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Title: IENG%20471%20Facilities%20Planning%20Dr.%20Frank%20Joseph%20Matejcik


1
IENG 471 Facilities Planning Dr. Frank Joseph
Matejcik
11/03 Chapter 8 MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS
  • South Dakota School of Mines and Technology,
    Rapid City

2
8.1 Introduction
  • Economic dependence of the firm on manufacturing
    performance
  • Manufacturing is a value-adding function
  • Efficiency in manufacturing leads to long and
    short term profit
  • Emphasis on quality, decreased inventories, and
    productivity encourages integrated, flexible, and
    responsive facilities

3
8.1 Introduction
  • Facility layout material handling influenced by
  • Product mix and design
  • Processing and materials technology
  • Handling, storage, and control technology
  • Production volumes, schedules, routings
  • Management philosophies

4
8.1 Introduction
  • Automatic factory was the considered a panacea
  • Runs lights out
  • Essentially paperless (more than automated)
  • Automation mechanization are dominant people
    have limited direct and indirect tasks
  • People resolve unusual sitituations make
    changes
  • Few factories will justify this level of
    automation

5
8.1 Introduction
  • Few factories will justify an Automatic factory
    level of automation
  • Plan for upgrading for
  • new technology
  • changing attitudes concerning automation
  • increased understanding of automation
  • Outsourcing can lead to higher automation levels
    (sometimes lower)

6
8.1 Introduction
  • Factors affecting the facility planning process
    (External?)
  • Volume of production
  • Variety of production
  • Value of each product
  • Facilities development is often incremental
    (pockets of automation)
  • Sometimes only information integration

7
8.1 Introduction
  • Critical information needed to integrate material
    handling plantwide
  • Identification quantification of items (parts,
    tools, resources, etc.) flowing through a system
  • Location of each item
  • Current time relative to a master production
    schedule
  • Alternate routing and buffer storage protect
    against catastrophic interrupts delays

8
8.1 IntroductionObjectives of integrated MH
  • Create an environment that results in the
    production of high-quality products.
  • Provide planned orderly flows of material,
    equipment, people, information.
  • Design a layout material handling system that
    can be easily adapted to changes in product mix
    volumes.
  • Reduce work-in-process provide controlled flow
    storage of materials.

9
8.1 IntroductionObjectives of integrated MH
  • Reduce material handling at between
    workstations.
  • Utilize the capabilities that people have from
    the shoulders up, not the shoulders down.
  • Deliver parts to workstations in the right
    quantities and physically positioned to allow
    automatic transfer and automatic parts feeding to
    machines.

10
8.1 IntroductionObjectives of integrated MH
  • Deliver tooling to machines in the right position
    to allow automatic unloading and automatic tool
    change.
  • Utilize space most effectively, considering
    overhead space impediments to cross traffic

11
8.1 Introduction
  • Design (parts,) for manufacturability MH
  • Automatic Factory was too ambitious a goal
  • Primary goal is to increase customer satisfaction
    at a reasonable price.
  • Economic goal leads to
  • Reducing WIP
  • increasing individual machine performance
  • Reducing Capital cost
  • higher productivity form factory personnel

12
8.2 Fixed Automation SystemsTransfer Line
13
8.2 Fixed Automation SystemsTransfer Line
  • Materials flow from one workstation to the next
    in a sequential manner
  • Production rate for the line is governed by the
    slowest operation
  • Example of hard automation
  • High-volume production are highly automated
  • Buffer storage only for expected breakdowns

14
8.2 Fixed Automation SystemsTransfer Line
  • Unmatched production rates
  • Disadvantages
  • Very high equipment cost
  • Inflexible in number of products manufactured
  • Inflexible layout
  • Large deviation in production rates in case of
    equipment failure in the line
  • Not manual, paced assembly lines
    (need buffers)

15
8.2 Fixed Automation SystemsTransfer Line
  • Specify individual processing stages their
    linkages
  • Performance is dependent on
  • Layout of the facility
  • Scheduling of production
  • Individual stage processing variability machine
    failures
  • Loading of the line

16
8.2 Fixed Automation SystemsTransfer Line
  • Facility planning is straight forward
  • Equipment is in processing sequence
  • Determine buffer sizes between workstations
  • Accommodate buffers with vertical storage
    systems or spiral-type conveyors. Or, the spacing
    between machines.

