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Skills and Technical Training

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HRD3eCH9 Contributed by Wells Doty, Ed.D. Clemson Univ. 1. Skills and Technical Training ... HRD3eCH9 Contributed by Wells Doty, Ed.D. Clemson Univ. 2. Emerging ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Skills and Technical Training


1
Skills and Technical Training
  • Chapter 10

2
Emerging Needs in the Workplace
  • Skilled workers
  • Professional employees
  • Problem solving
  • Decision making
  • Team members
  • Interpersonal skills

3
Three Categories of Skills Training
  • Basic skills/literacy education
  • Upgrading reading, writing and arithmetic
  • Technical training
  • Upgrading a wide range of skills
  • Interpersonal skills training
  • Communication and teamwork

4
The Skills Gap
  • The difference between the skill requirements of
    available jobs and the skills possessed by job
    applicants.
  • Some people think that the skills gap is
    perpetuated by four-year, liberal arts
    education.

5
Factors Affecting Skills Gap
  • Declining skill levels of many high school and
    college graduates.
  • Growing number of minority and non-English
    speaking immigrant workers.
  • Increased sophistication of jobs.

6
Basic Skills/Literacy Programs
  • Prose literacy
  • Ability to understand and use information from
    texts.
  • Document literacy
  • Ability to locate and use information contained
    in non-textual materials.
  • Qualitative literacy
  • Ability to apply arithmetic operations.

7
In-House Literacy Programs
  • If schools dont do it, companies must.
  • Two characteristics are common
  • Aptitude tests
  • Small-group or one-on-one tutoring

8
Problems with Basic Skills Training Programs
  • HRD professionals think the lack of literacy is a
    problem that affects many people.
  • Management tends to think that lack of literacy
    is a problem, but affects only a few people.

9
Federal Support for Basic Skills Training
  • 19832000 Job Training and Partnership Act
    (JTPA)
  • Provided funding to private training institutes
    and industry.
  • Problems included fraud and too focused on a
    narrow population.
  • One of 150 Federal programs that cost a lot of
    money and produced little.

10
Federal Support for Basic Skills Training - 2
  • 2000present Workforce Investment Act
  • Consolidated more than 70 existing programs.
  • Gave greater control at the local level.
  • Gave greater accountability to training providers.

11
Technical Training Programs
  • Apprenticeship training
  • Computer training
  • Skills/knowledge training
  • Safety training
  • Quality training

12
Apprenticeship Training
  • Provide skills to meet continually changing job
    requirements.
  • Regulated by Bureau of Apprenticeship Training in
    the U.S. Dept. of Labor.
  • Most require
  • 2000 hours of OJT
  • 144 hours of classroom training
  • Though there may be a lot more hours…

13
Major Concerns
  • Learning based on time requirements rather than
    competency.
  • Programs isolated from other programs.
  • Concentrated in blue-collar occupations.
  • Little concern for post-apprenticeship period.

14
SchooltoWork Programs
  • Vary according to states.
  • Combines middle school, high school, and
    technical/vocational schools.
  • Provides
  • Trained labor pool
  • Better public image
  • Potential eligibility for tax credits

15
Computer Training
  • Introductory
  • Focuses on basic tasks
  • Overcomes fear of computers
  • Applications
  • Specific software used by company
  • Provided as needed for position

16
Computer Training Issues
  • Self-Efficacy
  • Individuals belief that he/she can successfully
    perform the task.
  • Cognitive Playfulness
  • Spontaneity, imagination and exploratory approach
    brought to learning.
  • Training Format

17
Technical/Skills Training
  • Most are specific to job, process, or equipment.
  • Can be general, such as new policies and
    procedures on waste disposal.

18
Different Levels of Skills Training
  • Entry-level
  • Basic skills and procedures
  • Advanced Training
  • Update employee skills
  • Specific skills improvement
  • New equipment/procedure training

19
Safety Training
  • Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration
    (OSHA)
  • Establishes safety standards
  • Conduct safety inspections
  • Grant safety variances as appropriate
  • Cite violations

20
Safety Metrics
  • Lost Work Day Index
  • National average is 3.0 days/100 employees/year
  • OSHA Recordable Rate
  • Lost Time Rate

21
Hazardous Communication Standards
  • Written policy needed
  • Use OSHA posters
  • Material safety data sheets (MSDS)
  • MSDS notebooks available to all
  • Hazardous material labels
  • Train all employees in hazardous materials
  • Prepare safety manual

22
Safety Program Needs
  • Top management support and reinforcement
  • Employee involvement
  • Regular and recurrent safety training
  • Effective safety monitoring

23
Safety Training Needs for Production Workers
  • Recognizing, avoiding and preventing unsafe
    conditions.
  • How to use/handle dangerous machinery, tools, and
    substances.
  • Use of protective clothing, systems, and devices.
  • Controlling hazards of any type.

