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Wireless Networks in Libraries

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Wireless LANS have captivated much attention in the business ... RF transmitters and receivers, or radios, carry data packets as a payload. Multiple channels ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Wireless Networks in Libraries


1
Wireless Networks in Libraries
  • Marshall Breeding
  • Vanderbilt University
  • http//staffweb.library.vanderbilt.edu/breeding
  • Marshall.breeding_at_vanderbilt.edu
  • http//www.librarytechnology.org

Alaska Library Association Annual
Conference Saturday Feb 25, 2006
2
Abstract
  • Wireless LANS have captivated much attention in
    the business environment, in the home, and in
    libraries. A fundamental challenge lies in
    determining howor if to make use of this
    technology. This workshop aims to provide
    attendees with the knowledge to make these
    decisions and to enable them to establish
    effective and secure wireless networks in their
    libraries.

3
Proposed Agenda
  • Network Basics
  • Wireless Basics
  • Security Concerns
  • Library applications Wired vs Wireless
  • Examples and Case Studies
  • General Discussion

4
Preliminary Questions
  • What do you expect to get out of the workshop?
  • Identify specific issues that you want to see
    addressed before the end of the day
  • Talk about issues of concern to your library
  • Is there any one item that we can cover that will
    make you feel like the workshop was worthwhile?

5
Network Basics
  • A review of basic concepts and terminology

6
OSI Reference Model
  • Layer 1 Physical (Electrical characteristics of
    cabling)
  • Layer 2 Data Link (Ethernet) Ethernet cards,
    hubs,switches (802.11)
  • Layer 3 Network (IP) Routers
  • Layer 4 Transport (TCP / UDP) Error recovery,
    transfer of data
  • Layer 5 -- Session
  • Layer 6 -- Presentation
  • Layer 7 -- Application

7
Ethernet
  • IEEE 802.3
  • CSMA/CD
  • Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision
    Detection
  • Governs Media Access Rules

8
Ethernet segments
  • Dates back to original Ethernet cabling
  • 10Base5 -- Thicknet coaxial cable
  • Overall length of 2500 meters
  • Minimum 2.5 meters between nodes
  • Transceivers
  • Broadcast medium
  • All nodes can intercept all traffic in
    promiscuous mode

9
Network Components
  • Hubs
  • Switches
  • Routers

10
TCP/IP
  • Primary Network Protocol

11
TCP/IP Protocol Suite
User Programs
http
ftp
smtp
Ping
LPR
NFS
DNS
rtsp
Reliable Transport
TCP
ICMP
UDP
Datagram Delivery
IP
Physical Connectivity
Ethernet (802.3) WiFi (802.11)
12
TCP/IP Configuration Details
  • IP Address
  • Subnet mask
  • Gateway/router

13
IP Addresses
IP Addresses are 32-bit numbers
10000001
00111011
10010110
00000101
129
59
150
5
129.59.150.5
14
Class B Networks
1 0
14-bit Network ID
16-bit Host ID
129.59.150.5
10
00111011
00000101
000001
10010110
16
2 or 65,536 Host Addresses per Network
15
Class C Networks
22-bit Network ID
8-bit Host ID
1 1
192.111.110.5
11
000000
01101110
01101111
00000101
8
2 or 256 Host Addresses per Network
16
DHCP
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
  • Automatically configures network client for
    TCP/IP communications
  • DHCP servers provide only a temporary lease on a
    configuration set
  • ipconfig /release, /renew, /all

17
Wireless basics
  • Uses radio frequency transmission over the air
    instead of network cabling
  • Stable and reliable technology
  • Increasing in popularity in business and home
    computing

18
802.11 Media Access Rules
  • CSMA/CA
  • Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision
    Avoidance
  • Request to Send (RTS) / Clear to Send (CTS)
  • Reduces or Eliminates collisions
  • Hidden Node Problem

19
Wireless architectures
  • Peer-to-peer (ad hoc mode)
  • Wireless NICs talk to each other
  • Infrastructure Mode
  • Uses Wireless Access Point

20
Ad hoc mode
Computers connect directly with each
other without additional equipment
21
Infrastructure Mode
Ethernet Switch
Router
Access Point
22
Wireless Hardware
  • Access point
  • Functions just like an Ethernet hub
  • Shared media
  • Connects to an existing Ethernet connection
  • Receiver Network Interface Card
  • PC Cards for Laptops
  • PCI for Desktops
  • PDA versions available

23
Transmission Details
  • RF transmitters and receivers, or radios, carry
    data packets as a payload.
  • Multiple channels
  • 802.11b 14 (FCC allows 11)
  • 5 MHz per channel
  • APs within range of each other should be on
    different channels