17
8.2 Fixed Automation SystemsTransfer Line
18
8.2 Fixed Automation SystemsDial Indexing Machine
  • The worktable where the parts are mounted is
    indexed at predetermined times

19
8.2 Fixed Automation SystemsSimilar to Transfer
Lines
  • Synchronous, automated MH, same design conderns
  • Automated assembly systems for automotive parts
  • Chemical process production systems
  • Beverage bottling canning processes
  • Heat treatment and surface treatment processes
  • Steel fabrication processes

20
8.3 Flexible Manufacturing Systems
21
8.3 Flexible Manufacturing Systems
  • It is argued that gaining control of the 95 of
    the time parts are not machined involves linking
    the machines by an automated material handling
    system, computerizing the entire system and
    operation. The term flexible manufacturing system
    (FMS) has thus emerged to describe the system.

22
8.3 Flexible Manufacturing Systems
  • flexible able to manufacture a large number of
    different part types.
  • Components flexible manufacturing
  • Processing equipment
  • Material handling equipment
  • Computer control equipment to track parts
    manage the overall system

23
8.3 Flexible Manufacturing Systems
  • Situations (needs) for flexible manufacturing
  • Production of families of workparts
  • Random launching of workparts onto the system
  • Reduced manufacturing lead time
  • Increased machine utilization
  • Reduced direct and indirect labor
  • Better management control

24
8.3 Designing MH Flexible Manufacturing Systems
  • Random, independent movement of palletized
    workparts between workstations
  • Temporary storage or banking of workparts
  • Convenient access for loading unloading
  • Compatible with computer control
  • Provision for future expansion

25
8.3 Designing MH Flexible Manufacturing Systems
  • Adherence to all applicable industrial codes
  • Access to machine tools
  • Operation in shop environment

26
8.3 Flexible Manufacturing Systems accommodate
changes in
  • Processing technology
  • Processing sequence
  • Production volumes
  • Product sizes
  • Product mixes

27
8.3 Flexible Manufacturing Systems
  • Flexible manufacturing systems are designed for
    small-batch (low-volume) high-variety
    conditions. Whereas hard automation manufacturing
    systems are frequently justified on the basis of
    economies of scale, flexible automation is
    justified on the basis of scope.

28
8.3 Flexibility can be accomplished by
  • Standardized handling storage components
  • Independent production units (manufacturing,
    assembly, inspection, etc.)
  • Flexible material delivery system
  • Centralized work-in-process storage
  • High degree of control

29
8.3 Flexible Manufacturing Systems Configurations
30
8.3 Flexible Manufacturing Systems Configurations
31
8.3 Flexible Manufacturing Systems Configurations
32
8.3 Flexible Manufacturing Systems Configurations
  • Robot system is somewhat scalable.
  • The determination of which configuration is best
    requires a detailed comparison, commonly
    simulation analysis.

33
8.3 What makes FMS flexible? Must have these
capabilities
  • 1. Process different part styles in a nonbatch
    mode.
  • 2. Accept changes in production schedule.
  • 3. Respond gracefully to equipment malfunction
    and breakdowns in the system.
  • 4. Accommodate the introduction of new part
    designs.

34
8.3 What makes FMS flexible? Must have these
capabilities
  • An automated system is not always flexible (e.g.,
    transfer lines), and that a flexible system need
    not be automated (some manual assembly lines).

35
8.4 Single-Stage Multi-Machine Systems
  • Visit only one machine since all operations can
    be performed
  • Yet another alternative in automation in
    machining systems is what has been termed
    single-stage multimachine systems (SSMS)

36
8.4 Single-Stage Multi-Machine Systems
37
8.4 Single-Stage Multi-Machine Systems
38
8.4 Single-Stage Multi-Machine Systems
  • 1. Machining centers in SSMS
  • very versatile machines
  • all identical
  • any part on any one machine
  • one setup per part
  • limited capacity tool magazine on each machine
  • part is moved only twice

39
8.4 Single-Stage Multi-Machine Systems
  • 2. Parts.
  • arrive according to the production requirements
    schedule.
  • visit only one machine
  • part transporter system handles the delivery of
    parts
  • cannot be processed unless the required tool is
    available

40
8.4 Single-Stage Multi-Machine Systems
  • 3. Tools.
  • Specified by the process plan
  • Some resident to the machine
  • Others in a centralized storage system generally
    expensive
  • Dynamic sharing of tools may be the economic
    choice.
  • Decision percentage of the tools shared.

