Specific Injuries Injuries to specific body parts require special care - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Specific Injuries Injuries to specific body parts require special care


1
Specific InjuriesInjuries to specific body
parts require special care
2
Eye Injuries
  • Eye injuries always involve danger of vision
    loss, especially if treated incorrectly
  • In most cases, it is best to avoid giving major
    treatment
  • Obtain assistance of medical help, preferably an
    eye specialist, as soon as possible

3
Eye Injuries
  • Foreign objects in the eye
  • Objects such as dust or dirt cause irritation,
    can scratch the eye or become embedded in the eye
  • Signs and symptoms
  • Redness
  • Burning sensation and/or pain
  • Watering or tearing of the eyes
  • Presence of visible objects in the eye

4
Eye Injuries
  • If object is floating freely in the eye
  • Keep victim from rubbing eye
  • Wash your hands thoroughly
  • Gently draw upper lid down over lower lid
  • Stimulates formation of tears
  • Lids may create wiping action to remove particle
  • Can also grasp eyelashes between thumb and
    forefinger
  • Gently raise upper eyelid
  • Tell victim to look down and tilt head to injured
    side
  • Gently flush eye with water to remove particle
  • Can also use corner of sterile gauze to gently
    remove particle

5
Eye Injuries
  • If object is embedded or does not respond to
    previous methods of removal
  • Make no attempt to remove particle
  • Apply a dry, sterile dressing
  • Obtain medical help for the victim

6
Eye Injuries
  • Blows to the eye
  • Examples blows from a fist, accident or
    explosion
  • May cause contusions or black eyes
  • Results in internal bleeding and torn tissues in
    eye
  • Can lead to loss of vision
  • First aid care
  • Apply sterile dressings or an eye shield
  • At times, it is best to cover both eyes to
    prevent movement of the injured eye
  • Keep victim lying flat
  • Obtain medical help (eye specialist if possible)

7
Eye Injuries
  • Penetrating injuries that cut eye tissue
  • Extremely dangerous because can result in loss of
    eye fluid
  • If object is protruding from eyes
  • Make no attempt to remove it
  • Support it by loosely applying dressings
  • First aid care
  • Apply dressings to both eyes to prevent movement
    of injured eye
  • Keep victim lying flat on back to prevent fluids
    from draining out of the eye
  • Obtain medical help immediately (eye specialist)

8
Ear Injuries
  • Injuries of the ear
  • Can result in rupture of perforation of eardrum
  • Torn or detached tissue of the ear
  • Apply sterile dressings with light pressure to
    control bleeding
  • Save any torn tissue
  • Keep tissue cool and moist with sterile water or
    sterile normal saline
  • Send tissue to medical facility with victim
  • Keep victim lying flat but raise head unless
    other conditions prohibit raising head

9
Ear Injuries
  • Ruptured or perforated eardrum
  • Place sterile gauze loosely in outer canal
  • Do not allow victim to hit side or head in an
    attempt to restore hearing
  • Do not put any liquids into the ear
  • Obtain medical help immediately

10
Ear Injuries
  • Clear fluid or blood-tinged fluid draining from
    ear
  • Can be a sign of a skull or brain injury
  • Allow fluid to flow from the ear
  • Wear glove or protective barrier to avoid skin
    contact with draining fluid
  • Keep victim lying down
  • If possible turn victim on injured side
  • Elevate head and shoulders slightly to allow
    fluid to drain
  • Obtain medical help immediately
  • Report presence and description of fluid to EMS

11
Brain Injuries
  • Wounds and blows to the head and skull can cause
    brain injury
  • Obtain medical help as quickly as possible
  • Signs and symptoms
  • Clear or blood-tinged cerebrospinal fluid
    draining from the nose or ears
  • Loss of consciousness and/or headache
  • Visual disturbances and pupils unequal in size
  • Paralysis of muscles and/or convulsions
  • Disturbances in speech
  • Nausea and vomiting

12
Brain Injuries
  • First aid care
  • Keep victim lying flat and raise head slightly if
    no evidence of neck or spinal injury
  • Treat for shock if necessary
  • Watch closely for signs of respiratory distress
    and provide artificial respiration if needed
  • Make no attempt to stop flow of cerebrospinal
    fluid
  • Position loose dressings to absorb flow

13
Brain Injuries
  • Do not give the victim any liquids
  • Victim may complain of excessive thirst
  • Can moisten lips, tongue and inside of mouth with
    a cool moist cloth
  • Note if, when and how long victim is unconscious
    and report to EMS