24
802.11b Channels (U.S.)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
2.3995
2.4045
2.4095
2.4145
2.4195
2.4245
2.4295
2.4345
2.4395
2.4445
2.4495
2.4745
25
Non-overlapping Channel Map
1
1
1
6
6
11
11
11
1
1
6
6
11
6
11
26
Positioning Wireless Access Points
  • Conduct an RF site survey

27
Range per Access Point
  • 75-150 feet indoors typical
  • 500 feet in open areas
  • 1000 feet outdoors
  • Performance degrades with devices located further
    from the AP

28
Wireless Devices
29
Types of Wireless Devices
  • Access point
  • Bridge wired network to wireless
  • Wireless Router or Gateway
  • Bridge
  • NAT Network Address Translation, allows multiple
    devices to share single IP address
  • Router Connects wireless network to Internet
  • Usually connects directly to DSL or cable modem
    connection

30
Wireless Network Interface Card
  • PCI
  • PC Card
  • Pocket PC, Palm Pilot
  • Almost always built into current mobile devices

31
Wireless Flavors
  • 802.11
  • 802.11b
  • 802.11a
  • 802.11g
  • 802.11n (future)

32
802.11
  • IEEE 802.11 WLAN committee initially formed in
    1997
  • Original specification
  • Now obsolete
  • 1-2 mb/sec

33
802.11b offers 11 mb/sec
  • Original standard
  • 11mb/sec
  • 2.4GHz band
  • Still 90 of market

34
RF interference
  • 2.4 GHz frequency used by other devices
  • 802.11a, g
  • Microwave Ovens
  • Cordless telephones
  • Bluetooth (high-speed frequency hopping)
  • Rogue 802.11 equipment

35
DSSS modulation
  • Direct-sequence spread spectrum

36
802.11a delivers up to 54 mb/sec
  • 54mb/sec
  • 5GHz band
  • Higher performance
  • Higher cost
  • Shorter range (180 feet)

37
802.11g
  • 54mb.sec
  • Alternate future standard
  • Backwards with 802.11b
  • Operates in same 2.4GHz band as 802.11b

38
802.11n
  • Proposed next generation of 802.11 technologies
  • Up to 100 mb/sec
  • No agreement yet. Competing proposals still
    being considered by IEEE 802.11 Task Group N
  • multiple in, multiple out (MIMO) technology
  • Wide channels 20 40 MHz

39
Wired vs. Wireless bandwidth
  • Wired networks will always be faster
  • 100 mb/sec Ethernet common for wired networks for
    desktop computers
  • Ethernet switching available for wired networks
  • 1 GB/sec common for servers and high-performance
    workstations
  • 10 GB/sec available for fiber networks

40
Wired networks offer higher performance
  • Despite the steadily increasing speed of
    wireless technology, wired networks will always
    outperform it by long strides.
  • wireless applications will flourish in places
    where mobility takes precedence over performance
    or where physical cabling is especially
    problematic

41
Balanced perspective
  • Wireless technologies have limitations
  • Does not supplant need to install copper and
    fiber network cabling in new buildings

42
Wireless Coverage
  • Varies according to building characteristics
  • Works best in open areas
  • Book stacks often too dense and can present
    barriers

43
Configuration issues
  • Most use DHCP
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
  • Session initiation and configuration usually
    completely transparent

44
Session Set ID
  • Unique name given to an access point
  • Should all access points in the organizations
    WLAN have the same SSID?
  • Should the SSID be broadcast?

45
Exercise
  • Configure Linksys Access point

46
Linksys basic Settings
47
Web Security administration
48
Mac Address Filter
49
Windows XP Wireless LAN wizard
50
Windows XP WLAN properties
51
Cost Issues
  • Wireless access points slightly more expensive
    than Ethernet Hubs
  • Wireless NICs slightly more expensive then
    Ethernet cards (100)
  • Cabling needed only to the Access point

52
Access Point Installation
Electrical Power
Electrical Power
Electrical Power
Electrical Power
Electrical Power
Ethernet Connection
Electrical Power
Electrical Power
Omni-directional Antenna
Access Point
53
Wireless Enterprise Infrastructure
  • WLAN Switches
  • WLAN Gateways
  • 802.1x Authentication
  • RADIUS
  • LDAP

