Best Practices in Land and Water Management - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Best Practices in Land and Water Management PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 212226-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Best Practices in Land and Water Management

Description:

Best Practices in Land and Water Management – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:202
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 18
Provided by: jbe45
Learn more at: http://www.fao.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Best Practices in Land and Water Management


1
Best Practices in Land and Water Management
  • Prepared by Jose Benites,
  • FAO Land and Water Development Division (AGL)
  • for FAO Workshop on GAPs, October 2004
  • Revised by Sally Bunning, AGL

2
Why Best Land Management?
  • Common practices
  • Removal or burning of pasture/crop residues
  • Continuous ploughing and harrowing
  • Misuse /waste of water
  • Overgrazing
  • Deforestation
  • Mono-cropping
  • Excessive use of fertilisers
  • Misuse of pesticides
  • Consequences
  • Poor soil cover, high runoff
  • Erosion and sedimentation
  • Increase risk of drought and flood
  • Loss of soil fertility/productivity
  • Salinity
  • Falling water table/ drying streams
  • Food and health insecurity
  • Water contamination ground surface
  • Greenhouse gas release
  • Increased pest and disease incidence
  • Loss of biodiversity and ecological functions

3
Integrated systems approaches
Soil physical chemical management
Soil biological management
Soil tillage, fertilizers, manure, lime
Soil life and OM (crop species roots, rotations)
Reliable yield quality
Human management of the landscape and ecosystem
Tied ridges, mulch, cover crops, etc
Soil moisture management - WHC
Farmer benefits of Integrated land management
4
Programmes / ActivitiesWhat? / Where?
BEFORE
  • Land management and conservation approaches and
    technologies - WOCAT
  • Soil fertility / productivity improvement
  • Visual soil assessment
  • LADA global land degradation assessment of
    drylands
  • GIAHS globally important agricultural heritage
    systems
  • Watershed and river basin management (Okavango,
    Kagera and Nile basins)
  • Farmer empowerment and experimentation (LWM-FFS
    approaches)
  • Land use planning by local institutions
    (Marmelade, Haiti Tunisia Croatia)

bare hills, erosion, loss of water
AFTER
good land cover and yields
5
Objective Sustainable and Productive Land Use
and Management Practices
to work with farmers and decision makers
to use multiple stakeholders approaches linking
farmer groups, extension, research, urban land
owners/ herders, consumers, government, NGO,
private sector
Improving land quality, farming capacity and
productivity food and livelihood security
6
Suggested Norms for GAP Protocols in relation to
land management
COMPULSORY 100 OF NORMS SHOULD BE
ACCOMPLISHED
REQUIRED (MAJORS) 85 OF NORMS SHOULD BE
ACCOMPLISHED
SUGGESTED (MINORS) MUST BE ENCOURAGED AND
SUPPORTED ALTHOUGH THEIR UPTAKE IS NOT COMPULSORY
7
Lessons for GAP work (1) Minimize burning of
pastures and crop residues
  • Farmers burn for pasture germination or insect
    and disease control or to facilitate tillage
    BUT...
  • Burning reduces return of organic matter to the
    soil and soil surface protection against raindrop
    impact and wind.
  • Burning releases greenhouse gases, and may cause
    air pollution and health problems.

Straw burning prohibition
Help farmers to direct seed into cover crops and
residues (as a substitute for burning) Regulate
timing and frequency of pasture burning
Increase livestock feed and straw marketing
8
Lessons for GAP work (2) Reduce repetitive
tillage - cause of land degradation, soil erosion
and water loss
  • Frequent tillage results in compaction, high
    runoff rates and waterlogging, massive erosion,
    severe losses of soil nutrients and organic
    matter, and as a result rapidly declining yields.
  • Conventional tillage releases 20 - 30 of native
    soil C to the atmosphere in the first 20 years in
    temperate regions, and 50 - 75 in the tropics.