14
Nosebleed or Epistaxis
  • Usually nosebleeds are more frightening than
    serious
  • Can be caused by change in altitudes, strenuous
    activity, high blood pressure and rupture of
    small vessels after a cold
  • First aid care
  • Keep victim quiet and remain calm
  • Place victim in sitting position with head
    leaning slightly forward
  • Apply pressure for bleeding control
  • Press bleeding nostril toward midline
  • If both nostrils bleeding, press both nostrils
    toward midline

15
Nosebleed or Epistaxis
  • If bleeding does not stop with pressure, insert
    small piece of gauze into nostril
  • Apply pressure on outer surface
  • Avoid cotton as fibers will shed and stick
  • Leave portion of gauze extending out of nose so
    packing can be removed later
  • Apply cold compresses to nose
  • Obtain medical assistance if bleeding does not
    stop of if fracture of nose is suspected
  • Nosebleeds can be indication of underlying
    condition, such as high blood pressure, that
    requires medical care and treatment

16
Injuries to the Chest
  • Usually medical emergencies because heart, lungs
    and major blood vessels may be involved
  • In all cases, obtain medical help immediately
  • Sucking chest wound
  • Deep open wound of chest that allows air to flow
    directly in and out with breathing
  • Vacuum usually present in pleura is destroyed so
    lung on injured side collapses
  • Immediate medical help must be obtained

17
Injuries to the Chest
  • Airtight dressing must be placed over wound to
    prevent air flow in and out of wound
  • Use aluminum foil, plastic wrap or other
    nonporous material
  • Use tape or a bandage to hold nonporous material
    in place
  • Maintain an open airway and provide artificial
    respiration as needed
  • Position victim on injured side and elevate head
    and chest slightly
  • Allows uninjured lung to expand more freely
  • Prevents pressure on uninjured lung from blood
    and damaged tissue

18
Injuries to the Chest
  • Penetrating injuries of the chest
  • Can result in sucking chest wounds or damage to
    heart and blood vessels
  • If object is protruding from chest (ex. Knife)
  • Do not attempt to remove it
  • Immobilize object by placing dressings around it
    and taping the dressings in position
  • Place victim in comfortable position
  • Maintain respirations
  • Obtain medical help immediately

19
Injuries to the Chest
  • Crushing injuries of the chest
  • Can be caused in vehicular accidents or when
    heavy objects strike the chest
  • Fractured ribs and damage to heart and/or lungs
    can occur
  • Place victim in comfortable position
  • Elevate head and/or shoulders to aid breathing if
    possible
  • If an injury to the neck of spine is suspected,
    avoid moving the victim
  • Obtain medical help immediately

20
Abdominal Injuries
  • Can cause damage to internal organs and bleeding
    in major blood vessels
  • Intestines and other abdominal organs may
    protrude from the open wound
  • Medical help must be obtained immediately
  • Bleeding, shock and damage to organs can lead to
    death in a short period of time

21
Abdominal Injuries
  • Signs and symptoms
  • Severe abdominal pain and tenderness
  • Visibility of protruding organs or open wounds
  • Nausea and vomiting (especially blood)
  • Rigidity of abdominal muscles
  • Symptoms of shock

22
Abdominal Injuries
  • First aid care
  • Position victim flat on back
  • Place pillow or rolled blanket under knees to
    help relax abdominal muscles
  • Elevate head and shoulders to aid in breathing
  • Remove clothing from around the wound or
    protruding organs
  • Cover any organs with large, sterile dressing
    moistened with sterile water or normal saline

23
Abdominal Injuries
  • Make no attempt to replace protruding organs
  • Avoid giving victim any fluids or food
  • Victim may complain of excessive thirst
  • Moisten lips, tongue and inside of mouth with a
    cool, wet cloth
  • Obtain medical help immediately

24
Injuries to Genital Organs
  • Can result from falls, blows, explosions or
    caught zippers
  • Medical help is required because can cause severe
    pain, bleeding and shock
  • First aid care
  • Control severe bleeding
  • Apply direct pressure with a sterile dressing
  • Wear gloves or protective barrier to avoid skin
    contact with blood

25
Injuries to Genital Organs
  • Treat victim for shock if signs are noted
  • Do not remove any penetrating or inserted objects
  • Save any torn tissue
  • Keep tissue cool and moist with sterile water or
    sterile normal saline
  • Send tissue to medical facility with victim
  • Apply ice pack or cold application to decrease
    bleeding and relieve pain
  • Obtain medical help

26
Other Principles of Care for Specific Injuries
  • Other principles of care for specific injuries
  • Be alert to signs of shock in all victims and
    treat for shock immediately
  • Reassure victim constantly
  • Encourage victim to relax as much as possible
  • Direct first aid care at providing as much relief
    from pain as possible
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Specific Injuries Injuries to specific body parts require special care

