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Gwinett County

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Title: Gwinett County


1
Water Reuse for Augmentation of Water Supply
Joseph G. Jacangelo1,2 Tamar S. Levenberg1 James
DeCarolis1 1MWH 2The Johns Hopkins
University Your Drinking Water Challenges and
Solutions for the 21st Century April 20-21, 2009
2
Presentation Overview
  • Overview and drivers for water reuse
  • Water quality and regulatory considerations for
    reuse
  • Contaminant exposure routes
  • Advanced treatment for selected constituents of
    concern
  • Summary Future trends in water reuse

3
What is Water Reuse?
The reclamation and treatment of impaired waters
for the purpose of beneficial reuse. WateReuse
Association, 2003
4
What is Water Reuse?
The reclamation and treatment of impaired waters
for the purpose of beneficial reuse. WateReuse
Association, 2003
5
Impaired Waters
  • Municipal and industrial wastewater effluent
  • Brackish water
  • Poor quality groundwater
  • Agriculture return flows
  • Stormwater

6
What is Water Reuse?
The reclamation and treatment of impaired waters
for the purpose of beneficial reuse. WateReuse
Association, 2003
7
What is Water Reuse?
The reclamation and treatment of impaired waters
for the purpose of beneficial reuse. WateReuse
Association, 2003
8
Types of Water Reuse
  • Non-Potable Reuse Examples irrigation and
    industrial reuse
  • Potable Reuse - includes drinking water
  • Direct potable reuse
  • Indirect potable reuse

9
Uses of Reclaimed Water
  • Agricultural irrigation
  • Landscape irrigation
  • Nonpotable urban uses
  • Industrial uses
  • Impoundments
  • Environmental uses
  • Groundwater recharge
  • Indirect potable reuse

10
Types of Indirect Potable Reuse
  • Planned Engineered systems to provide
    augmentation of water supply
  • Unplanned Withdrawal of water from water bodies
    that have received wastewater or other types of
    discharges
  • Mississippi, Ohio, S. Platte rivers
  • The magic of the river bed

11
Global Drivers of Reuse
  • Rising Water Demands
  • Demographic, economic growth
  • Urban growth
  • Finite Water Resources
  • Nearby sources Rare vulnerable
  • Remote sources Costly to develop
  • Regulatory Political Pressure
  • Effluent disposal (zero discharge)
  • Environmental issues associated with impoundments
    (no dams)

12
Total Water Portfolio
  • Freshwater
  • Brackish and Seawater
  • Conservation
  • Groundwater
  • Reclaimed water

13
Current Status of Water Reuse in the United States
  • Approximately 1,500 water reuse facilities in
    U.S.
  • Only 5-7 of wastewater is currently reused
  • I believe the Last River for us to tap is
    Wastewater.
  • - John Keys, Commissioner USBR

14
Water Reuse Breakdown
California
Florida
Source US EPA. Guidelines for water reuse
15
Largest Water Reuse Programs in the United States
  • OCWD
  • Central/West Basin
  • MWD
  • San Jose
  • LACSD
  • San Diego County
  • Irvine Ranch
  • Dublin San Ramon
  • EBMUD
  • Orlando
  • Scottsdale
  • Phoenix
  • San Antonio
  • El Paso
  • Tarrant Regional
  • St. Petersburg
  • Pinellas County
  • King County (WA)
  • Austin
  • Santa Rosa
  • UOSA (VA)
  • SNWA/LVVWD

16
Groundwater Recharge - Spreading
17
Groundwater Recharge - Injection
18
Upper Occoquan Sewage Authority, Virginia, Water
Reclamation Plant 20 years of operation
19
Regulations and Guidelines Vary Depending on
Type of Reuse
  • Indirect Potable Reuse
  • Agricultural Reuse on Food Crops
  • Unrestricted Recreational Reuse
  • Unrestricted Urban Irrigation Reuse
  • Restricted Urban Irrigation Reuse
  • Restricted Recreational Reuse
  • Industrial Reuse
  • Environmental Reuse
  • Agricultural Reuse on Non-food Crops

20
Reuse Applications and Number of States with
Guidelines
2004 Guidelines for Water Reuse, EPA/625/R-04/108
21
Title 22 Requirements for Non Potable Reuse
  • Secondary treatment
  • Filtration turbidity of 2 NTU
  • 2.2 total coliforms/100 mL
  • CT 450 mg/L-min

22
Requirements for Indirect Potable Reuse
  • Secondary and advanced treatment
  • Drinking water regulations
  • Monitoring of other constituents of concern (TOC,
    nitrogen, phosphorus, EDCs/PPCPs
  • Environmental Buffer

23
Water Quality
24
Constituents of Concern in Water Reuse
Water Supply
Industrial Use
Commercial Use
Domestic Use
Nutrients
Microbes
Organics
Metals
Salt
To Wastewater Treatment
25
Water Quality Issues That Effect End Use
  • Cooling Towers
  • Nutrients, TDS, suspended solids, chlorides,
    odor, hardness, bacteriological
  • Textile Mill
  • Color, inorganics, chlorine, odor
  • Cement Manufacturers
  • Suspended solids, inorganics
  • Wetland Enhancements
  • Nutrients

