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Ch' 4 Education Revolutionized: The Growth of Modern Schooling


Schools and schooling are now central to the lives of each of us. ... Ari s (1962), a French historian - the 'school class' the constituent cell of the school system' ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ch' 4 Education Revolutionized: The Growth of Modern Schooling

Ch. 4 Education Revolutionized The Growth of
Modern Schooling
  • Beginnings of a Schooled Society
  • Enrolments and Attendance Creating a Universal
  • The Revolution in Expectations
  • Expanding Curricula
  • Expanding Functions
  • Expanding Alternatives
  • Exporting the School Model
  • The Results of the above
  • A dramatic transformation of education
  • Schools and schooling are now central to the
    lives of each of us.
  • Canada has become a schooled society

Beginnings of a Schooled Society
  • Origins of formal education the early Greek
    philosophers. Aristotle, Plato, and Socrates
  • Prior to 16th - schooling occurred in the Church
    - only the clergy needed advanced literacy for
    their work.
  • Ariès (1962), a French historian - the school
    class the constituent cell of the school
  • Defining attributes of the modern school class
  • Most students in a class are the same age
  • Classes are organized progressively by knowledge
  • Classes meet in separate locations
  • A class is often set off by a particular time
  • The school class was first organized by level
    of knowledge/ability, not by age.

Beginnings of a Schooled Society Table 4.1
Ages of Pupils at Caen College, 1677
Beginnings of a Schooled Society
  • Todays classes are age-graded (started in 19th
  • Two worries at play
  • rushing students too fast and mixing students of
    different temperaments
  • older students were discouraged from remaining
    too long at the same grade level
  • Result older students were out of place -
    dropped out of school
  • By the early 1800s - informal schooling was
    common in Upper Canada (now Ontario) - family
    tutoring, private schools, and religious schools
  • 1807 - a government funded, public system emerged

Beginnings of a Schooled Society
  • Prentice (1977) children of all ages gathered
    together under one teacher for a few months or
    years, to learn the three Rs (reading, riting,
    and rithmetic) and a little religion and
  • By mid-century, schooling became centrally
    controlled and regulated
  • By 1871
  • Children between 7 and 12 were required to attend
    school for at least four months of the year
  • Teacher certification was mandated
  • School inspections were instituted
  • The course of study, the books, and the school
    rules, gradually became centralized
  • Under the control of the provincial Chief
    Superintendent of Common Schools

Beginnings of a Schooled Society
  • What accounts for this transition?
  • Economic/industrialization Schooling became
    essential to ensure a skilled and compliant
    labour force
  • Technical complexity Schooling ensured young
    people had the rudimentary skills essential in a
    world growing more complex
  • Child susceptibility in a diverse world
    Schooling ensured children adopted a common value
  • Nation-building Schooling part of a larger
    process of building an independent country

Beginnings of a Schooled Society
  • Points 1 2 occurred later in Canada as
    industrialization grew but were not the initial
    contributing factors
  • Mass schooling was in place well before
    large-scale industrialization occurred
  • A largely rural population in 1876 - hard to
    explain the importance of the three Rs as a
    consequence of the technical demands of a complex
  • Little in the historical record to suggest this
    as the prime educational motivator

Beginnings of a Schooled Society
  • Points 3 4 have more support
  • Prentice (1977) - reason for promoting schooling
    was the weakness and incapacity of the young
  • Children were understood to differ from adults
    to require different support
  • Childhood - a transition to adulthood - young
    were susceptible to dangerous, amoral ideas.
  • School - foundational moral values, strict
    discipline, and proper deportment
  • Came from
  • A religious conviction - shared by such early
    school promoters as Alexander Forrester (Nova
    Scotia), Egerton Ryerson (Upper Canada), and John
    Jessop (BC).
  • Support came largely from the government

Beginnings of a Schooled Society
  • Curtis (1988) - need to understand the
    importance of government action and
  • Political instability - e.g. the 1837 Rebellion -
    promoted fears of divisiveness and factionalism
  • The larger waves of in-migration from Europe
    meant a need for social integration
  • From 19th century in Canada
  • Schooling more centralized - govt. controlling
    who would teach and what they would teach and
  • School inspection was prominent Truant officers
  • Funding provided from govt.
  • Encouraging a school system that was distanced
    from religious instruction.