41
8.4 Single-Stage Multi-Machine Systems
  • 4. Part transporter.
  • Minimal since a part visits a machine only once.
  • Deadheading still occurs and there must be an
    efficient dispatching algorithm for the vehicles.

42
8.4 Single-Stage Multi-Machine Systems
  • 5. Tool carriers.
  • A tool carrier handles the transport of tools to
    and from the centralized tool storage
  • The determination of the combined schedule of
    machines and tools is a critical element in the
    operation of SSMS.

43
8.4 Single-Stage Multi-Machine Systems
44
8.4 Single-Stage Multi-Machine Systems
  • The same layout can be used for both FMS and SSMS
  • Transfer lines, FMS, SSMS systems address only
    one aspect of manufacturing the machining
    operations
  • Is it possible to attain the efficiency of
    transfer lines with the flexibility of the
    flexible manufacturing system?

45
8.5 Reduction of Work-in-Process
46
8.5 Reduction of Work-in-Process (Rules of Thumb)
  • Handling less is best.
  • Grab, hold, and don't turn loose.
  • Eliminate, combine, and simplify.
  • Moving and storing material incur costs.
  • Preposition material.

47
8.5 Reduction of Work-in-ProcessHandling less is
best
  • suggests that handling should be eliminated if
    possible. It also suggests that the number of
    times materials are picked up and put down and
    the distances materials are moved should be
    reduced.
  • Quality problem elimination

48
8.5 Reduction of Work-in-ProcessGrab, hold,
don't turn loose
  • importance of maintaining physical control of
    material
  • often parts are processed dumped into tote
    boxes or wire baskets. Subsequently, each part
    individually to orient position it.

49
8.5 Reduction of Work-in-ProcessEliminate,
combine, simplify
  • Principles of work simplification methods
    improvement are appropriate in designing in
    process handling storage systems
  • Handling storage can frequently be completely
    eliminated (schedule sequence)
  • Combine handling tasks through the use of
    standardized containers

50
8.5 Reduction of Work-in-Process Moving Storing
material incur costs
  • move material only when it is needed and store it
    only if you have to
  • incurs personnel equipment time costs
  • it increases the likelihood of product damage
  • moving requires a corridor for movement
  • the longer material stays in the plant the more
    it costs

51
8.5 Reduction of Work-in-ProcessPrepositioning
Material
  • First, parts should be prepositioned to
    facilitate automatic load/unload, insertion,
    inspection
  • Second, when material is delivered to a
    workstation and/or machine center, it should be
    placed in a prespecified location with a
    designated orientation

52
8.5 Reduction of Work-in-Process
  • A late comment. Reduction in wasted time
    increases available machine time. ??

53
8. 6 Just-in-Time Manufacturing
  • Developed more than 30 years ago by Ohno Taiichi
    at the Toyota Motor Company in Japan
  • Believed to work in any production system
  • Concentrate on reducing waste.

54
8. 6 Just-in-Time Manufacturing Types of Waste
  • 1. Waste from overproduction
  • Holding costs are considered, but not balanced
    with set-up costs (No EOQ, Silver-Meal, etc.)
  • Set-ups costs are not considered constant
  • 2. Waste from time on hand (waiting)
  • Worker tending only one machine
  • Better layouts for multi-tending
  • Cross training may be required (valued)  

55
8. 6 Just-in-Time Manufacturing Types of Waste
  • 3. Waste from transporting
  • Moving items over long distances
  • WIP storage
  • Arranging rearranging parts in containers
  • Extra logistic steps for storage
  • 4. Waste from processing itself
  • Useless steps
  • Poor work place design ties up workers

56
8. 6 Just-in-Time Manufacturing Types of Waste
  • 5. Waste from unnecessary stock on hand
  • 6. Waste from unnecessary motion
  • 7. Waste from producing defective goods
  • JIT is consistent with the material handling
    definition in the text book.

