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Title: This document is contained within the Fire Management Toolbox on Wilderness.net. Since other related resources found in this toolbox may be of interest, you can visit this toolbox by visiting the following URL:


1
  • This document is contained within the Fire
    Management Toolbox on Wilderness.net. Since other
    related resources found in this toolbox may be of
    interest, you can visit this toolbox by visiting
    the following URL http//www.wilderness.net/index
    .cfm?fusetoolboxessecfire. All toolboxes are
    products of the Arthur Carhart National
    Wilderness Training Center.

2
Good dat da ice is gone, eh Sven?
Ya betcha, Ole!
3
AMR WFSA WFIPAcronyms R Us
  • Wilderness Fire Resource Advisor
  • April 24, 2007
  • Ellen Bogardus-Szymaniak
  • Prescribed Fire and Fuels Specialist
  • Chippewa and Superior National Forests
  • Minnesota
  • (Stolen from Mike Frary BLM - Colorado)

4
Objectives for the Next 45 Minutes
  • Understand the acronyms AMR, WFIP,
  • and WFSA.
  • Understand how each are used in a
  • wilderness fire context.
  • Understand your roles in the
  • preparation and implementation of
  • the WFIP and WFSA

5
First You must be assimilated by the Fire Borg
and get to know some fire terminology
6
What Is A Wildland Fire?
  • Wildland Fire Any non-structure fire that
    occurs in the wildland.
  • Three distinct types of wildland fire have
    been defined wildfire, wildland fire use, and
    prescribed fire.

7
A Wildfire is ..
.An unplanned, unwanted event. The
management objective for wildfires (regardless of
ignition source) is to put it out.
8
A Wildland Fire Use (WFU) fire is
..a wanted event. It is the application of
the appropriate management response to
naturally-ignited wildland fires that accomplish
specific resource management objectives in
predefined designated areas outlined in Fire
Management Plans.
9
A Prescribed Fire is..
..a wanted event. Any fire ignited by
management actions to meet specific objectives.
10
It just so happens that all three types of fires
can be found in a Wilderness
11
Appropriate Management Response (AMR) is
Taking the actions (suppression or otherwise)
that are appropriate given the laws, policy,
socio-political situation, and environmental
conditions that are in effect at a given point of
time.
12
Fire Managers have been using the
appropriate management response on wildfires for
many years, often without knowing it, and almost
always without calling it AMR. For example,
the 1000 am policy was the appropriate
response for its time, because policy did not
allow otherwise.
13
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14
Appropriate Management Response
  • Can definitely be used in a wilderness area
  • Your role as a WRA is to actively participate in
    the development of appropriate strategies and
    tactics

15
Common AMR Strategies, Tactics, and Tools Used in
Wilderness and Non-Wilderness Fires
16
Full Perimeter Control
  • This is the most commonly used strategy on
    wildland fires. Control lines are constructed
    around the entire perimeter of the fire. Roads,
    rivers and other barriers can be used in
    conjunction with constructed lines. In the end,
    a physical barrier exists completely around the
    fire.

17
Point Protection
  • This strategy involves protecting specific points
    from the fire while not actively trying to line
    the entire fire edge. Points being protected may
    be communities, individual homes, areas of high
    resource value, etc.

18
Large Scale Burnout
  • This strategy involves selecting line locations
    or barriers that offer the best likelihood of
    successfully holding a fire, and then burning out
    the fuels in between the original fire and the
    planned control line. There are no limitations
    on the size of a burnout.

19
Monitoring
  • This strategy may be used for many reasons.
    Depending on the conditions within the fire
    environment, the incident commander may determine
    that no action needs to be taken other than
    observing the fire spread on a regular basis.

20
Fuel Breaks
  • Fuel breaks may be totally devoid of vegetation
    or may be shaded, in which some large over-story
    trees remain. Fuel breaks are often established
    prior to a fire season or fire event. The
    presence of a fuel break may serve as a control
    line, as part of point protection or as a trigger
    point in monitoring.