54
Wireless Security Issues
  • Implementing a wireless LAN without compromising
    your network

55
Security concerns
  • Eavesdropping a major concern
  • Unprotected wireless access points are an easy of
    entry for mobile hackers
  • Many rogue Wireless LANS were put up in corporate
    networks without IT support or adequate security
  • War Driving / War Chalking
  • Some war driving / freeloading happens in
    residential settings

56
Positioning your wireless network
  • Wireless LANs generally exist on the network edge
    point
  • Wireless LANs should be considered untrusted
  • Positioned outside the organizations firewall
  • Hardened core remains protected

57
Library Network With Public / Staff Separation
Router
Router / Firewall
Ethernet Switch
Ethernet Switch
Ethernet Switch
Library Staff Workstations
Access Point
Public Access Workstations
58
Rogue Access Points
  • Wireless networks must fit within the overall
    network design
  • Unofficial or Rogue access points can jeopardize
    the security of the rest of the network
  • Efforts must be taken to detect and remove rogue
    access points or bring them in to the official
    networks
  • Rogue Access Points usually a symptom of
    unresponsive IT departments.

59
Encryption necessary to ensure security
  • Sensitive data must be encrypted when transmitted
    across any untrusted network
  • Most Encryption algorithms uses a secure key to
    encode the data and decode it after transmission
  • The longer the key, the more difficult it is to
    use brute force to decrypt the message
  • WEP uses 40, 64, or 128 (WEP2) bit keys

60
Wired Equivalency Privacy
  • Optional Encryption scheme part of the 802.11b
    specification
  • RC4 encryption
  • Single key encrypts all traffic
  • No system for key management
  • Hackers can easily recover the key
  • WEP often not enabled
  • WEP can be defeated by sophisticated hackers
  • Provides a barrier to most potential intruders

61
Wireless Hacking tools
  • At least two open source tools are available for
    recovering 802.11 WEP keys
  • WEPCrack
  • http//wepcrack.sourceforge.net/
  • AirSnort
  • http//airsnort.shmoo.com/

62
802.11i
  • Security Standard for the 802.11 arena
  • Includes WPA and RSN (Robust Security Network)
  • Relies on 802.1x specification for port-based
    user and device authentication
  • Ratified June 2004
  • Marketed as WPA2

63
WPA
  • Wi-Fi Protected Access
  • Enhanced security over WEP
  • TKIP
  • Available now
  • Backwardly compatible with WEP requires only a
    firmware upgrade.

64
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)
  • 128 bit encryption keys
  • Each packet encrypted with a different key based
    on a 48-bit serial number, incremented with each
    use.
  • Avoids replay attacks
  • Relies on a base key with is generated when a
    device associates with the base station
  • Ideally unique base keys transmitted during
    802.1x authentication
  • Pre-shared keys used otherwise

65
WPA2
  • WPA AES WPA2
  • Advanced Encryption Standard instead of TKIP
  • Stronger encryption algorithm
  • Not guaranteed to be backwardly compatible with
    existing WEP equipment
  • Personal version uses pre-shared key
  • Enterprise version uses 802.1X authentication
    through RADIUS server.

66
WPA/802.1x Diagram
  • See
  • http//www.infoworld.com/infoworld/img/20FEwifi_in
    -x.gif

67
Wi-Fi Security Services
  • SecureMyWiFi (http//www.witopia.net/)
  • RADIUS authentication and security key
    distribution service
  • Operates with APs that support WPA-Enterprise or
    WPA2-Enterprise
  • 29 annual fee

68
Virtual Private Networks (VPN)
  • A technology that offers strong security
  • Common approach for remote users that rely on
    accessing organizational resources through the
    Internet
  • Applicable to wireless users on premises
  • Enhances security / adds inconvenience.

69
Encrypted Tunnel provided by a Virtual Private
Network
Router
Router
Ethernet Switch
Access Point
Remote Host with VPN Server Component
Traffic is encrypted along the entire path from
client to host
Remote Laptop with VPN Client
70
Scope of Encryption Provided by WLAN Security
Router
Router
Ethernet Switch
Access Point
Remote Host
Traffic is encrypted only between the Wireless
NIC and the Access Point
Wireless LAN with WEP or WPA
71
Avoid wireless technologies for sensitive networks
  • Not appropriate for networks that carry
    confidential or sensitive information
  • Protect core network services with internal
    firewalls

72
Library Applications
  • Using wireless technology in libraries

73
Library vs Commercial Wi-Fi service
  • Fee-based or Free?

74
Wireless Access Policies
  • Open unauthenticated access?
  • Display appropriate use click-through page?
  • Filter?
  • Require authentication by library card number?