57
8. 6 Just-in-Time Manufacturing 5 Elements
  • 1. Visibility can be obtained by the following
    technique electronic boards for quick feedback,
    pull system with kanbans, problem boards, colored
    standard containers, decentralized storage
    system, marked dedicated areas for inventory,
    tools, etc.
  •  

58
8. 6 Just-in-Time Manufacturing 5 Elements
  • 2. Simplicity can be achieved with a pull system
    with kanbans, simple setup changes, certified
    processes, small lot sizes, leveled production,
    simple machines simple material handling,
    multifunctional workers, teamwork, etc.
  • 3. Flexibility can be achieved with short setup
    times, short production times small lot sizes,
    kanban carts, flexible material handling
    equipment, multifunctional employees, mixed-model
    sequencing lines, etc.

59
8. 6 Just-in-Time Manufacturing 5 Elements
  • 4. Standardization of tools, equipment, pallets,
    methods, containers, boxes, materials, and
    processes is pursued.
  • 5. Organization is required for setups, for
    cleanliness, for work areas, for the kanban
    system, for the storage areas, for tools, for
    teamwork activities, etc.

60
8. 6 Just-in-Time Manufacturing Waste Sources
  • Equipment
  • poor scheduling methods
  • inadequate maintenance programs
  • Not reporting maintenance problems
  • Inadequate spare parts inventory
  • Operators not trained in use, preventive
    maintenance
  • Inefficient product design
  • Set-ups
  • Large lot sizes

61
8. 6 Just-in-Time Manufacturing Waste Sources
  • Inventories for raw material, components, parts,
    work-in-progress, finished goods
  • large purchasing production lot sizes
  • poor facility layout
  • inefficient material handling systems
  • inefficient packaging systems
  • inadequate training for the workers
  • poor organization

62
8. 6 Just-in-Time Manufacturing Waste Sources
  • Inventories for raw material, components, parts,
    work-in-progress, finished goods
  • too many suppliers
  • centralized warehouses
  • inefficient product design
  • lack of standardization
  • awkward storage and retrieval systems
  • poor inventory control systems

63
8. 6 Just-in-Time Manufacturing Waste Sources
  • Time (excessive waiting or delays due)
  • inefficient scheduling
  • machine downtimes
  • long repair times
  • poor-quality products
  • unreliable suppliers
  • poor facility layout
  • inefficient material handling systems
  • deficient inventory control systems
  • large lot sizes
  • long setup times

64
8. 6 Just-in-Time Manufacturing Waste Sources
  • Space
  • excess inventory
  • inappropriate facility layout
  • inadequate building design
  • unnecessary material handling
  • inefficient storage systems
  • inefficient product design

65
8. 6 Just-in-Time Manufacturing Waste Sources
  • Labor
  • produce unnecessary products
  • move and store unnecessary inventory
  • to rework bad products
  • wait during machine repairs
  • employee makes mistakes
  • due to lack of training
  • individual responsibility
  • mistake-proofing mechanisms
  • Finally, Handling, Transportation Paperwork

66
JIT Impact on Facilities Design
  • Reduction of inventories
  • Deliveries to points of use
  • Quality at the source
  • Better communication, line balancing, and
    multifunctional workers

67
Reduction of Inventories
  • 1. Space requirements are reduced, machines
    closer to each other and the construction of
    smaller buildings. Reducing the handling
    requirements. 
  • 2. Smaller loads are moved and stored, justifying
    the use of material handling and storage
    equipment alternatives for smaller loads.
  • 3. Storage requirements are reduced, justifying
    the use of smaller and simpler storage systems
    the reduction of material handling equipment to
    support the storage facilities. 

68
Deliveries to points of use
  • 1. Several receiving docks surrounding the plant
    could be required.
  • Receiving docks need extra space for parking etc.
  • Storage material handling equipment could be
    needed at each decentralized storage area.
  • Parts could be moved shorter distances and fewer
    times
  • The storage handling equipment alternatives are
    usually simple and inexpensive (i.e., pallet
    racks, pallet jack, pallet truck, walkie
    stacker).

69
Deliveries to points of use
  • 2. A decentralized storage policy could be
    required to support the multiple receiving docks,
    and computerized or manual inventory control
    could be used. If inventory control is manual
    (using cards or kanbans), a centralized kanban
    control system could be used to collect the
    kanbans and request more deliveries from the
    suppliers, or a decentralized kanban control
    system could be used with returnable containers
    and/or withdrawal kanbans being returned to the
    supplier after every delivery.