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Eye injuries always involve danger of vision loss, especially if treated incorrectly ... Apply sterile dressings or an eye shield ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Specific Injuries Injuries to specific body parts require special care


1
Specific InjuriesInjuries to specific body
parts require special care
2
Eye Injuries
  • Eye injuries always involve danger of vision
    loss, especially if treated incorrectly
  • In most cases, it is best to avoid giving major
    treatment
  • Obtain assistance of medical help, preferably an
    eye specialist, as soon as possible

3
Eye Injuries
  • Foreign objects in the eye
  • Objects such as dust or dirt cause irritation,
    can scratch the eye or become embedded in the eye
  • Signs and symptoms
  • Redness
  • Burning sensation and/or pain
  • Watering or tearing of the eyes
  • Presence of visible objects in the eye

4
Eye Injuries
  • If object is floating freely in the eye
  • Keep victim from rubbing eye
  • Wash your hands thoroughly
  • Gently draw upper lid down over lower lid
  • Stimulates formation of tears
  • Lids may create wiping action to remove particle
  • Can also grasp eyelashes between thumb and
    forefinger
  • Gently raise upper eyelid
  • Tell victim to look down and tilt head to injured
    side
  • Gently flush eye with water to remove particle
  • Can also use corner of sterile gauze to gently
    remove particle

5
Eye Injuries
  • If object is embedded or does not respond to
    previous methods of removal
  • Make no attempt to remove particle
  • Apply a dry, sterile dressing
  • Obtain medical help for the victim

6
Eye Injuries
  • Blows to the eye
  • Examples blows from a fist, accident or
    explosion
  • May cause contusions or black eyes
  • Results in internal bleeding and torn tissues in
    eye
  • Can lead to loss of vision
  • First aid care
  • Apply sterile dressings or an eye shield
  • At times, it is best to cover both eyes to
    prevent movement of the injured eye
  • Keep victim lying flat
  • Obtain medical help (eye specialist if possible)

7
Eye Injuries
  • Penetrating injuries that cut eye tissue
  • Extremely dangerous because can result in loss of
    eye fluid
  • If object is protruding from eyes
  • Make no attempt to remove it
  • Support it by loosely applying dressings
  • First aid care
  • Apply dressings to both eyes to prevent movement
    of injured eye
  • Keep victim lying flat on back to prevent fluids
    from draining out of the eye
  • Obtain medical help immediately (eye specialist)

8
Ear Injuries
  • Injuries of the ear
  • Can result in rupture of perforation of eardrum
  • Torn or detached tissue of the ear
  • Apply sterile dressings with light pressure to
    control bleeding
  • Save any torn tissue
  • Keep tissue cool and moist with sterile water or
    sterile normal saline
  • Send tissue to medical facility with victim
  • Keep victim lying flat but raise head unless
    other conditions prohibit raising head

9
Ear Injuries
  • Ruptured or perforated eardrum
  • Place sterile gauze loosely in outer canal
  • Do not allow victim to hit side or head in an
    attempt to restore hearing
  • Do not put any liquids into the ear
  • Obtain medical help immediately

10
Ear Injuries
  • Clear fluid or blood-tinged fluid draining from
    ear
  • Can be a sign of a skull or brain injury
  • Allow fluid to flow from the ear
  • Wear glove or protective barrier to avoid skin
    contact with draining fluid
  • Keep victim lying down
  • If possible turn victim on injured side
  • Elevate head and shoulders slightly to allow
    fluid to drain
  • Obtain medical help immediately
  • Report presence and description of fluid to EMS

11
Brain Injuries
  • Wounds and blows to the head and skull can cause
    brain injury
  • Obtain medical help as quickly as possible
  • Signs and symptoms
  • Clear or blood-tinged cerebrospinal fluid
    draining from the nose or ears
  • Loss of consciousness and/or headache
  • Visual disturbances and pupils unequal in size
  • Paralysis of muscles and/or convulsions
  • Disturbances in speech
  • Nausea and vomiting

12
Brain Injuries
  • First aid care
  • Keep victim lying flat and raise head slightly if
    no evidence of neck or spinal injury
  • Treat for shock if necessary
  • Watch closely for signs of respiratory distress
    and provide artificial respiration if needed
  • Make no attempt to stop flow of cerebrospinal
    fluid
  • Position loose dressings to absorb flow

13
Brain Injuries
  • Do not give the victim any liquids
  • Victim may complain of excessive thirst
  • Can moisten lips, tongue and inside of mouth with
    a cool moist cloth
  • Note if, when and how long victim is unconscious
    and report to EMS

