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Rapid Development of Space


... see, a large area of the earth can be covered using only one satellite, in geo. ... Two steerable narrow beam antennas are used for communications between and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Rapid Development of Space

Rapid Development of Space
  • Wayne Solomon
  • August 2009

Soviet Union scares the pants off….
  • Sputnik 1 was first into low earth orbiting
    satellite, 1957
  • Plasma Density meas.

Explorer I ( little tubesat that did..)
  • US Enters Space, 1958, On Jupiter-C booster
  • Located Van Allen
  • Radiation belt, Launch

To the Moon(practicing for Chicago…)
  • Soviets impacted the moon in 1959
  • Luna 2
  • Luna 3 returned
  • photos from
  • Moon in 1960 (where are pics!)

Early US Missions to Moon (good try, but no
  • A number of attempts to impact the moon starting
    with Ranger Series in 1964
  • Atlas/Agena launcher

U.S. Surveyor Program 1966, pad prints for
  • Seven Surveyor Vehicles were flown by 1968.
    Five were successful, Atlas/Centaur Launch
  • Exploring landing sites and technology, and
    geoscience for Apollo program.
  • Turnaround in Space Race with Soviets and showed
    that efforts were essentially tied.

US Lunar Prospector (Return after 25 years,
better, faster, less for less…)
  • Search for water in 1998 with very low cost
    Athena (three stage solid!) launcher. No H2O in

Lunar Prospector (Admit it, they tried some neat
  • Gamma Ray Spectrometer..GeoChem
  • Neutron Spectrometer.. Water (ice) signature
  • Alpha Particle Spec.. Radon from volcano (?)
  • Doppler Gravity.. Lunar gravity
  • Magnetometer.. Local field

Prospector (a big parking lot..)
Soviet Lunar missions (lots of big iron out
  • Zond Series of failures before circumlunar probe
    in 1968. Stripped down Soyuz SC.

Chinese Lunar Explorer, years later,(slow and
  • Chinese Lunar mission launch, 1997
  • Mapping, impact data

Oh my darling Clementine…
  • Clementine was a joint project between the
    Strategic Defense Initiative Organization and
    NASA, 1994. The objective of the mission was to
    test sensors and spacecraft components under
    extended exposure to the space environment and to
    make scientific observations of the Moon and the
    near-Earth asteroid 1620 Geographos

Soviet Mars Orbiters, 1962-73 (lots more big
iron, later…)
  • Mars 2 and Mars 3 employed heavy Proton booster
  • Like many earlier Mars missions they reached
    destination but ended poorly
  • Some grainy Photos for their trouble!
  • Better results on later missions

U.S. Viking Program (JPL Mars scoop!)
  • JPL Orbiters for survey and com. Relay with
    lander, 1976
  • Landers had N2O4/MMH thrusters for control and
  • Very successful effort.
  • Launcher Titan III
  • centaur vehicle

Mars Pathfinder, 1996,(Oh, to be a Bot, oops
mighty big rock…)
  • First of a series of JPL Mars missions that
    included the first successful rover

Mars Global Surveyor, 1996-2006 (Serious
exploration stuff…)
  • Launch with package of cameras and instruments to
    provide maps for landers

Cassini Spacecraft, 2004,( A quick peek at the
Saturn, lots more similar stuff later..)
  • Tracking storms on Saturn. Storms last for
    months at a location called Storm Alley

Orbview 2 (In the looking glass..)
  • Launched in 1997 is early earth imaging circular
    sun synchronous satellite to study Oceans on a
    routine basis. Ocean conditions for fishing,
    climate change, etc.

TSX-5 ( not sure why…)
  • A 2000 launch, Low earth orbit small satellite
    with 68 degree inclination for Air Force
    environmental . Research., imaging, etc.

Intelsat16 ( Communications Sats cover the globe…)
  • Geo Communications Satellite, to launch in 2010
    from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan. 24 Ku-band

NSS-9 (what can I say…)
  • Orbis Netherland C-band Satellite for 28
    transponders which can be linked with three beams
    for full earth coverage. 5000 lb with Power 2.3
    Kw, 3 axis stabilized.
  • Arian-V launcher, 2009

Defense Support DSP, Imaging Satellite (ICBM
watch from GEO…)
  • Last generation of DSP SatellitesThe satellites
    are in geosynchronous orbits, and are equipped
    with infrared sensors operating through a
    wide-angle Schmidt telescope. The entire
    satellite spins 1 so that the linear sensor
    array in the focal plane scans over the earth six
    times every minute. Typically, DSP satellites
    were launched on Titan IVB boosters with Inertial
    Upper Stages. The last one (flight 23) was
    launched in 2007 aboard the first operational
    flight of the Delta IV Heavy rocket, as the Titan
    IV had been retired in 2005. All 23 satellites
    were built by prime contractor Northrop Grumman
    Space Technology, formerly TRW, in Redondo Beach,

Another View of DSP
  • Current launch detection from Geo.

