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Online Mentoring and Facilitation for Online Communities and Cross Cultural Exchanges

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Title: Online Mentoring and Facilitation for Online Communities and Cross Cultural Exchanges


1
Online Mentoring and Facilitation for Online
Communities and Cross Cultural Exchanges
Dr. Curtis J. Bonk Indiana University CourseShare
http//php.indiana.edu/cjbonk cjbonk_at_indiana.edu

2
What Roles of Online Instructor???
  • facilitator, hostess, chair, host, lecturer,
    tutor, facilitator, mediator, mentor,
    provocateur, observer, participant, assistant,
    organizer
  • (Paulsen, 1995 Selinger, 1999)

3
Masons (1991) 3 Roles
  • Organizationalset agenda, objectives, timetable,
    procedural rules
  • Patience, vary things, spur discussion, invites
  • Socialwelcome, thank, provide feedback, and set
    generally positive tone
  • Reinforce good things, invite to be candid
  • Intellectualprobe, ask qs, refocus, set goals,
    weave comments, synthesize comments
  • Know when to summarize and to leave alone

4
Four Key Hats of Instructors
  • Technicaldo students have basics? Does their
    equipment work? Passwords work?
  • ManagerialDo students understand the assignments
    and course structure?
  • PedagogicalHow are students interacting,
    summarizing, debating, thinking?
  • SocialWhat is the general tone? Is there a
    human side to this course? Joking allowed?
  • (Ashton, Roberts, Teles, 1999)

5
Lets Explore These Hats Again With Specific
Examples!
  • Technical
  • Social
  • Managerial
  • Pedagogical

6
Technological Hat
  • Address tool/system familiarity
  • Require early assignment to test technology
  • Have orientation task, early training
  • Be flexible, smooth out problems
  • Plan, test, support

7
Social Hat
  • Create community, set tone, motivate
  • Welcome, thank, invite, reinforce positives
  • Foster shared knowledge
  • Support humor and conversational tone
  • Use tools such as cafes, profiles, pictures
  • Invite to be candid

8
Managerial Hat
  • Set agenda, timetable/calendar, assignment page
  • Set objectives, clear times, due dates,
    expectations
  • Explain rules, assignments, intended audiences
  • Assign teams and coordinate meeting times
  • Monitor discussions and track logins
  • Provide weekly feedback and class updates
  • Manage gradebooks post grading rubrics

9
Pedagogical Hat
  • Use PBL or inquiry environment
  • Refer to outside resources and experts
  • Coordinate student interaction, team
    collaboration
  • Assign roles, set goals, foster peer feedback
  • Ask probing questions, refocus, nudge, instruct
  • Scaffold, give advice, mentor
  • Weave, synthesize, link ideas, provide overviews
  • Know when to intervene and when to leave alone

10
How to Combine these Roles?
11
E-Moderator
  • Refers to online teaching and facilitation role.
    Moderating used to mean to preside over a meeting
    or a discussion, but in the electronic world, it
    means more than that. It is all roles
    combinedto hold meetings, to encourage, to
    provide information, to question, to summarize,
    etc.
  • (Collins Berge, 1997 Gilly Salmon, 2000) see
    http//www.emoderators.com/moderators.shtml.

12
E-ModeratingE-Moderating The Key to Teaching
and Learning Online, (Gilly Salmon, (1999) Kogan
Page)
  • Know when to stay silent for a few days.
  • Close off unused or unproductive conferences.
  • Provide relevant and purposeful conferences.
  • Provide a variety of conference topics.
  • Deal promptly with dominance, harassment, and
    excessive lurking.
  • Summarize and archive often.