26
Water Quality Issues That Effect End Use
  • Agricultural
  • TDS, boron, chloride, chlorine, suspended solids
  • Toilets and Urinal Flushing
  • Suspended solids, color, odor
  • Wetland Enhancements
  • Nutrients
  • Indirect Potable Reuse
  • DWR, EDCs/PPCPs, Others

27
Exposure to Contaminants of Concern
28
Selected Routes of Exposure to Reclaimed Water
  • Direct exposure
  • Contact from surfaces exposed to reclaimed water
  • Accidental ingestion
  • Consumption of fruits and vegetables irrigated
    with reclaimed water
  • Contact with aerosols from spray irrigation or
    cooling towers
  • Ingestion through indirect potable reuse
  • Indirect exposure
  • Impact environmental matrices and affect the
    transport of pollutants (irrigation of soils
    overspray)

29
Important Waterborne Pathogens
Bacteria
Viruses
Protozoa
Campylobacter
Hepatitis A
Giardia
Escherichia coli
Reovirus
Cryptosporidum
Salmonella
Calicivirus
Entameoba
Yersinia
Enterovirus
Microsporidium
Vibrio
Coxsackievirus
Legionella
Adenovirus
Aeromonas
Echovirus
Mycobacterium
Poliovirus
Shigella
Pseudomonas
30
Concentration Ranges of Selected Microorganisms
Found in Raw Wastewater
Adapted from NRC, 1998
31
Multiple Barrier Approach to Risk Management
  • Source control
  • Appropriate treatment (multiple barriers)
  • Storage, transmission and distribution protection
  • Cross connection control / backflow prevention,
    pipe line separation
  • Protection of usage areas
  • Warning signs, buffer zones, cross connection
    control, end-user agreements, user notifications
  • MONITORING TO ASSURE BARRIERS ARE WORKING

32
Treatment for Contaminant Removal
33
Water Reuse Treatment Trains
34
Membrane Modules
35
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36
Spiral Wound Membrane
37
UV Systems
38
Treatment for Inorganics(Membrane Bioreactor and
Reverse Osmosis)
39
Sunrise Treatment Streams
40
MBR
RO
41
Influent Wastewater Characterization
42
Removal of Suspended Solids
43
Removal of Total Nitrogen
44
Removal of Phosphates
45
Treatment for Microorganisms
46
Fecal Coliform Bacteria and Coliphage in MBR
Effluent
47
Comparison of Microbial Inactivation or Removal
Efficacy by Selected Disinfectants and Filtration
Processes
Adapted from Trussell, 1993
48
Treatment for Endocrine Disrupting Compounds
(EDCs) and Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care
Products (PPCPs)(Reverse Osmosis and UV Advanced
Oxidation)
49
Endocrine Disrupting Compounds
  • Endocrine Disrupting Compounds are contaminants
    of emerging concern
  • Removal by conventional wastewater processes are
    often at low levels
  • Advanced treatment often required

50
Examples of EDC/PPCPs
Steroids
51
Advanced Water Treatment (AWT)
Reclaimed Water Market (27,000 m3/day)
Water Reclamation Plant
First Aqueduct
Reservoir
Municipal Wastewater (114,000 m3/day)
Advanced Water Treatment (AWT)
28 month detention time
(61,000 m3/day)
Water Filtration Plant
To Potable Supply
Others
(361,000 m3/day)
52
Advanced Water Treatment (AWT)
53
Advanced Water Treatment (AWT)
54
Removal of Selected Compounds by AWT
55
EDC/PPCP AWT Removal Results
1 n1
56
Efficacy of Various Treatment Technologies
Source Modified from Snyder et al., 2003, Env.
Eng. Sci., 20(5) 456.
57
Summary Non-Technical Barriers to Indirect
Potable Water Reuse
  • Public/user perception and cultural issues
    Toilet to Tap Syndrome
  • Better documentation of economics of water reuse
  • Support by local authorities
  • Project funding

58
Is Direct Water Reuse in our Future?
  • Question is being asked more and more by
    experienced users
  • Technical issue Risk of failure
  • No time to recover public health implications
  • Few studies focusing on failure analysis
  • Perception Issues

59
Summary Trends in Water Reuse
  • Dual systems
  • Acceptability of indirect potable reuse
  • UV for disinfection and advanced oxidation
  • Membrane processes
  • Distributed water reuse facilities

60
Summary Trends in Water Reuse
  • Regulation development, including current
    regulations
  • Integrated resource planning
  • User perception studies
  • Water reuse as a center for sustainable
    development

61
End
62
Legislation
63
Legislation
  • All waters regulated by the Safe Drinking Water
    Act
  • Pathogenic microorganisms, regulated chemicals,
    nitrogen compounds and unregulated chemicals are
    of concern.