21
Use of Natural or Artificial Barriers
  • Any type natural (rivers, streams, cliff lines,
    rock slides, etc.) or artificial (roads, dams
    agricultural fields, etc) barriers may be used as
    a component of any of the AMR strategies.

22
Community Treatments
  • A slight twist on point protection, community
    treatments may involve actions within a
    sub-division or community to protect homes
    without actually building lines or conducting
    hose lays.

23
Slowing/Delaying Fire Spread
  • This involves using any of a variety of actions
    to slow a fire spread and buy additional time in
    anticipation of a weather change, arrival of
    resources or other reasons.

24
Minimum Impact Tactics
  • Any of a wide range of actions to minimize the
    appearance of fire management tactics. Includes
    such actions as flush cutting stumps,
    camouflaging stumps and bucked logs, dragging
    brush out of site of trails, etc. Several
    regions have developed guides and these should be
    utilized for additional assistance and direction.

25
2007
Appropriate Management Response
Suppression Response
Successful
Unsuccessful
Successful
Wildland Fire Situation Analysis
Stage I Initial Fire Assessment, Periodic Fire
Assessment
Fire Ignition, FMP approved
Unsuccessful
Stage II Short-Term Implementation
Actions, Periodic Fire Assessment
Unsuccessful
Successful
26
Wildland Fire Implementation Plan
- aka WFIP - Not necessarily a
wilderness thang
27
Wildland Fire Implementation Plan (WFIP)
  • A progressively developed assessment and
    operational management plan that documents the
    analysis and the selection of strategies and
    describes the appropriate management response for
    a wildland fire being managed for resource
    benefit

28
WFIP STAGE 1
  • Purpose
  • Document the fire situation
  • Describe initial management actions
  • Set the initial periodic assessment schedule as
    the preliminary stage of the planning process
  • Agency Administrator decision

29
  • WFIP Stage One Content
  • Strategic Fire Size-Up
  • Fire name
  • Fire number
  • Jurisdictions)
  • Administrative Unit(s)
  • Fire Management Unit (FMU)
  • Geographic Area(s)
  • Management Code(s)
  • Start date/time
  • Discovery date/time
  • Current size
  • Location
  • Cause
  • Fuel model(s)/conditions
  • Current weather
  • Forecasted weather
  • Current Observed fire behavior

The Unit Duty Officer, Qualified Representative
or Fire Use Manager completes the stage one WFIP
in concert with the Agency Administrator or
Delegated Acting
30
WFIP STAGE 2
  • Purpose above Stage 1
  • Specify management objectives
  • Document the fire situation and associated areas
    of concerns
  • Identify management actions and estimated costs
  • Document the Periodic Fire Assessment

31
  • WFIP Stage Two Content
  • Objectives
  • Fire Situation
  • -Safety considerations
  • -External concerns
  • -Environmental concerns
  • -Threats
  • -Current and predicted fire behavior
  • -Current and predicted weather
  • Management actions (include
  • description of action and
  • expected duration)
  • Estimated costs
  • Periodic fire assessment

The Fire Use Manager completes the stage two WFIP
in concert with the Agency Administrator or
Delegated Acting
32
WFIP STAGE 3
  • Purpose
  • Documents a risk assessment and provides
    implementation actions necessary for management
    of a wildland fire to accomplish identified
    objectives over a potentially long-duration.

33
WFIP STAGE 3
  • Provides a definition of the acceptable
    management limits of multiple fires, or fire
    complexes represented by the Maximum Manageable
    Area (MMA)
  • Considers long-term fire behavior predictions and
    risk assessments.
  • Identify all known threats from the fire and
    address operational actions to mitigate or
    eliminate those threats.