Beginnings of a Schooled Society
  • This latter issue raises the historic relation
    between church and state
  • Earliest educators in Canada - the Jesuits,
    Recollects, and others - sought to bring
    Christian values and ideals to the Aboriginal
  • Manzer (1994) Which great social institution,
    church or state, should exercise ultimate
    authority over the guidance of learning?
  • Complicating this history in Canada were various
    interest groups.
  • English, French, and Aboriginal - differed
    principally along the lines of religion,
    language, ancestry, and provincial
    majority/minority status
  • Constitution Act of 1867 (British North America
  • delegated responsibility for education to the
    provinces (i.e., to the state)
  • preservation of separate schooling for religious
  • gave the state the power to enact legislation
    and collect taxes for schools

Beginnings of a Schooled Society
  • Quebec Newfoundland - separate Roman Catholic
    and Protestant school authorities dominated K12
  • In other provinces, provincial Departments of
    Education were more powerful, with various levels
    of support existing for separate religious
  • Majority of provincial school systems were
    non-denominational - though typically Christian
    schools and really Protestant in character
  • Until the 1960s many Canadian schoolchildren
    began their day by reciting the Lords Prayer and
    reading from the King James Bible

Beginnings of a Schooled Society
  • Reference to common schools is important
  • Common vision a rejection of the European, and
    especially British, model of class-based or
    elitist education
  • Common school movement meant that all children
    could attend school, regardless of their social
  • Govt. saw schools as a method to build a nation
    and enhance citizenship
  • School promoters saw schooling as an effective
    way to build a better society, instilling in
    everyone, no matter what their social class,
    common values and a strong work ethic.

Enrolments and Attendance Creating a Universal
  • Earliest public schools were quite humble
  • Mid-1800s schools were single house
  • Employed a single teacher
  • Children not segregatged by age group
  • Teachers were minimally educated
  • Instruction rarely beyond rudimentary literacy
    and mathematics
  • By 1900 - a tiny fraction of students would
    complete high school
  • School - something to attend intermittently for
    eight or so years
  • Attained basic literacy and numeracy
  • Received instruction in the rudiments of
    (Christian) religion and citizenship.

Enrolments and Attendance Creating a Universal
  • 20th century
  • School populations exploded
  • Provinces established Departments of Education
  • One-room schoolhouses were gradually replaced
    with modern buildings
  • Far more bureaucratic, standardized, and
    institutional character
  • Created a more uniform, mass form of schooling
  • Average size of a Canadian school
  • 66 students in the 1920s
  • 156 in 1960
  • 350 by 1970

Enrolments and Attendance Creating a Universal
  • New norms emerged - now common for parents to
    enrol their children in local schools
  • Enrolments are not the same as actual school
  • Earlier eras - many children did not attend
    full-time because they worked on family farms or
    did other labour
  • 1867 - only four in 10 registered pupils would
    attend on any given day
  • Would disappear from schools during some seasons
    - needed for farming, fishing, or trapping
  • Many schools did not offer instruction for
    children younger than seven
  • Early 1930s - just over 50 of six-year-olds
    were in school and 20 of five-year-olds
    attended classes
  • Compulsory starting ages for schooling did not
    drop to ages five and six until later

Enrolments and Attendance Creating a Universal
  • Figure 4.2 (p.60)
  • Did not offer most young people a common
    schooling experience until the 1930s
  • By then, attendance more regular and predictable
  • Most students began school at age six
  • Attending most days in non-summer months
  • The rate of change accelerated again after 1950
  • By the 1960s full attendance in public elementary
    and high over 90 per cent

Enrolments and Attendance Creating a Universal
  • Figure 4.3 (page 61)
  • As late as 1951 more than half of Canadas
    population age 15 and older had not attained even
    a Grade 9 level of schooling
  • Real change started in the 1950s
  • Economic boom of the post-World War II years
  • A new mindset among policy-makers in Canada and
    most Western nations
  • Actively promoted more schooling for longer
    periods of everyones life
  • The concept of education as an economic engine
    began in earnest

Enrolments and Attendance Creating a Universal
  • Post-World War II period trends emerge
  • First the completion of elementary years nearly
  • Mid-1960s, almost every Canadian-born youth
    completed at least the equivalent of Grade 8.
  • Second high school graduation became a benchmark
  • rather than seeking full-time jobs - young people
    completed high school
  • Term high school dropout emerged as a new
    symbol of deviance
  • Youth who failed to complete Grade 12 or its
    equivalent by the age of 20 were not considered
    normal - branded as deviant
  • Labelled today being at-risk youth.

Enrolments and Attendance Creating a Universal
  • Reasons for dropping out both individual and
  • Poverty
  • A lack of parental education
  • A lack of intellectual nourishment at home (or
    at school)
  • A lack of support programs for these youth
  • A curriculum that is insensitive to their needs
  • High school graduation - a taken-for-granted
  • Today society holds that all youth should
    complete high school
  • Non-completion signals a problem with the
    student, the family, and/or the school

Enrolments and Attendance Creating a Universal
  • Table 4.2 (page 62)
  • Tracing money is another way to demonstrate
  • Subsequent to World War II the total funding for
    schooling surged.
  • Total amount of money going to Canadian education
  • Amount of funding per student from 1950 to 1974 -
    25-year period
  • Total education funding increased
  • Amount of funding per student rose by a factor of
  • Increased funding - a function both of more
    students and more money for each student

Enrolments and Attendance Creating a Universal
  • Profound increases in spending
  • Late 1960s - funding increase per pupil nearly
    10 per cent every year
  • More government money went to education than to
    health care
  • The scale of monetary support for schooling was
  • Three causal factors
  • Industry and science
  • Credential inflation
  • Equality of opportunity
  • Has reversed dramatically today!!!
  • Now governments spend much more on health

Enrolments and Attendance Creating a Universal
  • Character of work has changed dramatically over
    the last 100 years
  • Science - affected both what we built and how we
  • Cognitive know-how of the labour force upgraded
  • Technical complexity was accelerating
  • More work was related to the service side of the
  • Jobs required a very different set of skills
  • Rise in educational requirements for jobs

Enrolments and Attendance Creating a Universal
  • Schooling has always played an important role in
    developing in students a strong work ethic,
    discipline, reliability, and a willingness to
    follow orders
  • Demonstrating these attributes in schools has
    normally led to grade promotion
  • These are among the skills that remain highly
    valued in the workplace
  • School expansion also fuelled by equality of
  • Not funded solely for the privilege of one social
  • Common schools were made available to everyone
  • Late 1960s and into the 1970s Prime Minister
    Trudeau spoke about creating a just society.
  • Providing opportunities for everyone was a human

Enrolments and Attendance Creating a Universal
  • A final major trend in this post-World War II
  • The emergence of a new era in higher education
  • 1950s to the 1970s - new universities built
  • Institutions such as Brock, Cape Breton,
    Lakehead, Simon Fraser,
  • and York appeared
  • Small religious colleges morphed into Brandon
    University, the University of Waterloo, and the
    University of Windsor.
  • Canada was well on its way to becoming a schooled

Enrolments and Attendance Creating a Universal
  • Figure 4.4 (page 64)
  • Illustrates the relentless rise of post-secondary
    enrolment and graduation rates.
  • Numbers of graduates are rising, along with
    population increases
  • A growing proportion of younger age groups are
    earning more advanced credentials
  • Over half of every new age cohort moves on to
    post-secondary levels
  • Not unique to Canada - unprecedented levels
    around the globe.

Enrolments and Attendance Creating a Universal
  • Concerns
  • Treating youth who do not make that transition to
    college or university as the forgotten half
  • Group poorly treated by the education institution
  • In 100 years (1900 2000) the worldwide
    enrolment in tertiary education grew 2,000
  • Common in many countries for more than half of an
    age cohort to receive some post-secondary

Enrolments and Attendance Creating a Universal
  • What is the sum impact of these enrolment trends?
  • Represents a profound transformation of peoples
  • Student role emerged as a common experience
  • Reshapes individual life courses
  • Our notions of growing up and maturing are
    affected by schooling
  • Spend ever-longer hours and years in schools,
    rather than in full-time jobs
  • Schools now provide a shared experience
  • A fundamental shift in how young people are
    prepared for the adult world
  • Segregate young people into a specialized
    institution, supervised by paid professionals
  • A common experience is provided through an
    age-graded institution

The Revolution in Expectations
  • Dramatically felt at the post-secondary or higher
    education level
  • Fifty years ago, community colleges - barely
  • Universities were small elite institutions that
    housed about 7 of the age cohort
  • 1970s - university systems changed from having
    an elite to a mass character
  • Higher education went from catering to a very
    small minority of young people seeking
    professional careers in a patchwork of mostly
    small institutions to a large system that catered
    to thousands of youth seeking a variety of
    pathways into higher-end labour markets

The Revolution in Expectations
  • Expansion was accomplished by fostering high
    educational aspirations
  • High schools sort students into specific tracks
    (e.g., academic, vocational) relatively late
  • Majority of students enrolling in the academic
  • Promoted an opportunity consciousness among
  • Secondary students feel encouraged to pursue
    further studies
  • Current trends - a new stage of higher education
  • An evolution from a mass to a universal
  • Buoyed by ideologies of lifelong learning
  • Post-secondary enrolments may be poised to grow

The Revolution in Expectations
  • Table 4.3 (page 65)
  • Based on a recent survey of Canadian parents
  • Amount of educational ambition held by Canadians
    signals a revolution of expectations
  • Only 12 of parents do not have post-secondary
    expectations for their children
  • 57 of parents expect University attendance for
    their children
  • Twice as many parents expect children to be in
    university rather than college
  • Todays parents are the most educated in history
  • As late as 1991, only 11 per cent of Canadians
    possessed a university degree, while in the same
    year over half of Canadian teens expected to
    attain a degree

The Revolution in Expectations
  • Table 4.4 (page 66)
  • Parents educational expectations are moderated
    by their childrens school performance
  • Top half of Table
  • Parental expectations for children who are
    struggling are low
  • Lower half of table
  • Majority of parents (72 to 80) whose children do
    a lot of homework, have above-average grades,
    and like school anticipate university for their
  • Stems in part from the greater income
    opportunities that university degrees offer

The Revolution in Expectations
  • Historical image of the post-secondary students
    may need revision
  • Parents with children who report doing no
    homework (top row, Table 4.4), 42 per cent
    expect their offspring to attend college and 11
    per cent university.
  • Majority of parents of low-achieving students or
    of students who dislike school very much, still
    expect their daughters and sons to attend a
    post-secondary institution
  • An era of escalating post-secondary attendance
  • The rhetoric of universal higher education has
    pervaded the mindset of most Canadians
  • They increasingly regard community colleges as a
    repository for remedial students, as an
    institution that takes on all comers
  • Most colleges and institutes in Canada have open
    admission policies catering to exactly those

Expanding Curricula
  • A century ago - higher education served only
    specialized purposes like law and medicine using
    universities as entry portals
  • Now more occupations and positions can be entered
    only with post-secondary qualifications
  • Examples
  • The MBA - a necessary passport to enter many
    corporate hierarchies
  • Fuelling demand for business schools and programs
  • Require police, hairdressers, security guards, or
    sales people to possess college or university
  • Higher credentials have become a minimal

Expanding Curricula
  • Curriculum a century ago
  • Elementary - basic literacy and mathematics,
    reading storybooks, civics and religious teaching
  • Secondary - history and geography courses, basic
  • Higher education - philosophy (for theologians),
    law, and medicine
  • Curriculum means something very different today
  • Content exploded in recent decades
  • Largest changes at the post-secondary level
  • Two key areas
  • Expansion and absorption of vocational training
  • Knowledge explosion for technical subjects.
  • expanded as a result of the knowledge revolution