13
eModerators.com Web Sitehttp//www.emoderators.co
m/moderators.shtmlmod
14
Pedagogical Recommendations(Berge, 1995, The
role of the online instructor/facilitator)
  • Dont expect too much/thread
  • Draw attention to conflicting views
  • Do not lecture (Long, coherent sequence of
    comments yields silence)
  • Request responses within set time
  • Maintain non-authoritarian style
  • Promote private conversations

15
Social Recommendations(Berge, 1995, The role of
the online instructor/facilitator)
  • Guard against fear or public ridicule
  • Be accepting of lurkers
  • Do not ignore bad discussant behaviorprivately
    request change
  • Use introductions
  • Limit use of humor and sarcasm
  • Praise behavior you seek

16
Managerial Recommendations(Berge, 1995, The role
of the online instructor/facilitator)
  • Distribute lists of participants
  • Provide timely administrative infobooks,
    enrollment, counseling, etc.
  • Change procedures that are not working
  • Change misplaced subject headings
  • Decisively end discussion sessions
  • Dont overload

17
Other Hats
18
Personal Learning Trainer
  • Learners need a personal trainer to lead them
    through materials and networks, identify relevant
    materials and advisors and ways to move forward
    (Mason, 1998 Salmon, 2000).

19
Online Concierge
  • To provide support and information on request
    (perhaps a map of the area) (Gilly Salmon, 2000).

20
Online Conductor
  • The pulling together of a variety of resources as
    people as in an orchestra to produce beautiful
    integrated sound or perhaps electrical current
    conductors if your conferences are effective and
    flow along, there will be energy, excitement, and
    power (Gilly Salmon, 2000).

21
E-Police
  • While one hopes you will not call yourself this
    nor find the need to make laws and enforce them,
    you will need some Code of Practice or set
    procedures, and protocols for e-moderators (Gilly
    Salmon, 2000).

22
Convener
  • A term that is used especially with online
    conferences and courses where there is a fairly
    side audience (Gilly Salmon, 2000).

23
Online Negotiator
  • Where knowledge construction online is desired,
    the key role for the e-moderator is one of
    negotiating the meaning of activities and
    information thought online discussion and
    construction (Gilly Salmon, 2000).

24
Online Host
  • The social role of online working is important so
    there may be a need for a social host or hostess.
    They do not need to run social events online
    (though they may) but ensure everyone is greeted
    and introduced to others with like-minded
    interests (Gilly Salmon, 2000).

25
Other Hats
  • Weaverlinking comments/threads
  • Tutorindividualized attention
  • Participantjoint learner
  • Provocateurstir the pot ( calm flames)
  • Observerwatch ideas and events unfold
  • Mentorpersonally apprentice students
  • Community Organizerkeep system going

26
Still More Hats
  • Assistant
  • Devils advocate
  • Editor
  • Expert
  • Filter
  • Firefighter
  • Facilitator
  • Gardener
  • Helper
  • Lecturer
  • Marketer
  • Mediator
  • Priest
  • Promoter

27
How form a community???
28
  • A learning community is a group of individuals
    interested in a common topic or area, who engage
    in knowledge related transactions as well as
    transformations within it. They take advantage
    of the opportunity to exchange ideas and learn
    collectively.
  • (Bonk Wisher, 2000
  • Fulton Riel, 1999)

29
Factors in Creating any Community
  • (1) membership/identity
  • (2) influence
  • (3) fulfill of indiv needs/rewards
  • (4) shared events emotional connections
  • (McMillan Chavis, 1986).
  • History, stories, expression, identity,
    participation, respect, autonomy, celebration,
    team building, shape group, Schwier, 1999)

30
Help Categorize the Degree of Online Community
(Chao, 1999)
  • (1) self-disclosures, time, energy
  • (2) refer to norms, rules, others
  • (3) give and receive info, express need, thank,
    criticize, suggest
  • (4) special stories, symbols, events, identify
    spiritual bonds

31
How Facilitate Online Community?
  • Safety Establish safe environment
  • Tone Flexible, inviting, positive, respect
  • Personal Self-disclosures, open, stories telling
  • Sharing Share frustrations, celebrations, etc
  • Collaboration Camaraderie/empathy
  • Common language conversational chat space
  • Task completion set milestones grp goals
  • Other Meaningful, choice, simple, purpose...