64
Texas Direct Reuse Regulations
  • Effective 2-12-97
  • Reuse of untreated effluent is prohibited (TNRCC
    210.22(a))
  • Food crops to be consumed raw cannot be spray
    irrigated (210.22(b))
  • Reclaimed water cannot be utilized in a way that
    degrades groundwater quality (210.22(d))
  • Storage ponds for reclaimed water cannot be
    located within the floodway (210.23(a))
  • All initial holding ponds must be lined properly
    in accordance with 210.23(c,d), which are
    designed to prevent leaking into groundwater
  • Irrigators must apply reclaimed water efficiently
    and avoid excess application that might lead to
    runoff or percolation (210.24(a))
  • Reclaimed water piping must be separated from
    potable water piping by a horizontal distance of
    9 feet (210.25(c))

65
Microorganism Control Requirements
  • Secondary treatment
  • Filtration
  • 2 NTU
  • Disinfection
  • 2.2 total coliform MPN/100mL
  • Residence time in the environment
  • Spreading 6 months
  • Direct injection 12 months

66
Regulated Chemical Control
  • Drinking Water Standards
  • Developed as needed (occurrence) and only when
    health effects, detection method, and treatment
    are known
  • Set of DWS not sufficient for impaired sources or
    indirect potable reuse

67
Unregulated Chemical Control
  • Monitor for Priority Pollutants and Chemicals
    with Action Levels,
  • Plus, this is a dynamic situation
  • Industrial practices change
  • Pharmaceutical prescription preferences change
  • Public perceptions change
  • Chemicals may also be selected to be monitored
    for because their presence may indicate that
    other chemicals of similar characteristics or
    origin are present. These other chemicals may
    have a specific human health effect.

68
Nitrogen Compound Control
  • A total nitrogen standard of 5 mg/L is set
    because all forms of nitrogen could convert to
    nitrate or nitrite in the groundwater

69
Direct Reuse Issues
  • Equity
  • Essentially, water reuse allows one user to delay
    the need to pursue additional resources while
    forcing another (or many others) to do so sooner
    rather than later
  • Moral equity is the basis for many legal statutes
  • Legal
  • Direct reuse has the potential to undermine the
    prior appropriation system by depriving some
    users of their allotted water
  • One of these users is the environment

70
Direct Reuse Issues, cont.
  • Financial/Institutional
  • Reuse projects require a substantial amount of
    capital, and must be a cost-effective option
  • City of Phoenix and Palo Verde Nuclear Power
    Plant
  • PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE/HEALTH
  • Reusing treated wastewater has a negative
    perception
  • Although less scrutiny towards non-potable reuse,
    there are still areas where it is frowned upon
  • Agricultural irrigation is still handled
    cautiously

71
Direct Water Reuse Issues, cont.
  • Potable reuse is much higher risk, therefore
    water utilities, regulatory agencies, the
    scientific community and the public have
    stigmatized it
  • Prohibited in most states
  • Propaganda such as toilet-to-tap and sewage
    beverage
  • Public education and confidence in water utility
    competence are paramount

72
Indirect Reuse Issues
  • Economic feasibility
  • Relates to equity
  • Reused water might not be put to the most
    economically efficient use
  • Should profitability be a criteria for indirect
    reuse permits?
  • Marketing
  • Can a large water user, such as a municipality or
    industry, sell its treated effluent using the bed
    and banks of a river?

73
Potable Reuse
  • Direct reuse
  • The form of reuse characterized by transport via
    pipes or canals
  • Indirect reuse
  • The use of natural water bodies (usually
    rivers/streams, but also lakes/reservoirs and
    aquifers) to transport and/or purify reclaimed
    water, also called bed and banks and ASR.

74
Increased Cost
  • Additional Treatment
  • Conveyance, Distribution and Storage
  • Additional Monitoring
  • Decrease in water sales revenue
  • Can be cost effective if
  • Water supply is of poor quality
  • Water supply does not meet demand
  • Advanced wastewater treatment already required

75
Water Quality Issues That Effect End Use
  • Agriculture
  • TDS, boron, chloride, chlorine, suspended solids
  • Landscaping / Single Family Homes
  • TDS, boron, chloride, chlorine, SS, odors
  • Toilets and Urinal Flushing
  • Suspended solids, color, odor
  • Water Features
  • Nutrients, color

76
Ulu Pandan NE, Singapore Water PlantProcess
Schematic
77
Murrumba Downs AWTP Process Schematic
Lime Water Carbon Dioxide
Antiscalant
Ammonium Sulphate Sodium Hypochlorite
Sulphuric Acid
Sodium Hypochlorite
MICROFILTRATION
REVERSE OSMOSIS
AWTP BALANCE TANK
MF FILTRATE TANK
PRODUCT WATER TANK
WWTP EFFLUENT
Product Water to Amcor
RO Concentrate to WWTP Outfall
78
GI AWTP Process Flow
79
(No Transcript)
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