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From Agriculture in the Tropics to Research and Technology Based Tropical Agriculture: The Brazilian

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Title: From Agriculture in the Tropics to Research and Technology Based Tropical Agriculture: The Brazilian


1
From Agriculture in the Tropics to Research and
Technology Based Tropical Agriculture The
Brazilian Experience.
  • Félix Humberto França
  • Coordinator, Researcher Labex-USA
  • Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research
    Corporation) USDA-ARS Agreement for Scientific
    Collaboration
  • George Washington University
  • CISTP Seminar Series on Science, Technology, and
    Innovation
  • May 13th, 2009
  • Washington, DC, USA

2
Presentation
  • Introduction, Context
  • Capacity Building
  • International Collaboration
  • Labex Innovative concept
  • Challenges for innovation in agriculture
  • Conclusions

3
Savannahs Agriculture
The Example of Brazilian Tropical Soybean
Development
1960
1975
2005
TV Field of Dreams/Business Nation -
http//www.cnbc.com/id/15840232?video740233500
35 harvest machines 17 sowing machines No-Tillage
Planting System
Cultivars adaptation N Biological fixation No
tilling Biological control
4
The Ag business in Brazil
  • One of the most dynamic sectors of the economy.
  • 5 million rural properties - 18 million people.
  • 23 GNP 2007 and 37 employment on the country.
  • International income main source
  • Commercial balance US 49,7 billions on 2007.
  • 30 - 40 of Brazilian exportations.

11/19/2009
5
Innovation and technology food cost
Mendonça de Barros et al., 2008.
Real food price in the last 30 years.
11/19/2009
6
Innovation and technology Tropical Agriculture
7
Milestones-Brazil in the XX Century.
CRVD CSN1946
Brasília 1960
Embrapa 1973
World Food Prize 2006
2030
1980
1990
2020
1930
1955
GR
BGR
NB
AIA-USAID/BCI 19491960s
CGIAR Centers FAO
Washington Treaty 1941
Labex-USA 1998
NB - 1970 Nobel Prize
D
I
D
R
R
2010
1984
1964
1955
1950
1945
1960
1989
1994
1930
2002
2030
Free elections and military coups
8
Agriculture challenge Technology
New technologies for a new frontier in
agriculture during the 1970s
9
Brazilian Agriculture Before 1970's
  • Low Ag Production (few items)
  • Low Productivity
  • Yield Shortages, Food Supply Crisis
  • Expensive Food, Inflation, Poverty
  • Inadequate Ag Public Policies
  • Lack of Specific Knowledge about Tropical
    Agriculture
  • Institutional void (ag research, education,
    markets, specialized communication and
    field-specific governmental agencies, etc)

THE TASK TO MOVE FROM AGRICULTURE IN THE TROPICS
TO TROPICAL AGRICULTURE
10
Green Revolution Transformation of agriculture
that began in 1945
  • Technologies already existed.
  • Not been widely used outside industrialized
    nations.
  • Technology Mechanization, certified seeds and
    improved crop varieties, fertilizers, pesticides,
    irrigation systems. Public Policies Ag credit
    land, technology, Ag market minimum prices,
    food regulatory stocks, Ag risk insurance,
    Infrastructure roads, storage facilities, ports,
    hospitals, schools, Ag research, education,
    extension.

11
Sustainability
Agriculture challenge
Mid 90s to 2007
12
Agriculture challenges 2nd cycle
ECONOMIC
  • Products and services
  • Food Fiber Energy
  • Knowledge development

