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Give Me Liberty!

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New Deal as alternative to socialist, Nazi, and Laissez-faire solutions ... FDR vs. Republican Alf Landon. Sharp divisions between classes, conceptions of freedom ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Give Me Liberty!


1
Chapter 21
Norton Media Library
Give Me Liberty! An American History Second
Edition Volume 2
by Eric Foner
2
I. First New Deal (the Hundred Days)
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) and the election of
    1932
  • Roosevelt background
  • New Deal promise
  • Vagueness
  • Popular reception
  • Outcome
  • FDR landslide victory over Hoover
  • Strong Democratic Congressional gains

3
I. First New Day (the Hundred Days)
  • Initial approach to economic crisis
  • New Deal as alternative to socialist, Nazi, and
    Laissez-faire solutions
  • Lack of initial blueprint
  • Circle of advisors
  • Leading figures
  • Outlooks
  • Roots in Progressive reform
  • Dominant preference for regulated bigness

4
I. First New Day (the Hundred Days)
  • FDR inaugural
  • Financial program
  • Initiatives
  • Bank holiday
  • Emergency Banking Act
  • Glass-Steagall Act
  • Removal of United States from gold standard
  • Aim reversal of banking crisis
  • Outcome rescue of financial system

5
I. First New Day (the Hundred Days)
  • National Recovery Administration (NRA)
  • Elements
  • Business-government cooperation
  • Industry codes for output, prices, working
    conditions
  • Recognition of labors right to organize
  • Blue Eagle campaign
  • Aims
  • Restoration of economic vitality, stability
  • Labor-management peace

6
I. First New Day (the Hundred Days)
  • National Recovery Administration (NRA)
  • Outcomes
  • Ebbing of public enthusiasm growth of
    controversy
  • Corporate domination
  • Weak enforcement
  • Minimal effectiveness
  • Relief and jobs programs
  • Initiatives
  • Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)
  • Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
  • Public Works Administration (PWA)
  • Civil Works Administration (CWA)
  • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

7
I. First New Day (the Hundred Days)
  • Relief and jobs programs
  • Aims
  • Direct relief for needy (FERA)
  • Public employment (CCC, PWA, CWA, TVA)
  • Improvement of nations infrastructure (CCC. PWA,
    CWA, TVA)
  • Outcomes
  • Mass participation
  • Widespread relief
  • Emerging opposition
  • Long-term effects

8
I. First New Day (the Hundred Days)
  • Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
  • Elements
  • Production quotas
  • Subsidies for removal of land from cultivation
  • Destruction of crops, livestock
  • Aims revival of farm prices and income
  • Outcomes
  • Revival of farm prices and income
  • Uneven impact on farmers
  • Gains for landowning farmers
  • Exclusion and displacement of tenants,
    sharecroppers

9
I. First New Day (the Hundred Days)
  • Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
  • Worsening of rural hardship
  • Dust Bowl and mass displacement of farmers
  • John Steinbecks The Grapes of Wrath
  • Housing program
  • Initiatives
  • Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC)
  • Federal Housing Administration (FHA)
  • Federal construction of low-rent housing
  • Aims
  • Protection of homeowners from foreclosure
  • Expanded access to home ownership
  • Inexpensive rental housing
  • New construction

10
I. First New Day (the Hundred Days)
  • Housing program
  • Outcomes
  • Preservation or attainment of home ownership for
    millions
  • Affirmation of security of the home as a
    fundamental right
  • Further initiatives
  • Repeal of Prohibition
  • Federal Communications Commission
  • Securities and Exchange Commission
  • Overall impact
  • Transformation of role of federal government
  • Scale of relief, public projects
  • Failure to end Depression

11
I. First New Day (the Hundred Days)
  • Gathering Supreme Court assault
  • Invalidation of NRA Schecter Poultry case
  • Invalidation of AAA United States v. Butler

