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IBS

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Cancer Power of Faith & Prayer ... Prayer, religion, faith, spirituality, health, cancer. Over 1,000 articles. Three ... Religion, Spirituality and Cancer ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: IBS


1
Cancer Power of Faith Prayer The Medical
Perspective
Anastasios P. Bouras, M.D. Assistant Professor of
Medicine Mayo Clinic School of Medicine
2
  • Definitions
  • Associations between religion, spirituality and
    health
  • Studies in cancer
  • Intercessory prayer
  1. Comments on studying prayer and religion
  2. Biology of Hope
  3. Recognizing spirituality
  4. Conclusions

3
Healing and the Patient
The greatest mistake physicians make is that they
attempt to cure the body without attempting to
cure the mind yet the mind and body are one and
should not be treated separately.
Plato
4
Religion
  • The organization of the collective spiritual
    experiences of a group of people into a system of
    beliefs and practices
  • The service and worship of God or the supernatural

5
Spirituality
  • Broader concept of religion that is primarily
    dynamic, personal and experiential
  • Features include quest for meaning and purpose,
    transcendence, connectedness and values

6
Prayer
  • A solemn and humble request to God, or to an
    object of worship
  • A supplication, petition, or thanksgiving,
    usually expressed in words (and based on faith)

7
Faith
  • Belief and trust in and loyalty to God
  • Belief in the traditional doctrines of a religion
  • Firm belief in something for which there is no
    proof

8
Science
  • The state of knowing, as distinguished from
    ignorance or misunderstanding (based on evidence
    and proof)
  • Knowledge covering general truths or the
    operation of general laws especially as obtained
    and tested through the scientific method

9
Medicine
  • The science and art dealing with the maintenance
    of health and the prevention, alleviation, or
    cure of disease
  • Involves the systematic observation and
    classification of facts related to the causes,
    prevention, and treatment of disease

10
Evidence-Based Medicine
  • The practice of medicine based on the scientific
    evidence or data revealed during studies using
    specific outcome measures to test specific
    therapies
  • Making recommendations for treatment based on
    proven therapies usually based on randomized,
    controlled trials

11
  • What are the outcomes of prayer?
  • What dose of prayer do we use and how do we
    test it?
  • How do we define healing?
  • Is studying prayer and religion consistent with
    our faith?
  • Jesus said to him . . .
  • It is written again. Thou shalt not test
    the Lord thy God.
  • Matthew 47

12
  • Medline search 1966-2005
  • Prayer, religion, faith, spirituality, health,
    cancer
  • Over 1,000 articles
  • Three major themes . . .
  • (1) Associations between religion,
    spirituality and health
  • (2) Religion, spirituality and cancer
  • (3) Studies of intercessory prayer

13
Theme 1
14
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15
  • Associations between religion and spirituality
    with physical health, mental health and quality
    of life
  • 350 studies of physical health
  • 850 studies of mental health
  • Various outcomes were examined

16
  • Overall healthy lifestyle
  • Functioning among disabled
  • Coping skills
  • Quality of life
  • End of life issues depth of religiousness/spirit
    uality, death anxiety, acceptance of death
  • Lower mortality rates
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Hypertension
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Substance abuse
  • Suicide

17
(No Transcript)
18
Theme 2
19
  • 8 studies found no significant relation of
    religion and spirituality with morbidity or
    mortality
  • Numerous studies show that religion and
    spirituality are important in coping, adjustment
    and QOL
  • Importance of spirituality in caregivers as well
  • Prayer as a coping strategy help find comfort,
    decrease anxiety, facilitate hope and adjustment
    to illness

20
  • 30 adults of various religions
  • Differences in . . .
  • definition of prayer 4. relation to illness
  • how to pray 5. expectations
  • for what to pray 6. how prayer made them feel
  • I struggle with praying for my own healing.
    Instead, I pray to be able to live this
    experience fully . . . And that it be used
    someway for Gods purpose.