34
  • WFIP Stage Three Content
  • Objectives and Risk Assessment Considerations
  • -Natural and Cultural resource objectives
  • -Constraints
  • MMA Definition and Maps
  • Weather season/drought discussion and prognosis
  • Long-Term Risk Assessment (describe techniques
    and outputs, include maps as appropriate)
  • Threats To
  • -MMA
  • -Public Use and Firefighter Safety
  • -Smoke dispersion and effects
  • -Other Resources
  • Monitoring Actions (actions, frequency, and
    duration)
  • Mitigation Actions (describe holding actions,
  • management action points that initiate these
    actions and key to map if necessary)
  • Resources needed to manage the fire
  • Contingency Actions (describe actions necessary
  • when mitigation actions are unsuccessful)
  • Information Plan

The Fire Use Manager or Fire Use Management Team
completes the stage three WFIP in concert with
the Agency Administrator or Delegated Acting
35
WFIP Stage Maximum Completion Timeframe
WFIP Stage I 8 hours after confirmed fire detection and Strategic Fire Size-Up
WFIP Stage II 48 hours after need indicated by Wildland Fire Use Management Needs Assessment
WFIP Stage III 7 days after need indicated by Wildland Fire Use Management Needs Assessment
Periodic Fire Assessment As part of all stages and on assigned frequency thereafter
36
WFIP
  • Your role as a WRA is to actively participate in
    the development of appropriate strategies and
    tactics and ensure that wilderness issues are
    surfaced during the WFIP process

37
2007
Appropriate Management Response
Suppression Response
Successful
Unsuccessful
Successful
Wildland Fire Situation Analysis
Stage I Initial Fire Assessment, Periodic Fire
Assessment
Fire Ignition, FMP approved
Unsuccessful
Stage II Short-Term Implementation
Actions, Periodic Fire Assessment
Unsuccessful
Successful
Stage III Long-Term Implementation
Actions, Periodic Fire Assessment
38
  • DECISION MAKING
  • Wildland Fire Situation Analysis (WFSA)

39

The WFSA Process What are the reasons to
initiate a WFSA?
  • Wildfire escapes Initial Attack
  • Wildland Fire Use escapes or exceeds prescription
    parameters
  • Prescribed Fire escapes or exceeds prescription
    parameters

40
WFSA What is this thing called a WFSA?
What is This Thing Called a WFSA?
  • An assessment and decision making process that
    evaluates and documents alternative management
    strategies against selected safety,
    environmental, social, economic, political, and
    resource management objectives.

41
The WFSA Process
  • Reasonable alternatives identified, analyzed and
    evaluated
  • Evaluation criteria established
  • Alternatives considered that minimize sum of
    estimated suppression cost resource damage
  • WFSA revised as conditions change

42
Why do a WFSA?
  1. It is the document that gives guidance and
    direction to the Incident Commander from the line
    officer
  2. It documents the decision/thought process,
    including alternatives analyzed but not selected
  3. It documents incident priorities and constraints
  4. It documents that financial consideration was
    given in selecting the alternative

43
Approval and Certification Timeframes
  • Initial WFSA must be approved prior to initiation
    of a new strategy and within 12 hours of a fire
    escaping initial action.
  • Chief and Deputy Chiefs, Regional Foresters and
    Area Director Certification of the WFSA must be
    completed with in 24 hours of escape of initial
    action, unless agreed to otherwise.

44
Take Home
  • The WFSA process requires a team effort, build
    the team prior to the fire
  • Financial analysis has error, the objective is to
    make that error consistent in all of the
    alternatives
  • Line officers need to be engaged before, during,
    and after the WFSA process

45
WFSA
  • Your role as a WRA is to actively participate in
    the development of appropriate strategies and
    tactics and ensure that wilderness issues are
    surfaced during the WFSA process

46
REMEMBER!!
  • It is your job as a Wilderness Resource
    Advisor is to provide the best information and
    advice you can to help the Agency Administrator
    make informed and prudent decisions!
  • They are the decision makers and they must
    have your assistance and support throughout the
    process!
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