Next generation EO/ IR imaging (Cost overrun,so….)
  • Launch failure has led to new requirements for
    next generation imaging systems

Radar Imagery, (Sherlock Holmes..)
  • NROs future radar imaging satellite

EOS Weather Satellite, 1994, The farmers love
it, me too..
  • GOES Series major weather information for N.
    America From GEO
  • EU, Russ, China, Japan, India have world pretty
    much covered from GEO

GEOS Series, 1994…
  • NOAA placed three axis stabilized series in GEO
  • Vis/IR Spin scan radiometer day and night
    observation along with interval imagery
  • Monitoring water vapor

Polar Orbiting Weather, (the really big
picture…)G. Davis, 2007)
  • Several Series, Several DoD versions starting
    late 50s. NASA and NOAA intitiated sun
    synchronous Tyros weather Satellites in early
    60s,Nimbus series (mid 60s)
  • Visible and infrared scanning radiaometers
  • NOAA Partners with EUMETSAT for full time
    coverage (day and night) with new vehicles to
    contain….(next slide please!)

Polar Orbiting Weather (G. Davis, 2007), details,
  • Third Generation Advanced Very High Resolution
  • (AVHRR/3) A six-channel imaging radiometer to
    detect energy in the visible and IR. High
    Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounders (HIRS/4)
  • multispectral atmospheric sounding instrument to
    measure IR scene radiance.
  • . Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A) A
    cross-track scanning total power Microwave
    radiometer to measure scene radiance.
  • . Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking
    (SARSAT) Instruments
  • Others…

IKONOS, 2000, (Google maps??)
  • Commercial Satellite high resolution imagery, 1m
    pancromatic and 4 m multispectral
  • Polar sunsynchronous orbit
  • 3 axis stabilized with four reaction wheels
  • LM900 bus (Iridium)

Arian V (Each version just keeps getting bigger..)
  • Ariane 5 is a European expendable launch system
    designed to deliver payloads into geostationary
    transfer orbit or low Earth orbit
  • No. solid boosters2Engines1 SolidThrust 6,470 kN
    (1,450,000 lbf) Specific impulse275 s Burn
    time129 sec
  • VulcainThrust1,114 kN (250,000 lbf)Specific
    impulse430 s Burn time589 secondsFuelLH2/LOX

Components Ariane 5 (bits and pieces!)
Ariane 5 ECB was planned to have an ESC-B upper
stage using a new Vinci expander cycle type
engine. The GTO capacity is to increase from 8000
kg to 12,000 kg
Chinese Progress (Lots of early trouble but U.S
companies fixed…)
  • Long March 2E launch in 1990
  • Long March 3C launch in 1996
  • Space Launch Vehicles including
  • Moon Probe in 2007

Chinese Family of Space Long March Launchers, (
No Foreign technology here!)
  • Employ Storable lower stages and Hydrogen Oxygen
    upper Stages

Dongfanghong(DFH-3),1997 (more me too..)
  • General class of Chinese communications
    satellites with common bus

ZiYaun-1,1999 (Join the green croud?)
  • Earth resources Satellite and later series on
    CZ-4 launcher, joint with Brazil
  • Payload 5-band ccd camera 4-band infrared
    multi-spectrum scanner 2-band broad
    field-of-view imaging instrument.

Fenyung Metrological Satellite Series, 2008,( not
sure what this adds..)
  • Spin Stabilized multispectral GEO satellite.
  • Several earlier variants were only partially
  • Vis-IR

Beidou Navigation Series, 2000 (Chinese military
gps version..)
  • Experimental group in GEO and a number of Medium
    orbit navigation Satellites
  • Accuracy to 10 meters

Chinese Ballistic Missile
  • First Solid Rocket boosters, DF-21, 1986
  • Low yield nuclear, 60 deployed in 1991

Communications and Navigation
Commercial/Dual Purpose
  • GPS
  • Communication

Global Positioning, GPS, (no more excuses for
being late..)
  • US Owned Utility operated by Air Force for
    military and commercial navigation
  • 24 Satellites transmitting position and time
  • Worldwide monitor and control ground stations
  • User systems which calculate 3D positioning

3D Spatial and time Peter Dana, Univ of Texas
  • Information from four satellites in view
  • GPS provides specially coded satellite signals
    that can be processed in a GPS receiver, enabling
    the receiver to compute position, velocity and