70
Deliveries to points of use
  • 3. If plant layout rearrangements have been
    performed to support the JIT concepts, internal
    deliveries to the points of use could be carried
    out using material handling equipment
    alternatives for smaller loads and short
    distances. If the JIT delivery concept is applied
    without performing layout rearrangements, faster
    material handling equipment alternatives could be
    justified, depending on the pulling rate of the
    consuming processes.

71
Quality at the sourcerequires this of suppliers
  • 1. Proper packaging, stacking, and wrapping
    procedures for parts and boxes on pallets or
    containers
  • 2. Efficient transportation, handling, and
    storage of parts
  • 3. A production system that allows the worker to
    perform operations without time pressure that
    is supported by teamwork

72
Better communication, line balancing, and
multifunctional workers
  • All these are claimed by U-shaped production
    lines
  • allow them to perform different operations, and
    to easily balance to production line using visual
    aids and a team approach
  • problem boards

73
U-Shaped Flow Lines examples
74
U-Shaped Flow Lines examples
75
U-Shaped Flow Lines examples
76
U-Shaped Flow Lines examples
77
U-Shaped Flow Lines examples
78
U-Shaped Flow Lines
  • Fit nicely with group technologies
  • The U-line has brought significant benefits. In a
    study of 114 U.S. and Japanese U-lines Miltenburg
    reports that the average U-line has 10.2
    machines and 3.4 operators.
  • One-quarter have one operator

79
U-Shaped Flow Lines reported benefits
(Miltenburg)
  • Productivity improved by an average of 76.
  • WIP dropped by 86.
  • Lead time shrank by 75.
  • Defective rates dropped by 83.

80
U-Shaped Flow Linescharacteristics
  • chase mode the operator is chasing the parts as
    they go from one machine to the next
  • Scaling is done by increasing or decreasing the
    number of operators tending the line.
  • Flexibility is achieved by making machines
    movable so that the machines can be re-laid out
    to minimize part transportation time and operator
    walking time.

81
Remarks
  • Reduction in non-value-adding activities leads to
    lean manufacturing.
  • The lean manufacturing concept can be summarized
    as follows
  • Eliminate/minimize non-value-adding activities.
  • Produce only what is demanded.
  • Minimize the use of time and space resources.
  • Manufacture in the shortest cycle time possible.

82
Other versions of the JIT
  • Stockless production
  • Material as needed
  • Continuous-flow manufacturing
  • Zero-inventory production systems

83
8. 7 Facilities Planning Trends
  • 1. Buildings with more than one receiving dock
    and smaller in size.  
  • 2. Smaller centralized storage areas and more
    decentralized storage areas (super-markets) for
    smaller and lighter loads. 
  • 3. Decentralized material handling equipment
    alternatives at receiving docks.
  • 4. Material handling equipment alternatives for
    smaller and lighter loads.

84
8. 7 Facilities Planning Trends
  • 5. Visible, accessible, returnable, durable,
    collapsible, stackable, readily transferable
    containers. 
  • 6. Nonsynchronous production lines with
    mixed-model sequencing for star products.
  • 7. Group technology layout arrangements for
    medium-volume products with similar
    characteristics to support cellular manufacturing
    concept.

85
8. 7 Facilities Planning Trends
  • 8.U-shaped assembly lines fabrication cells
  • 9.Better handling transportation part
    protection
  • 10. Fewer material handling requirements at
    internal processes more manual handling within
    manufacturing cells.
  • 11. New fabrics construction materials for dock
    seals and shelters.

86
8. 7 Facilities Planning Trends
  • 12. Standard containers, trays, or pallets.
  • 13. Side-loading trucks for easier access and
    faster loading and unloading operations.
  • 14. The traditional function of storing changes
    to one of staging.
  • 15. Use of bar codes, laser scanners, EDI, and
    machine vision to monitor and control the flow of
    units.

87
8. 7 Facilities Planning Trends
  • 16.Focused factories with product and/or cellular
    manufacturing and decentralized support efforts.
  • 17. Lift trucks equipped with radio data
    terminals and mounted scales to permit onboard
    weighing.
  • 18. Flow through terminals and/or public
    warehouses to receive, sort, and route materials.
  • 19. Facilities design process as a coordinated
    effort among many people.

88
8.8 Summary
  • Brief overview of manufacturing systems that may
    impact the facilities design function
  • The continued trend toward JIT manufacturing puts
    the material handling and layout functions to the
    front line.
  • U-lines will continue to be of interest
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