Regulations to minimize soil disturbance direct
seeding, reduced traffic, integrated weed
control techniques
  • Support Conservation Agriculture tools/adapted
    techniques to
  • stop repetitive ploughing (inversion) and reduce
    tillage (chisels, rippers, discs, harrows, etc.)
  • minimize removal or incorporation of crop
    residues
  • replace crop monoculture by rotations (break
    crops) and associations (mixed systems)
  • control traffic to minimize compaction (by feet,
    draught animals, tractors, harvesters, etc.)

Encourage permanent soil cover, minimum soil
tillage, enhanced biomass Monitor earthworms,
soil structure, soil moisture and erosion.
9
Lessons for GAP work (3) Improve soil cover and
crop rotations
  • A bare, unprotected soil surface
  • Accelerates runoff, erosion, surface crusting,
    compaction and declining soil fertility.
  • Requires a lot of labour and energy (often
    strenuous) and external inputs for soil
    restoration
  • Creates calendar constraints (...too dry or wet)

Regulate crop residue burning and crop
rotations Discourage residue incorporation and
bare soils
Encourage no-or minimum tillage, ridge till and
seasonal residue management.
Combine rotations of grain crops with cover crops
and associations (varied products - food, fodder,
biomass) Adapt practices for local soil, climate
and socioeconomic conditions
10
Lessons for GAP work (4) Living soil, soil
organic matter and Carbon sequestration
  • Incorporation of crop residues by ploughing
    increases leaching and mineralization of
    nutrients and release of carbon as CO2.
  • Loss of soil organic matter harms soil structure
    and life rainwater does not infiltrate, soil
    moisture is not retained (surface crusting
    reduced pore spaces runoff causes erosion)

Build up residues and crops on the ground Avoid
ploughing in fresh organic materials
Encourage build up of soil organic matter high
biomass rotations, cover crops, reduced or no
tillage and rotational grazing.
Build capacity in conservation agriculture
direct seeding (no-till), cover crops and
strip-cropping
11
Lessons for GAP work (5) Soil Fertility /
Productivity Improvement
  • Nutrients are lost from the soil through erosion,
    leaching, crop removal or via gas release
  • Nutrient mining through intensive monocultures
    causes an exhaustion of the major nutrients N and
    P on soils with only small total contents of
    mineral and organic reserves.

Regulate and fine farmers for nutrient losses in
water supplies through monocropping, intensive
tillage, erosion.
Adapt and train farmers in integrated plant
nutrient management practices
  • Promote practices that enhance soil fertility
  • use of animal manures, cover crops, compost
  • good residue management
  • selective rotations
  • zero or reduced tillage
  • minimize soil compaction and break hardpans
  • soil and water conservation

12
Lessons for GAP work (6) Drought-resistant
soils and landscapes
How to slow lateral flow?
  • Runoff control measures offer barriers/
    diversions across the land (lateral flow), once
    water has begun to run down-slope.
  • They have no effect to reduce prior impact of
    erosive raindrops or capture - infiltration into
    the soil (vertical flow).

Ban severe mechanical disturbance Replace
expensive physical barriers by practices to
improve soil health and productivity (soil OM,
life, moisture)
Provide no/minimum till equipment, tools,
pasture, fodder and cover crop seed
Promote practices to enhance soil life and
biological activity organic matter and soil
moisture management reduce soil damage use
short rotations
How to protect the soil?
13
Lessons for GAP work (7) Community land use
planning
  • Promote use of PRA and survey techniques for
    diagnosis, mapping, discussion, landscape
    planning and farm/farmer characterisation
    (gender and socio-economic analysis)
  • Promote participatory land use planning and
    mapping to meet community needs (woodlots, trees
    on farm, water access, secure tenure/ leasehold,
    rural roads and local markets, etc...)
  • Promote continuous application and updating of
    community plans through district budgets and
    support mechanisms
  • Monitor extent to which community needs are being
    met

14
Lessons for GAP work (8) Monitor using Visual
Soil Assessment
soil structure and texture
VSA score lt10 (Poor condition) