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Vaccines Against Viral Infection

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In 2006, estimated that 9,700 women developed cervical cancer, 38% died. Although all cervical cancer types are not covered by this vaccine, this ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Vaccines Against Viral Infection


1
Vaccines Against Viral Infection
  • Austin Follett
  • Medicinal Chemistry

2
Anti-Viral Vaccines
  1. History
  2. Vaccine types
  3. How they work
  4. Recommended Schedule
  5. Specific Vaccines
  6. Flu
  7. HIV/AIDS
  8. Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
  9. To stick or not to stick?

3
History of Vaccines
  • Chinese inoculated themselves against smallpox
    before 200 B.C.
  • Edward Jenner inoculated against smallpox with
    cowpox in 1796
  • Vaccination comes from Latin (vacca cow)
  • Louis Pasteur took the concept and applied it to
    prevent against anthrax and viral rabies
  • 1988 W.H.O. targets polio for eradication
  • 2000 Global Alliance for Vaccines and
    Immunization formed strengthens routine
    vaccinations in countries with GDP below 1000
  • Currently, nearly two dozen vaccines are
    available for use in the United States

4
Types of Viral Vaccines
  1. Inactivated Virus particles are grown then
    killed by either heat or formaldehyde
  2. Attentuated Live, weakened form of the virus
    particles
  3. Subunit Only given antigen of virus
  4. Isolation of specific protein
  5. Recombinant administration

5
How vaccines work
6
Vaccination Schedule
  • By age two, children are recommended to have the
    following vaccines by the Advisory Committee on
    Immunization Practices
  • Hepatitis A B, Polio, Measles, Mumps, Rubella,
    Diptheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, HiB, Chicken Pox,
    Rotavirus, Influenza, Meningococcal disease, and
    Pneumonia

7
Flu Vaccine
  • Virus has 8 piece genome undergoes antigenic
    drift
  • The flu kills 36,000 in the US annually
  • Flu vaccine is an educated guess of the most
    probable form of virus
  • Two main types
  • Flu shot inactivated vaccine
  • Nasal-spray attentuated vaccine

8
Should you get vaccinated?
  • Yes, if you are at high risk or care for someone
    who is
  • No, if you are allergic to chicken eggs or are
    otherwise immunocompromised
  • Side effects
  • Possible virulence from nasal-spray
  • Soreness, redness
  • Low-grade fever
  • Aches

9
HIV Vaccine
  • An effective HIV Vaccine would allow the body to
    completely rid itself of the virus and/or control
    it to prevent infection and transmission
  • Three types being used subunit, recombinant, and
    DNA vaccines
  • http//www.hopkins-aids.edu/hiv_lifecycle/hivcycle
    _txt.html

10
HIV Methods of Prevention
  • Prevent fusion to host cell
  • Inhibit reverse transcriptase
  • Inhibit integrase no viral integration into host
    genome
  • Target protease prevent polypeptide cleavage,
    functional HIV proteins
  • Prevent release from host cell

11
Wheres the vaccine?
  • Several challenges arise with development
  • HIV continually mutates and recombines
  • HIV infects Helper T cells
  • Can be transmitted as both free virus and in
    infected cells
  • Researchers are unsure what constitutes an
    effective immune response to HIV
  • No ideal animal model for testing exists
  • Possibility that HIV is not the true cause for
    AIDS

12
Human Papillomavirus Vaccine
  • HPV is required in the development of nearly all
    types of cervical cancer
  • Vaccination prevents initial infection by several
    of the most commonly sexually transmitted HPV
    types
  • Estimated that 50 of men and women will become
    infected with one of the sexually transmitted HPV
    types during adulthood.
  • Along with cervical cancer, HPV can cause skin
    and genital warts as well as anal cancer and
    penile cancer

13
The Vaccine
  • All types of HPV do not cause cancer, but a
    vaccine has been developed that protects against
    types 6, 11, 16 and 18, which cause 70 of
    cervical cancers and 90 of genital warts
    combined
  • However, other types can cause the cancer, so Pap
    smears are recommended to prevent cancer
    development

14
Gardasil
  • On February 2, 2007 Texas Governor Rick Perry
    mandated that all school girls going into sixth
    grade be vaccinated
  • Studies have only been done in short duration,
    long-term impact unknown
  • In 2006, estimated that 9,700 women developed
    cervical cancer, 38 died
  • Although all cervical cancer types are not
    covered by this vaccine, this prevalence would be
    greatly reduced by widespread vaccination
  • Currently, multiple groups nationwide question
    the value of the vaccine as a whole safety
    issues seem to have fallen under the importance
    of speed.
  • In addition, other high-risk HPV types can
    circumvent the vaccine completely, reducing its
    effectiveness.

15
ControversyTo Stick or Not To Stick?
  • To
  • Vaccinations prevent viral infections, most
    effective way of disease prevention
  • Cost-effective method to manage healthcare
  • Herd immunity could extend to those that dont
    get the vaccine
  • Not to
  • Certain vaccinations have not been tested
    completely
  • Compulsory vaccination represents excessive
    government interaction
  • Childhood vaccinations contain mercury, which has
    a possible connection with autism (MMR, DTP, HiB,
    Hep. B)

16
Thank you! Be smart about your vaccinations!
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