A View of Constellation (cover the planet, baby..)
  • The Constellation

Orbital Coverage, (The common bus….)
  • The orbit altitude is such that the satellites
    repeat the same track and configuration over any
    point approximately each 24 hours (4 minutes
    earlier each day).
  • There are six orbital planes (with nominally four
    SCs in each), equally spaced (60 degrees apart),
    and inclined at about fifty-five degrees with
    respect to the equatorial plane.
  • This constellation provides the user with between
    five and eight SCs visible from any point on the

Ground Tracks (notice our new flat world..)
  • World map

Control (distributed control anyone? ..)
  • GPS Master and Monitor Net

GPS Navigation (Its so, simple…)
  • The Master Control facility is located at
    Schriever Air Force Base in Colorado. Monitor
    stations measure signals from the SCs which are
    incorporated into orbital models for each.
  • The models compute precise orbital data
    (ephemeris) and SC clock corrections for each
    satellite. The Master Control station uploads
    ephemeris and clock data to the SCs. The SCs then
    send subsets of the orbital ephemeris data to GPS
    receivers within view.

Users/Military (targeting, etc..)
  • Authorized users with cryptographic equipment and
    keys and specially equipped receivers use the
    Precise Positioning System. (military)
  • PPS Predictable Accuracy
  • 22 meter Horizontal accuracy
  • 27.7 meter vertical accuracy
  • 200 nanosecond time accuracy

Users/Civilian (Easy stuff..)
  • The SPS accuracy is intentionally degraded by the
    DOD by the use of Selective Availability.
  • SPS Predictable Accuracy
  • 100 meter horizontal accuracy
  • 156 meter vertical accuracy
  • 340 nanoseconds time accuracy

Navigation ( ah, the gory details..)
  • The GPS Navigation Message consists of
    time-tagged data bits marking the time of
    transmission of each subframe at the time they
    are transmitted by the SC. A data bit frame
    consists of 1500 bits divided into five 300-bit
  • A data frame is transmitted every thirty seconds.
  • Three six-second subframes contain orbital and
    clock data.
  • SC Clock corrections are sent in subframe one
  • precise SC orbital data sets (ephemeris data
    parameters) for the transmitting SC are sent in
    subframes two and three. .

SatCom (Ships at sea, etc..)
  • Early Navy sat com bounced teletype off the moon
    (1950s, first sat com) to contact ships at sea.
  • Navy then went to analogue hf (high frequency)
    transmission earth-to-satellite-to-earth for
    nearly 50 years.
  • Now, communications are pretty much all digital

DSCS III, (Typical antenna farm..)
SatCom (Ships at sea..)
  • The two types of communications are ACTIVE and
    PASSIVE. A passive satellite only reflects
    received radio signals back to earth. An active
    satellite acts as a AMPLIFIER/REPEATER

Coverage (earthy orbits…)
  • The inclination of the orbit determines the area
    covered by the path of the satellite. The greater
    the inclination, the greater the amount of
    surface area covered by the satellite
  • A satellite in a circular orbit from
    approximately 2,000 miles to 12,000 miles above
    the earth is considered to be in a MEDIUM

Synchronous Orbit (Ah, so far away, but..)
  • A satellite in a circular orbit at a height of
    approximately 19,300 nautical miles above the
    earth is in a synchronous orbit.

Coverage from DSCS Birds
DSCS Satellite (Navy, 1980s- 2000s..)
  • Picture shows each pair of transmit and receive
    dish antennas. As you can see, a large area of
    the earth can be covered using only one
    satellite, in geo.
  • Newer communications satellites have about 32,000
    solar cells mounted on the surface of the
    satellite, and they supply about 520 watts. A
    nickel cadmium battery is used for backup power
    during eclipses.
  • The latest versions of communications satellites
    use a stationary platform with four high-gain
    antennas. Two steerable narrow beam antennas are
    used for communications between and within
    regions of high traffic density. Two horn
    antennas provide for earth communications between
    facilities outside the narrow beam coverage.

Iridium, 1997 (Motorola dream…)
  • The Iridium satellite constellation is a large
    group of satellites used to provide voice and
    data coverage to satellite phones, pagers and
    integrated transceivers over Earth's entire
  • Iridium Satellite LLC owns and operates the
    constellation and sells equipment and access to
    its services. The constellation requires 66
    active satellites in orbit to complete its
    constellation and additional spare satellites are
    kept in-orbit to serve in case of failure.1
    Satellites are in low Earth orbit at a height of
    approximately 485 mi (781 km) and inclination of
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