ENVIRONMENT
Sustainable production systems
GLOBAL INSERTION
SOCIAL
REGIONAL DIFFERENCES
13
?
North
? ? ? ? ? ?
Embrapa Acre Embrapa Amapa Embrapa Western
Amazonia Embrapa Eastern Amazonia Embrapa
Rondonia Embrapa Roraima
4 RD Programs Abroad 39 Research Centers 14 TT
Offices 2 TT Offices Abroad
Southeast
Northeast
Embrapa Agrobiology Embrapa Food
Technology Embrapa Dairy Cattle Embrapa
Agriculture Informatics Embrapa Agricultural
Instrumentation Embrapa Environment Embrapa Maize
Sorghum Embrapa Satellite Monitoring Embrapa
Cattle-Southeast Embrapa Soils
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Embrapa Mid-North Embrapa Tropical
Semi-Arid Embrapa Coastal Tablelands Embrapa
Goats Embrapa Cassava Tropical Fruits Embrapa
Cotton Embrapa Tropical Agroindustry
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
?
Center-west
Embrapa Western Region Agriculture Embrapa Rice
Beans Embrapa Coffee Embrapa Cerrados Embrapa
Beef Cattle Embrapa Vegetables Embrapa
Pantanal Embrapa Genetic Resources
Biotechnology Embrapa Tecnological
Information Embrapa AgriEnergy (Network)
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
South
Embrapa Temperate Agriculture Embrapa
Forestry Embrapa South Animal Husbandry
Sheep Embrapa Soybean Embrapa Swine
Poultry Embrapa Wheat Embrapa Grape Wine
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
US 1.00 R 2,20
2,173 Researchers today 164 233 355 752
new 6,141 Support staff ____________________ 2008
Budget R 1,800,000 Million
?
New Research Centers Tocantins Mato Groso Maranhão
?
14
.
Institutional Capacity Building
Building Research Capacity1974 - 2007
15
Innovation and technology knowledge in tropical
agriculture
  • Tropical plants and animals
  • Soybean (photoperiodism)
  • Tropical and temperate-adapted fruits
  • Zebu cattle, swine, poultry etc.
  • Improved forrages an pastures quality
  • Meat milk, Brachiaria
  • Fibers and wood (cotton, Eucalyptus)
  • N fixation
  • Biological control of pests and diseases
  • No-tillage system
  • Integrated crop-livestock-forestry (ILPF)
  • Post-harvesting losses reduction
  • Mechanization in agriculture precision
    agriculture
  • Agro ecological zoning
  • Integrated production systems

11/19/2009
16
AG Production Efficiency in Brazil
Grain production / area
(Million ha ton)
Source Conab / MAPA
17
Embrapa requests for international cooperation
11/19/2009
18
  • International Cooperation


Labex Europe (France, Netherlands,
England)
Labex USA
Embrapa Africa (Ghana)
Embrapa Asia (Korea)
Venezuela
Input CT
Output CT
19
Labex - An Innovative Concept
  • Researchers associated to one particular research
    topic and one laboratory.
  • Explore opportunities to engage and/or to engage
    other Brazilian scientists in other research
    topics and to interact with many ARS scientists
    and travel to different laboratories.
  • The scientist should be a catalyst or leader,
    facilitating further exchanges between US and
    Brazilian scientists.

20
What Embrapa expects from the Labex researcher
  • Research strategic, outstanding quality
  • Joint proposals collaborative projects
  • To support actions for funding research projects
    at national level
  • Search for international funding opportunities
  • Monitoring science developments
  • Networking
  • Facilitator
  • Catalyst

21
LABEX-USA - Cutting edge of knowledge
Nanotechnology
Citrus greening
Nanotechnology - Agri National Laboratory
H1N1 Influenza Virus and other
important porcine diseases
Bovine Genome Described April 24 issue of the
journal, Science
22
Innovation and agriculture challenges 3rd cycle
to precision agriculture, …
From small-scale agriculture...
23
Future Scenarios 2008 2011 2023
Inserção Global Competitiva
Sector expansion with niche insertion
Integrated expansion with global insertion
Global Interaction
Scenario Public and private RDI institutions /
agribusiness performance and sustainable rural
development.
Unfavorable
Favorable
Regional or National Fragmentation
Integrated expansion with regional insertion
Disarticulation and retrocession
11/19/2009
24
V Embrapas Strategic Plan Priorities 2008 2011
SP5 Knowledge advancement and incorporation
new technologies (emergent tech also).
SP4 Biodiversity prospecting for
differentiated and value-added products
development exploiting new markets.
SP3 Development of technologies for
sustainable use of biomes and productive regional
integration.
SP2 Biofuels and bioenergy technology
development.
SP1 Competitive and sustainable agriculture.
25
Embrapass Strategic Priorities 2008-2011-2023
Medium Term
  • Biomes natural resources sustainability and
    conservation
  • Ecological Agriculture, Origin Denomination,
    Biodiversity
  • Integrated production systems for altered areas

Biomes Sustainable Use and Productive Regional
Integration
  • Altered areas recovering, crop-forest-pasture
    integration
  • Clean Development Mechanisms - CDM
  • Production systems focused on CDM
  • Small farmers and traditional rural communities
  • Social inclusion, food security
  • Clean and low cost technologies
  • Value-added products

26
Innovation and technology knowledge frontier
Bioenergy 2nd generation of technology
development lab.
Embrapa Agrienergy
27
Innovation and technology knowledge frontier
Territorial monitoring
Nanotechnology …
Embrapa Satellite Monitoring RDI Geoinformation
for agribusiness, environment and national
security
AgriNational Laboratory
Embrapa Brazilian Universities Network
28
Conclusions
  • Political stability
  • Government commitment to development.
  • Long term planning government/institutional.
  • Policymaking
  • Infrastructure
  • Education
  • Institutional capacity building
  • International partnerships in R,DI

29
Thank You
felix.franca_at_ars.usda.gov felix.franca_at_embrapa.br
30
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