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Give Me Liberty!

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War declaration, foreign affairs, making treaties, western land. Disposition of the West ... Growing view of blacks as inassimilable ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Give Me Liberty!


1
Chapter 7
Norton Media Library
Give Me Liberty! An American History Second
Edition Volume 1
by Eric Foner
2
I. America under the Articles of Confederation
  • The Articles of Confederation
  • Origins
  • Drafting
  • Ratification
  • Structure
  • Unicameral, no president, no judiciary
  • Extent and limits of powers
  • War declaration, foreign affairs, making
    treaties, western land
  • Disposition of the West
  • Competing agendas
  • Indians as defeated nation, forfeited rights
    to land
  • Settlers
  • Land companies speculators

3
Map 19
4
I. America under the Articles of Confederation
(contd)
  • Disposition of the West
  • Congressional measures
  • Acquisition of Indians lands
  • Northern Southern
  • Ordinance of 1784 stages of self-government
  • Ordinance of 1785 regulated land sales north of
    Ohio R.
  • Sale of frontier lands to private groups
  • NW Ordinance of 1787
  • Plan for future states
  • Recognition of Indian claim to land
  • Prohibition of slavery in region

5
Map 20
6
I. America under the Articles of Confederation
(contd)
  • Confederation of government under fire
  • Points of controversy
  • Unredeemed wartime bonds
  • Glut of imported goods
  • State tariffs
  • State debt relief measures
  • State issuance of paper money
  • Shayss Rebellion
  • Objectives and spirit
  • Prevent farm foreclosures
  • Liberty trees, poles, etc.
  • Suppression
  • Upper-class alarm

7
I. America under the Articles of Confederation
(contd)
  • Confederation government under fire
  • Nationalist impulse
  • Concerns
  • Lack of national economic policy
  • Popular infringement on property rights
  • Social disorder (Shayss Rebellion)
  • Leading figures
  • James Madison
  • Alexander Hamilton

8
I. America under the Articles of Confederation
(contd)
  • Confederation government under fire
  • Nationalist impulse
  • Main sources of support
  • Bondholders
  • Large landholders
  • Merchants
  • Urban artisans
  • Initial mobilization

9
II. A new constitution
  • Delegates to Constitutional Convention
  • Elite backgrounds
  • Shared experience in struggle for independence
  • Shared aims
  • Stronger national unity
  • Curbs on excessive democracy

10
II. A new constitution (contd)
  • Structure of government
  • Points of agreement
  • Creation of legislative, executive, and judicial
    branches
  • Congressional power to raise revenue
  • Protection of property rights from state
    infringement
  • Middle ground between excessive central power and
    excessive democracy

11
II. A new constitution (contd)
  • Structure of government
  • Debate over structure of Congress
  • Underlying issues
  • Balance between state and federal power
  • Balance between large and small state interestes
  • Competing proposals
  • Virginia Plan
  • New Jersey Plan
  • Compromise

12
II. A new constitution (contd)
  • Extent and limits of democracy
  • Expansions of democracy
  • Popular election of House of Representatives
  • Absence of property qualifications for voting
  • Limits of democracy
  • Small size of House of Representatives
  • Indirect election of Senate
  • Indirect election of president and vice president
  • Life appointments to Supreme Court

13
II. A new constitution (contd)
  • Division of powers (federalism)
  • Expanded national authority
  • Presidential powers
  • Congressional powers
  • Supremacy of national over state legislation
  • Remaining areas of state power
  • Separation of powers (checks and balances)

14
II. A new constitution (contd)
  • The slavery question
  • Controversy
  • Outcomes
  • Absence of mention in constitution
  • Slave trade clause prohibited in 1808
  • Fugitive slave clause
  • Three-fifths clause
  • Conclusion of Constitutional Convention
  • Approval of final draft (September 17, 1787)
  • Transmission to states for ratification
  • 9 of 13 had to ratify

15
III. Ratification debate and Bill of Rights
  • Federalists
  • Mobilization
  • Leadership of Madison, Hamilton, Jay (The
    Federalist)
  • Government was an expression of freedom, not its
    enemy
  • Support among urban and commercial agricultural
    interests
  • Positions
  • Strong national government as guarantor of
    liberty
  • Urgency of balancing democracy and property
    rights
  • Securing rights by extending the sphere
  • Liberal self-interest over republican virtue

16
III. Ratification debate and Bill of Rights
(contd)
  • Anti-Federalists
  • Mobilization
  • Diffuse leadership
  • Support among small farmers, state politicians
  • Positions
  • Strong (and large) national government as threat
    to liberty
  • Specter of domination by elite interests
  • Specter of denial of rights
  • Locally based democracy over extended sphere

17
III. Ratification debate and Bill of Rights
(contd)
  • Ratification
  • Only Rhode Island and North Carolina voted
    against ratification
  • Bill of Rights
  • Impetus behind Anti-Federalists
  • Key provisions
  • Defined the unalienable rights of the
    Declaration of Independence
  • Significance and legacy
  • Vital building blocks of democracy

18
Map 21
19
IV. National identity in the new republic
  • Ethnic vs. civil criteria
  • Indians, other persons, and people
  • Only people entitled to American freedom
  • Indians in the new nation
  • No representation
  • Conflicting approaches of white Americans
  • Exclusion
  • Incorporation, or assimilation

20
IV. National identity in the new republic (contd)
  • Indians in the new nation
  • Early national policies
  • Marginalization of Indians in constitution
  • Appropriation of Indians lands under treaty
    system
  • Ohio Valley conflicts and Treaty of Greenville
  • Indian relinquishment of Ohio and Indiana lands
  • Establishment of annuity system
  • Program to encourage American-style agriculture
  • Prescriptions for male and female labor
  • Widespread rejection by tribes

21
IV. National identity in the new republic (contd)
  • Blacks in the new nation
  • Access to rights of citizenship left to
    individual states
  • Ambiguous status of free blacks
  • Unambiguous exclusion of enslaved blacks
  • Explicit denial of black eligibility for
    naturalization
  • Not viewed as rational beings
  • Growing view of blacks as inassimilable
  • Hector St. John Crevecours Letters from an
    American Farmer described America as a melting
    pot
  • Thomas Jeffersons Notes on the State of Virginia
  • Did not think any group was permanently in a
    status of inferiority
  • Freedom of slaves meant expulsion of slaves

22
MAPS
  • http//www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/
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