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Socio-Environmental Impacts of Ecosystem Projects in Africa

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ARES ecosystem absorbs large amounts of carbon emissions ... World Bank Key ARES Goals. Ensure Sustainable Livelihoods. Improve Environmental Health ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Socio-Environmental Impacts of Ecosystem Projects in Africa


1
Socio-Environmental Impacts of Ecosystem Projects
in Africa
Case Studies
2
The ARES Region World Bank
  • ARES region comprises nearly all of Sub-Saharan
    Africa
  • 682.1 million people
  • Economic growth and livelihoods are contingent on
    the provision of natural resources such as land,
    water and forests.
  • African ecosystems are a key source of water
    supply for agro-development
  • ARES ecosystem absorbs large amounts of carbon
    emissions
  • Mismanaged environment has negative impacts on
    health, economic growth, and the global
    environment.

3
World Bank Key ARES Goals
  • Ensure Sustainable Livelihoods
  • Improve Environmental Health
  • Reduce Vulnerability to Natural Disasters and
    Extreme Climate Events
  • Maintain Global Ecosystems and Values

4
Key ARES Challenges
  • High population growth
  • Widespread poverty
  • HIV-AIDS
  • Political fragmentation and instability
  • Low levels of investment in human resources and
    development
  • Immigration
  • Rapid and unplanned urbanization
  • Extreme climate variations
  • Deteriorating natural eco-systems

5
Environmental Resource Management
  • Objectives
  • Methodologies
  • Strategy
  • Implementation
  • Performance Indicators Assessment

6
Zimbabwe Community Action Project
  • Objective
  • Poverty Reduction
  • Complete the macroeconomic agenda for reform and
    private sector development in order to foster
    sustained growth
  • Strengthening rural development and natural
    resources management including empowerment of
    local communities to manage economic and social
    development
  • Promote poverty reduction through human resources
    investments, effective social safety nets,
    improved targeting and regular monitoring of
    welfare indicators.
  • Methodology
  • Community sub-projects (including social
    mobilization, infrastructure, improved natural
    resources management, training and capacity
    building for local communities)
  • Poverty monitoring and analysis (technical
    assistance, study fund, survey enhancement,
    training and capacity-building, workshops,
    dissemination) and
  • Community Action Project (CAP) institutional
    support (administration and operating costs,
    beneficiary assessments, Environmental Impact
    Assessment, training and capacity building for
    CAP staff).

7
Zimbabwe Community Action Project
  • Strategy
  • Channel of financial resources directly to the
    beneficiary communities.
  • Targeted 26 of the poorest districts of Zimbabwe
    and is support of Government of Zimbabwe's
    Poverty Alleviation Action Plan (PAAP)
  • Empowerment of poor communities and monitoring of
    poverty
  • Objective and design were consistent with
    Zimbabwe's Country Assistance Strategy (CAS 1997)
    on poverty reduction.
  • Implementation
  • CAP became effective in 1998 but 18 months later,
    disbursements to the project were suspended
    because the Government of Zimbabwe defaulted on
    its loans to the Bank and other international
    financial institutions.
  • In 2000, the Ministry of Public Service, Labour
    and Social Welfare (MPSLSW) gave CAP an
    additional loan, but the project had to be
    significantly scaled down and project employees
    released. the local level also released the
    officers responsible for CAP.
  • In October 2000, the Bank cancelled the project
    because of Zimbabwes default on international
    loans

8
Zimbabwe Community Action Project
  • Outcome
  • The design of the project was appropriate for
    achieving the objective and outputs.
  • Project was unable to achieve its objectives in
    its shortened timeframe.
  • All structures were dismantled and work suspended
  • Financial default was the primary reason for
    failure.
  • Final assessment is unsatisfactory

9
Mauritania Rainfed Natural Resource Management
Project (NRMP)
  • Objectives
  • To break the poverty cycle by improving basic
    ecological functions (water and mineral cycles,
    ecological succession) and managing resources
  • Sustainable yield increases in crops and
    livestock
  • Increased incomes for participating communities
  • Methodology
  • Financial investments in 250 villages chosen from
    representative agro-ecological zones in the
    countrys rainfed area
  • Strengthen government services to support
    community organization, improve the legal
    framework for local empowerment, and finance
    government's technical support to beneficiaries
  • Enhance skills, including developing and
    disseminating required technologies (research,
    short- and medium-term technical assistance)

10
Mauritania Rainfed Natural Resource Management
Project (NRMP)
  • Strategy
  • Empower local communities and decentralize
    services of the Ministry of Rural Development and
    Environment (MDRE)
  • Implement recommendations of the country
    environmental strategy paper (CESP) concerning
    more efficient management of natural resources
  • Coordinate with existing extension services,
    devising a domestic energy strategy, and
    cooperating with the Mauritanian Integrated
    Development Program of Irrigated Agriculture
    (PDIAIM)
  • Implementation
  • Sought to address rural development in an
    integrated approach
  • Combat the underlying causes of environmental
    degradation (i.e., mainly the overuse of
    resources)
  • Used a bottom-up, participatory approach that
    empowered communities to determine their own
    development needs. (d) carried out in close
    coordination with ongoing programs and projects
    to avoid duplication of efforts and
  • Supported Mauritanias existing communal
    development policy

11
Mauritania Rainfed Natural Resource Management
Project (NRMP)
  • Outcome
  • In the 295 villages, 120,000 people affected by
    NRMP. Investments in soil and water conservation
    (e.g., aerial tree seeding, rehabilitation and
    protection of retention dams) visibly improved
    the re-growth of natural vegetation and soil
    fertility, resulting decreased rate of
    degradatio.
  • Increased the available natural resource base.
    Fencing of crop area against animal intrusion cut
    production losses by 30.
  • Yield from livestock increased, new crops were
    planted.
  • Empowerment of village communities through
    participatory approach has had a positive impact
    on social organization and change in attitudes
    among rural communities.
  • Project received overal rating of satisfactory in
    achieving its development objective of
    sustainable yield increases and increased incomes
    for participating communities.
  • Social objective of empowerment was rated Highly
    Satisfactory

12
Conclusions Recommendations
  • Close monitoring of multiple participants and
    agencies is necessary to avoid duplication of
    work
  • Local participation and decentralization critical
    success factors
  • Government and agency financial stability is
    necessary
  • Flexible, community level programs that can be
    adapted to local situations increase probability
    of success
  • Long-term commitment instead of short-term
    projects.
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