14
Nosebleed or Epistaxis
  • Usually nosebleeds are more frightening than
    serious
  • Can be caused by change in altitudes, strenuous
    activity, high blood pressure and rupture of
    small vessels after a cold
  • First aid care
  • Keep victim quiet and remain calm
  • Place victim in sitting position with head
    leaning slightly forward
  • Apply pressure for bleeding control
  • Press bleeding nostril toward midline
  • If both nostrils bleeding, press both nostrils
    toward midline

15
Nosebleed or Epistaxis
  • If bleeding does not stop with pressure, insert
    small piece of gauze into nostril
  • Apply pressure on outer surface
  • Avoid cotton as fibers will shed and stick
  • Leave portion of gauze extending out of nose so
    packing can be removed later
  • Apply cold compresses to nose
  • Obtain medical assistance if bleeding does not
    stop of if fracture of nose is suspected
  • Nosebleeds can be indication of underlying
    condition, such as high blood pressure, that
    requires medical care and treatment

16
Injuries to the Chest
  • Usually medical emergencies because heart, lungs
    and major blood vessels may be involved
  • In all cases, obtain medical help immediately
  • Sucking chest wound
  • Deep open wound of chest that allows air to flow
    directly in and out with breathing
  • Vacuum usually present in pleura is destroyed so
    lung on injured side collapses
  • Immediate medical help must be obtained

17
Injuries to the Chest
  • Airtight dressing must be placed over wound to
    prevent air flow in and out of wound
  • Use aluminum foil, plastic wrap or other
    nonporous material
  • Use tape or a bandage to hold nonporous material
    in place
  • Maintain an open airway and provide artificial
    respiration as needed
  • Position victim on injured side and elevate head
    and chest slightly
  • Allows uninjured lung to expand more freely
  • Prevents pressure on uninjured lung from blood
    and damaged tissue

18
Injuries to the Chest
  • Penetrating injuries of the chest
  • Can result in sucking chest wounds or damage to
    heart and blood vessels
  • If object is protruding from chest (ex. Knife)
  • Do not attempt to remove it
  • Immobilize object by placing dressings around it
    and taping the dressings in position
  • Place victim in comfortable position
  • Maintain respirations
  • Obtain medical help immediately

19
Injuries to the Chest
  • Crushing injuries of the chest
  • Can be caused in vehicular accidents or when
    heavy objects strike the chest
  • Fractured ribs and damage to heart and/or lungs
    can occur
  • Place victim in comfortable position
  • Elevate head and/or shoulders to aid breathing if
    possible
  • If an injury to the neck of spine is suspected,
    avoid moving the victim
  • Obtain medical help immediately

20
Abdominal Injuries
  • Can cause damage to internal organs and bleeding
    in major blood vessels
  • Intestines and other abdominal organs may
    protrude from the open wound
  • Medical help must be obtained immediately
  • Bleeding, shock and damage to organs can lead to
    death in a short period of time

21
Abdominal Injuries
  • Signs and symptoms
  • Severe abdominal pain and tenderness
  • Visibility of protruding organs or open wounds
  • Nausea and vomiting (especially blood)
  • Rigidity of abdominal muscles
  • Symptoms of shock

22
Abdominal Injuries
  • First aid care
  • Position victim flat on back
  • Place pillow or rolled blanket under knees to
    help relax abdominal muscles
  • Elevate head and shoulders to aid in breathing
  • Remove clothing from around the wound or
    protruding organs
  • Cover any organs with large, sterile dressing
    moistened with sterile water or normal saline

23
Abdominal Injuries
  • Make no attempt to replace protruding organs
  • Avoid giving victim any fluids or food
  • Victim may complain of excessive thirst
  • Moisten lips, tongue and inside of mouth with a
    cool, wet cloth
  • Obtain medical help immediately

24
Injuries to Genital Organs
  • Can result from falls, blows, explosions or
    caught zippers
  • Medical help is required because can cause severe
    pain, bleeding and shock
  • First aid care
  • Control severe bleeding
  • Apply direct pressure with a sterile dressing
  • Wear gloves or protective barrier to avoid skin
    contact with blood

25
Injuries to Genital Organs
  • Treat victim for shock if signs are noted
  • Do not remove any penetrating or inserted objects
  • Save any torn tissue
  • Keep tissue cool and moist with sterile water or
    sterile normal saline
  • Send tissue to medical facility with victim
  • Apply ice pack or cold application to decrease
    bleeding and relieve pain
  • Obtain medical help

26
Other Principles of Care for Specific Injuries
  • Other principles of care for specific injuries
  • Be alert to signs of shock in all victims and
    treat for shock immediately
  • Reassure victim constantly
  • Encourage victim to relax as much as possible
  • Direct first aid care at providing as much relief
    from pain as possible
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