24
Using Computers for OSHA Training
  • OSHA clearly states that while…CBT can be a
    valuable tool… its use alone does not meet the
    intent of most OSHA training requirements.
    …employees require… access to a qualified
    trainer. (p. 335)

25
Quality Training
  • QUALITY Providing the product the customer needs
    when s/he needs it, at a cost the customer thinks
    is reasonable.
  • Need to provide a continuous quality improvement
    program.
  • Employees need to know basic statistics to
    implement most quality improvement programs.

26
Total Quality Management
  • Fundamental Skills
  • Employees must be able to work in teams.
  • Employees must be able to collect, analyze and
    evaluate quantitative data.

27
Two Phases for Quality Training
  • Quality Awareness Training managers in concept
    of quality improvement
  • In-depth Training
  • Process skills
  • Work coordination, problem solving, conflict
    resolution
  • Quality skills
  • Techniques and tools to improve quality

28
Seven Basic Quality Tools (Table 9-7)
  • Process Flow Analysis
  • Cause-and-Effect Diagram
  • Run Chart
  • Statistical Process Control (SPC)
  • Scattergram
  • Histogram
  • Pareto Chart

29
Statistical Process Control (SPC)
  • Most processes demonstrate variation in output.
  • Important to determine if variation is normal or
    abnormal.
  • Focuses on identifying and correcting abnormal
    variations.

30
Needs for Quality Training
  • Must be comprehensive.
  • Include both process and quality skills
  • Needs continual and positive follow-up.
  • Training is not enough! You need management
    commitment, employee involvement, rewards, and
    integrated performance evaluation.

31
Reasons for Poor Transfer to the Workplace
  • Resistance to change
  • Unclear objectives
  • Few rewards to use new skills

32
Quality Training and ISO 9000
  • International quality standards
  • Three phases
  • Document writing
  • Implementation
  • Includes company-wide training
  • Systems effectiveness assessment

33
ISO 9000 Training Requirements
  • Training needs identification process
  • Training documentation
  • Ready for inspection every 6-12 months

34
Interpersonal Skills Training
  • Skills needed to work with other people
  • Communication
  • Customer relations
  • Selling
  • Teamwork

35
Most Common Interpersonal Skills Training
  • Team building
  • Listening skills
  • Delegation skills

36
Why Interpersonal Skills Training is Needed
  • Increased use of team-based approach to
    accomplishing work.
  • Entrants into workforce lack needed skills.
  • High school, college and graduate-level
  • Increasingly multicultural workplace.
  • Global economy

37
Sales Training
  • Goals
  • Build customer loyalty
  • Improve long-term customer relations
  • Provide product information
  • Build trust
  • Solve customer problems

38
Customer Relations/Service Training
  • Introduce customer service training throughout
    organization.
  • Train front-line personnel in interpersonal
    skills and operational practices.
  • Train service managers in coaching and enforcing
    service standards.
  • Provide incentives.

39
Team Building/Training
  • Increased use of teams as basic organizational
    element.
  • Two sets of team-related skills
  • Task Skills skills needed for accomplishing a
    teams work objectives.
  • Process Skills how to work in a team and
    maintain team relationships.

40
Types of Team-Based Training Approaches (Table
9-8)
  • Quality Circle
  • Cross-Functional
  • Semi-Autonomous
  • Self-Managed
  • Self-Designed

41
Four Models of Team Building (Table 9-9)
  • Goal Setting
  • Interpersonal Relationships
  • Problem Solving
  • Role Clarification

42
Role of Labor Unions in Training
  • Joint Training Programs
  • Most common are safety and health, job skills,
    communication skills, and displaced worker
    assistance.
  • Many other programs are job- and company-specific.

43
Professional Development and Education
  • Earning and maintaining licensure and
    certification in a field of work.
  • Periodic need for continuing education.

44
Providers of Continuing Education
  • Colleges and universities
  • Professional Associations
  • Company-sponsored continuing education efforts

45
Colleges and Universities
  • Substantive expertise available.
  • Courses might be tailored to job/profession.
  • Organizations can choose instructors.
  • College credit may be earned.

46
Professional Associations
  • Conferences, workshops, meetings
  • Journals, magazines, newsletters
  • Pre-certification and post-certification workshops

47
Company-Sponsored Continuing Education
  • Corporate universities.
  • Programs are organization specific.
  • Staff can be in-house, out-of-house and retirees.
  • Can incorporate latest technology into training.

48
HRDs Roles in Continuing Education (CE)
  • Enabler foster effective distribution of CE
    throughout organization.
  • Resource Provider tuition aid, compensation for
    travel expenses, professional fees.
  • Monitor Assess CE to ensure professional
    development process is working as desired.

49
Summary
  • Need for skilled workers is increasing.
  • Entry-level personnel need basic and literacy
    training.
  • Global economy and multicultural issues need to
    be addressed.
  • Professional growth must be supported.
  • Need to be proactive in the face of changing
    technology.
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