?
45
Agile Leadership
46
Dont over stereotypee.g. Not all dogs are the
same
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