12
II. Grassroots revolt
  • Reawakening of American labor movement
  • Preconditions
  • Encouraging signals from federal government
  • Election of FDR
  • Section 7a of National Industrial Recovery Act
  • Wagner Acts
  • Receding of ethnic differences
  • Militant leadership
  • Aspirations
  • Better Wages
  • Check on employer power
  • Labor rights
  • Union recognition

13
III. Second New Deal
  • Triggering factors
  • Persistence of Depression
  • Popular unrest
  • Democratic gains of 1934
  • Underlying aims
  • Economic security
  • Redistribution of income broadening of
    purchasing power
  • Central initiatives
  • Tax on wealth, corporate profits
  • Rural Electrification Agency
  • Electric power to farmers
  • Soil conservation
  • Minimal benefits for non-landholders

14
III. Second New Deal (contd)
  • Central initiatives
  • Works Projects Administration (WPA)
  • Mass participation
  • Impact on national life
  • Infrastructure
  • The arts
  • Wagner Act (National Labor Relations Act)
  • Provisions
  • Rights to organize, union representation,
    collective bargaining
  • Federal enforcement National Labor Relations
    Board
  • Democratization of the workplace Labors Magna
    Carta

15
III. Second New Deal (contd)
  • Central initiatives
  • Social Security Act
  • Provisions
  • Unemployment insurance
  • Old-age pension
  • Aid to disabled, elderly poor, and families with
    dependent children
  • Key features
  • System of taxes on employees and workers
  • Mix of national and local funding, control, and
    eligibility standards
  • Significance launching of American welfare
    system
  • In comparison with European versions

16
IV. Reckoning with liberty
  • Contested meanings of freedom
  • New Deal version
  • Expanded power of national state
  • Social and industrial freedom
  • Economic security of liberty of contract
  • FDR and modern liberalism
  • Anti-New Deal version
  • Freedom from government regulation, fiscal
    responsibility
  • Individual freedom
  • American Liberty League
  • Hoovers The Challenge to Liberty

17
IV. Reckoning with liberty (contd)
  • Election of 1936
  • FDR vs. Republican Alf Landon
  • Sharp divisions between classes, conceptions of
    freedom
  • Outcome Roosevelt landslide
  • Significance
  • Seeds of anti-government conservatism
  • New Deal coalition
  • FDRs second inaugural
  • FDRs court-packing plan
  • Motivations
  • Widespread alarm over
  • Ultimate success

18
IV. Reckoning with liberty (contd)
  • FDRs court-packing plan
  • Ultimate success
  • New receptiveness of Supreme Court to New Deal
    regulation
  • Chief justice Charles Evans Hughes conversion
  • Winding down of Second New Deal
  • Last major New Deal Measures
  • United States Housing Act
  • Fair Labor Standards Act
  • 1937 economic downturn
  • Shift in New Deal approach to economic crisis
  • Adoption of Keynesian, public spending tool
  • Discontinuation of economic planning,
    redistribution

19
VI. New conception of America
  • Absorption of new immigrants into public
    mainstream
  • Prominence among framers and supporters of New
    Deal
  • Little New Deals Fiorello LaGuardia
  • Cultural assimilation
  • Americanization via labor and political activism
  • Ascendancy of American left
  • Elements
  • Communists
  • Socialists
  • Labor radicals, CIO
  • New Deal liberals

20
VI. New conception of America
  • Ascendancy of American left
  • Growth
  • In numbers
  • In impact on political culture, conceptions of
    freedom
  • Activities and appeal of Communist Party
  • Range of causes
  • The unemployed
  • Industrial unionism CIO
  • Civil rights Scottsboro case
  • Civil liberties

21
VI. New conception of America
  • Ascendancy of American left
  • Activities and appeal of Communist Party
  • Popular Front vision
  • Coalition with wider left
  • Broadening and energizing of New Deal liberalism
  • Promotion of social and economic radicalism,
    ethnic and racial diversity, unionism and social
    citizenship
  • Growing size, respectability
  • Breadth of Popular Front vision
  • FDR and the common man
  • Manifestations in the arts
  • Militant, inclusive unionism of CIO
  • Spreading condemnations of racial, ethnic,
    religious intolerance
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