32
Web Facilitation Advice from Vanessa Dennen San
Diego State University
33
Research on Nine Online Courses
  • 9 case studies of online classes using
    asynchronous discussion
  • Topics sociology, history, communications,
    writing, library science, technology, counseling
  • Range of class size 15 - 106
  • Level survey, upper undergraduate, and graduate
  • Tools custom and commercial
  • Private, semi-public, and public discussion areas

34
Goals, Needs Extrinsic Motivation
  • Participation was higher in cases where students
    had a clear goal or need and extrinsic motivation
    to participate
  • Sample instances
  • Required assignment with feedback/grade
  • Need help
  • Need to understand material
  • Few students participated merely because they
    could

35
Unique or Perspective-based Discussion
  • Greater dialogue was generated when students were
    encouraged or required to share their own
    perspectives or unique examples
  • Fact-based questioning strategies did not work
    well
  • Students used perspectives and examples to make
    meaning of material

36
Guidelines and Feedback
  • Qualitative discussion guidelines and feedback
    helped students know what their participation
    should look like
  • Quantitative discussion guidelines and feedback
    comforted students and was readily understood by
    them
  • Feedback of both varieties was needed at regular
    intervals, although the qualitative feedback need
    not be individualized

37
Deadlines
  • Deadlines motivated participation
  • Message counts increased in the days immediately
    preceding a deadline
  • Deadlines inhibited dialogue
  • Students posted messages but did not discuss
  • Too much lag time between initial messages and
    responses

38
Modeling
  • Instructor modeling increased the likelihood of
    student messages meeting quality and content
    expectations
  • Modeling was more effective than guidelines

39
Motivation and Presence
  • Instructor must find balanced presence in course
    to truly motivate students to learn and perform
    their best
  • Too little instructor presence can cause low
    levels of student involvement
  • Too much instructor presence can cause
    perfunctory and/or uninspired student involvement

40
Poor Instructors Good Instructors
  • Little or no feedback given
  • Always authoritative
  • Kept narrow focus of what was relevant
  • Created tangential discussions
  • Only used ultimate deadlines
  • Provided regular qual/quant feedback
  • Participated as peer
  • Allowed perspective sharing
  • Tied discussion to grades, other assns.
  • Used incremental deadlines

41
More on How to Facilitate...
  • Find common ref pt--mission, purpose, need
  • Guide to negotiate/co-construct meaning
  • Establish some common practices or rituals
  • Hold regularly scheduled events--chats, tours
  • Create opportunities to contribute/develop
  • Apply course to lived experiences
  • Keep simple, give choice, build respect tension

42
Facilitating Electronic Discussion
  • Provide Guidelines and Structure
  • Weave and Summarize Weekly
  • Be patient, prompt, and clear
  • Assign Due Dates, Times, and Points
  • Constantly Monitor, Converse not Dictate
  • Assign Buddies/Pals or Include Mentoring
  • Extend Beyond Class with Peers/Practitioners

43
Online Mentoring and Assistance Online
Twelve forms of electronic learning mentoring and
assistance(Bonk Kim, 1998 Tharp, 1993 Bonk
et al., 2001)
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1. Social (and cognitive) Acknowledgement
"Hello...," "I agree with everything said so
far...," "Wow, what a case," "This case certainly
has provoked a lot of discussion...," "Glad you
could join us..."
46
2. Questioning "What is the name of this
concept...?," "Another reason for this might
be...?," "An example of this is...," "In contrast
to this might be...,""What else might be
important here...?," "Who can tell me....?," "How
might the teacher..?." "What is the real problem
here...?," "How is this related to...?,, "Can
you justify this?"
47
3. Direct Instruction "I think in class we
mentioned that...," Chapter X talks about...,"
"Remember back to the first week of the semester
when we went over X which indicated that..."
48
4. Modeling/Examples "I think I solved this sort
of problem once when I...," "Remember that video
we saw on X wherein Y decided to...,"
"Doesn't X give insight into this problem in
case Z when he/she said..."
49
5. Feedback/Praise "Wow, I'm impressed...,"
"That shows real insight into...," "Are you sure
you have considered...," "Thanks for responding
to X...," "I have yet to see you or anyone
mention..."
50
6. Cognitive Task Structuring "You know, the
task asks you to do...," "Ok, as was required,
you should now summarize the peer responses that
you have received...," "How might the textbook
authors have solved this case."
51
7. Cognitive Elaborations/Explanations "Provide
more information here that explains your
rationale," "Please clarify what you mean by...,"
"I'm just not sure what you mean by...," "Please
evaluate this solution a little more carefully."
52
8. Push to Explore "You might want to write to
Dr. XYZ for...," "You might want to do an ERIC
search on this topic...," "Perhaps there is a URL
on the Web that addresses this topic..."
53
9. Fostering Reflection/Self Awareness "Restate
again what the teacher did here," "How have you
seen this before?," "When you took over this
class, what was the first thing you did?,"
"Describe how your teaching philosophy will vary
from this...," "How might an expert teacher
handle this situation?"
54
10. Encouraging Articulation/Dialogue Prompting
"What was the problem solving process the teacher
faced here?," "Does anyone have a counterpoint or
alternative to this situation?," "Can someone
give me three good reasons why...," "It still
seems like something is missing here, I just
can't put my finger on it."
55
11. General Advice/Scaffolding/Suggestions "If I
were in her shoes, I would...," "Perhaps I would
think twice about putting these people into...,"
"I know that I would first...," "How totally
ridiculous this all is certainly the person
should be able to provide some..."
56
12. Management (via private e-mail or
discussion) "Don't just criticize....please be
sincere when you respond to your peers," "If you
had put your case in on time, you would have
gotten more feedback." "If you do this again, we
will have to take away your privileges."
57
TICKIT Staff Mentoring (IU Study) (direct
instruction and explanations 0)
(Bonk, Ehman, Hixon, 2000)
58
Mentoring in COW
59
Bill Brescias (2000) Doc Research on Online
Mentoring
  • Simple feedback vital, student clarification too
  • Want professor opinions resource suggestions
  • Modeling useful at start summing at end of
    semester
  • Most students saw value of reflection, not all
  • Student resistance to reading long posts
  • Students resistant to weekend posting continued
    posts
  • Changing subject link impt to facilitating
    discussion

60
Conferencing On Web (COW)
  • Three Basic Levels
  • 1. Conference (public or private)
  • 2. Topic (e.g., special education)
  • 3. Conversation (e.g., reading rewards)

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Justified Statement (Finnish)
  • 3. Author Kirsi
  • Date Mar. 6 811 AM 1998
  • Why not let the student study math further by
    himself and the teacher could help him whenever
    the teacher has time. At least some of the math
    study books are so designed that one page has
    examples that teach you how to solve the problem
    and then on the next page there are exercises. I
    personally hate being said 'wait' since when I'm
    interested in something I want to go on and learn
    more and not wait. This way I think the child
    learns to be responsible of his own learning. If
    I quote dear mr Vygotsky here again, the teacher
    should be sensitive to see where the child's
    proximate zone of development is and to help him
    'over' it. The teacher's task is not to try to
    keep the child on the level he has reached but to
    help him learn more if he is interested

67
Unjustified Statements (US)
  • 24. Author Katherine
  • Date Apr. 27 312 AM 1998
  • I agree with you that technology is definitely
    taking a large part in the classroom and will
    more so in the future with all the technological
    advances that will be to come but I don't believe
    that it could actually take over the role of a
    teacherbut in my opinion will never take over
    the role of a teacher.
  • 25. Author Jason Date Apr. 28 147 PM 1998
  • I feel technology will never over take the role
    of the teacher...I feel however, this is just
    help us teachers out and be just another way for
    us to explain new work to the children. No matter
    how advanced technology gets it will never be
    able to...
  • 26. Author Daniel Date Apr. 30 011 AM 1998
  • I believe that the role of the teacher is being
    changed by computers, but the computer will never
    totally replace the teacher... I believe that the
    computers will eventually make teaching easier
    for us and that most of the children's work will
    be done on computers. But I believe that there
    will always be the need for the teacher.

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Vertical Mentoring Examples
  • 9. Author Jerry Cochey ( Mentor) Date Mar. 11
    146 PM 1998
  • To shift from teacher centered classrooms to
    child centered classrooms and learning takes
    time, patience and a commitment to the idea that
    students are responsible for their own learning.
    Even in this age of enlightenment(?), we think
    that a quiet, teacher controlled classroom shows
    learning, while research shows that active,
    talking, sharing of learning experiences with
    peers is more productive. Be patient, it takes a
    long time to have students change to being
    responsible for their own.
  • 8. Author Jerry Cochey ( Mentor) Date Mar. 11
    154 PM 1998
  • As each of you have noted, teachers need to
    continue to supervise/coordinate learning. How
    much freedom is given to students depends on what
    you know they can accomplish without direct
    supervision. Master teachers select what methods
    are appropriate and effect for a given student or
    group of students.

76
Horizontal Finnish Mentoring
  • 12. Author Leena Date Mar. 30 1152 AM 1998
  • This case is something I feel very close to. I
    have been trying struggle with finding ways to be
    a teacher in a new way, trying to think
    everything from the students' perspective, to
    challenge my own old traditions of teaching and
    try to seek ways which the I could find ways of
    studying things together with the students. What
    really puzzles me is that these different
    "projects" have had such extremely different
    lives. I definitely loath the idea that a teacher
    would "send the students to the library and come
    back with a mind map" with the only purpose of
    having an easy time. But, the problem is that
    even the simplest thing such as a mind-map, which
    I've used quite often myself, can lead to so many
    different kinds of results. I've learnt during my
    short stay in the Department of Teacher
    Education......What I really don't know yet is
    how to be a proper supporter of these processes
    for students. I have succeeded in many contexts
    but feel that there are so many areas to achieve.
    In the end, finding the "right" path is really a
    matter of mutual understanding between students
    and teachers, open discussion, with mutual trust.
    Without such dialogue, nothing can be developed.
    - Leena

77
Frequent Case Topics
78
Problems Solved By COW
  • Student isolation in field experiences
  • Lack of community/dialogue among teacher
    education participants
  • Disconnectedness between class and field exper
  • Limited reflective practices of novice teachers
  • Need for appreciation of multiple perspectives

79
Overall Major Findings
  • COW enhanced student learning
  • provided a link between classroom and field
  • encouraged learning about technology
  • COW extended student learning
  • students got feedback from outside their
    immediate community
  • students saw international perspective
  • COW transformed student learning
  • students took ownership for learning
  • students co-constructed knowledge base

80
Qualitative Themes Continued...
  • Students were attracted to cases that
  • had interesting titles
  • were on familiar topics
  • were on controversial topics
  • they had opinions about
  • Peer feedback was appreciated but not deep
  • Mentor feedback was apprec. motivating

81
Types of Online Mentoring(Vince Rowe (2000),
e-learning, 1(2), pp. 42-43.
  • Live interactive chat
  • Delayed/async Discussions
  • E-mailQA, interviews, etc.
  • FAQslibraries of previous qas
  • Message Boardspost tips, titles, sources, etc.
  • Assignments/Assessment with expert review
  • Staged Eventsonline conferences, online
    speeches, impersonalizations, mock trials, etc.

82
Sample Free K-12 Online Mentoring
83
Mentoring in the Military (AC3-DL)
84
So, what will you do now?
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