Expanding Curricula
  • High school - Once common for students to take
    single courses in math and science, now there are
    multiple courses
  • Post-secondary level - University course
    calendars bulge with hundreds of courses
  • Graduate school offerings are also expanding,
    broadening opportunities for masters and
    doctoral students
  • Community colleges are increasingly absorbing job
    training for various occupations
  • Secondary schools divest themselves of vocational
    education and become more academic in orientation
  • This is indicative of a schooled society
  • schools, whether secondary or post-secondary, are
    increasingly performing roles that in previous
    generations would have been performed elsewhere

Expanding Functions
  • District School Boards
  • Web site offers a variety of programs that go far
    beyond the three Rs.
  • Support of students - access to a range of
    non-teaching professionals, such as occupational
    and physiotherapists, psychologists, social
    workers, and speech pathologists
  • Programs for child care, driver education,
    nutrition, parenting, and outdoor education
  • Schools perform a variety of roles beyond basic
    cognitive instruction and civic socialization
  • Indicative of the central role of schools in
    society increasingly schools are seen as
    principal vehicles for solving many contemporary
    social problems

Expanding Functions
  • Problems in substance abuse drug education
  • Teen pregnancy sexually transmitted diseases
    sex education modules
  • Racism and intolerance anti-racist and
    multicultural curricula
  • Children are malnourished at home school meal
  • Violence schools conflict-resolution modules
  • Modern three Rs (reduce, reuse, and recycle)
    school nurturing of awareness

Expanding Functions
  • Modern Schools
  • Rise to the challenge of the knowledge economy
  • Retain more and more students for longer and
    longer periods
  • Address a multiplicity of social problems
  • Schools have much more of a religious-like
    fervour attached to them
  • Associated with a faith in progress, in the
    redemptive power of modernity

Expanding Alternatives
  • A smaller change - one that may have growing
    significance in the coming decades
  • Seeing in public schooling an expansion of the
    alternatives that the school class takes - has
    begun to metamorphose
  • See mutations beyond standard curricula to
    radically different alternative curricula
  • Example - French immersion programming
  • Begun in the 1970s to support Canadian
  • Provide an alternative form of schooling for
    students to learn a second language
  • Approximately 300,000 students enrolled in
    French immersion (7 of students)
  • A variant of the standard school class model - a
    model stressing choice and alternative

Expanding Alternatives
  • Box 4.1 (page 70)
  • Edmontons alternative forms of the school
  • A wide range of alternative programming for
  • Receiving international attention as an exemplar
    for decentralized, site-based decision-making
  • More autonomy is given to teachers and school
    administrators in designing effective learning
    programs for students

Exporting the School Model
  • Trend the exporting of school forms to other
    social institutions
  • Trend in criminal justice - the increasing use of
    diversion programs
  • Traditional penalties, like incarceration and
    fines, for non-violent crimes seen to be overly
    costly, inhumane, harsh, and counterproductive
  • Research in criminology suggests that criminal
    penalties do not always serve as strong
    deterrents for future crime
  • Hence recidivism rates are relatively high
  • This has led to some reform movements, called in
    some places restorative justice
  • Better to educate wrongdoers about their acts
    rather than merely punish them

Exporting the School Model
  • Diversion programs substituting penalties for
    some other program, such as treatment, community
    service, and education.
  • Rise of diversion programs that embrace a
    school-like form
  • Many programs have formal goals of educating
    offenders through the use of instructors,
    curricula, and various schoollike techniques.
  • Schools have been used as an alternative
    sentence for a variety of offences, including
    drinking and driving, harassment, shoplifting,
    and physical battery, the latter handled through
    anger-management schools.

Exporting the School Model
  • Family life increasingly informed by parenting
  • Parenting curriculum includes, programs in
    childbirth, toy safety, sibling management,
    financial investing for your child, and efficient
    management of family time
  • New conceptions of childhood combined with
    changing family practices push the schooling
    model downward into early childhood education and
  • Leisure life - availability of courses in all
    areas of recreation, learning how to play bridge
    to learning how to cycle around Europe
  • Corporations are increasingly turning to
    school-like forms to handle their training and