21
  • Evaluated the scientific evidence for an
    association between spirituality and religious
    practices and health
  • Concluded that spirituality/religious involvement
    has been shown to be consistently related to
    positive health outcomes across a variety of
    health domains

22
  • 2.2 million on studies of distant healing and
    intercessory prayer since 2000

23
Theme 3
24
It is asserted by some, that men possess the
faculty of obtaining results over which they have
little or no direct personal control, by means of
devout earnest prayer, while others doubt the
truth of that assertion. The question regards a
matter of fact that has to be determined by
observation and not by authority and it is one
that appears to be a very suitable topic for
statistical inquiry . . . Are prayers answered or
are they not? . . . Do sick persons who are
prayed for recover, on the average, more rapidly
than others?
  • Francis Galton, 1883

25
  • 13 studies identified from 1965-2005 with
    following criteria
  • (1) random assignment of study patients
  • (2) placebo, sham or otherwise blinded or
    adequate control
  • (3) publication in a peer-reviewed journal
  • (4) clinical investigation of humans
  • No standardization of prayers or intercessors
    among various trials
  • Heterogeneous diseases and outcome variables

26
  • 6/13 showed a benefit in primary outcomes
  • 9/13 showed some benefit in some secondary
    outcomes or showed trends in improvement in
    health or coping
  • One study suggested that patients who believed
    the problem could be solved (i.e., had faith) had
    reduced levels of concern
  • One study identified an effect of retroactive
    prayer

27
  • Numerous methodological problems
  • Studies suggest that God must respond positively
    to prayers based on what outcome is chosen but
    prayer is more than receiving what is requested,
    and we arent sure how God answers our prayers
  • If distant prayer studies can make the results of
    prayer consistent, predictable, and replicable,
    then faith has become a science
  • There is no scientific or theoretical way to
    answer questions about prayer and religion.
    These are personal relationships with God and are
    answered only by moral, theological,
    philosophical or spiritual methods that go beyond
    mechanisms of causality.

28
  • An attempt at scientific proof of the existence
    of God is an effort . . .
  • to create a situation in which God must show
    Himself and perform a miracle something that
    God may do only rarely. Even more rarely does He
    perform on demand. If God feels the need to give
    us a sign He tends to choose the time, place,
    and form not us. Simply put, I am sure that
    such tests are hideously arrogant at best and
    certainly blasphemous.
  • Modified from its original form in
  • Targ and Thompson. Alt Ther Health Med
    1997392-105

29
  • Definitions
  • Associations between religion, spirituality and
    health
  • Studies in cancer
  • Intercessory prayer
  1. Comments on studying prayer and religion
  2. Biology of Hope
  3. Recognizing spirituality
  4. Conclusions

30
Hope
  1. Belief that ones desires may be obtained
  2. Different types of hope
  3. Hope as part of ones spirituality

31
  • Placebo response rates up to 84
  • Physiologic changes
  • Hope and faith

32
  • I was most intrigued by the sense that I may
    have felt physical changes caused by hope.
  • Patient on placebo medication
  • Hope helps us overcome hurdles that we otherwise
    could not scale, and it moves us forward to a
    place where healing may occur.
  • James Groopman, M.D.

33
  • Adoption of healthy behaviors, shared ancestry,
    strong social support systems
  • Encourages hope, love, contentment, forgiveness
    and limits negative emotions
  • Religious people have enhanced immune function
  • Koenig HG. Handbook of Religion and Health, 2001.

34
  • Positive emotions

35
  • Definitions
  • Associations between religion, spirituality and
    health
  • Studies in cancer
  • Intercessory prayer
  1. Comments on studying prayer and religion
  2. Biology of Hope
  3. Recognizing spirituality
  4. Conclusions

36
  • There is a spiritual as well as a material
    quality in the care of sick people, and too great
    efficiency in material details may hamper
    progress.
  • William Mayo
  • Faculty meeting minutes
  • November 21, 1932

37
  • Ethical issues
  • Fewer physicians maintain religious or spiritual
    ties
  • Biomedical model of care
  • Outcomes of spirituality not taught in medical
    school
  • Some patients having daunting spiritual needs
  • Time constraints, lack of training and
    uncertainty
  • Mueller 2001

38
  • Patients regard physical and spiritual health
    equally
  • Spirituality enhances coping skills and QOL and
    mitigates uncertainties during an illness
  • Acknowledgement may enhance cultural sensitivity
  • May enrich the patient-physician relationship
  • Goal of medicine is to cure disease when
    possible, but we must always alleviate suffering
  • Mueller 2001

39
  • Prayer has been shown to help people with various
    physical and mental ailments in several ways
  • Religion and spirituality are dynamic
    interactions of complex variables involving
    cognitive, behavioral, interpersonal and
    physiological dimensions some of which we have
    a minor understanding and the supernatural,
    which we do not understand

40
  • Science and medical research are ineffective and
    probably improper ways of trying to understand
    the power of faith and prayer
  • How God answers our prayers is unknown
  • Gods grace is greater than our skills and is
    immeasurable by our tools
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