75
Part of campus wireless infrastructure
  • It is becoming increasingly expected that
    students will have wireless access to their
    laptop computers throughout the campus.
  • Dorms, Classrooms, Labs, Libraries.

76
Classrooms
  • Vision of fully connected classroom can be fully
    realized inexpensively
  • Expensive to provide wired connectivity in
    classroom setting
  • Mixed blessing (Cliff Lynch observations)

77
Wireless laptops
  • Provide access to library resources to laptops
    brought into the library by patrons
  • Library supplied laptops can supplement public
    access workstations
  • Offer library users more flexibility and
    convenience in access resources throughout the
    library

78
Computer labs
  • Mobile labs can be used for training an outreach
    sessions outside the library
  • Training labs in the library that can be set up
    and dismantled on demand.

79
Staff applications
  • Remote circulation tasks
  • Tracking in-library use of materials without
    having to take them to a circulation desk
  • Inventory
  • PDAs can be used instead of PCs or Laptops

80
Cell Phones
  • Many have Internet access
  • Libraries may see future demand to make their
    services available to cell phone and other small
    wireless devices
  • Current demand limited

81
Interfacing with Cell Phone services
  • WAP Wireless Application Protocol
  • WAP Gateways part of wireless providers
    infrastructure
  • WML Language used for delivering web pages to
    wireless users.
  • Ulta-light HTML

82
Library-Specific Wireless Products and Services
83
WAP access to Library Catalogs
  • Some vendors offering support
  • Examples
  • Innovative Interfaces offers AirPAC

84
Polaris Wireless Access Manager
  • Product from Polaris Library Systems to
    authenticate user access to the WLAN using the
    patron database using SIP2. Specifically
    supported for Polaris, but works with any other
    ILS that supports SIP2.
  • Introduced January 2004.

85
TLC Wireless.Solution
  • Wireless.Solution offers libraries a secure setup
    fire-walled from the library's network, with up
    to ten simultaneous VPN connections for staff
    functions.
  • Wireless.Solution Pro offers the same security as
    Wireless.Solution, along with managed access to
    control bandwidth per user, the flexibility to
    provide access free or fee-based or a mixture of
    the two, and a personalized interface for the
    library.

86
Dynix Horizon Wireless Gateway
  • Dynix offers Horizon Wireless Gateway, a
    comprehensive high-speed wireless networking
    solution for libraries that uses Bluesocket
    equipment and technology.
  • Horizon Wireless Gateway comes with tools for
    patron authentication and encryption, bandwidth
    management, regulatory compliance, network
    scheduling, Web-based network management, and
    centralized status and usage reporting.

87
Sirsi Wireless services
  • Sirsi offers two new network consulting services
    for libraries interested in installing wireless
    and IP telephony technologies.
  • Technology partners for these services include
    Cisco Systems Global Solutions Group, providing
    information technology design and Bluesocket
    Inc., the leading vendor of open-systems wireless
    local area network (WLAN) systems to secure and
    manage wireless access to networks and the
    Internet.

88
Sirsi PocketCIRC
  • PDA Circulation Client
  • Wireless connectivity

89
Open Source options
90
ZoneCD from PublicIP
  • Open source hotspot solution
  • Features
  • Redirect users to a splash page
  • Optional or required authentication
  • Content filtering
  • Bootable Linux CD does not install on PC but
    runs from the CD
  • See http//www.publicip.net
  • Free software, but donations appreciated

91
Other Wireless Technologies
92
WiMax
  • 802.16 standard
  • Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
  • A WAN technology
  • Last-mile alternative to DSL
  • Recent strong support by Intel corporation which
    developed a chip supporting WiMax.

93
Bluetooth
  • Wireless protocol for connecting PDAs and
    peripherals to PCs
  • Not part of the 802.11 family
  • 2.45 GHz spectrum
  • Low bandwidth (1mb/sec)
  • Short distance (10 meters)
  • Recent security concerns

94
RFID
  • Radio Frequency Identification
  • 13.56 MHz band
  • Manufacturers TAGSYS, Checkpoint Systems, Texas
    Instruments
  • ISO 15693
  • ISO 18000
  • Mode 1 Backward compatible with ISO 15693
  • Mode 2 Next Gen. High-speed communications with
    multiple tags.

95
Resources
  • http//wirelesslibraries.blogspot.com/
  • http//www.networkworld.com/topics/wireless.html
  • http//www.wi-fi.org
  • http//wi-fiplanet.com/

96
Summary
  • Wireless networking offers network access to many
    new environments and applications
  • An increasingly important supplement to existing
    network infrastructure
  • Not a panacea for all network communications
    needs
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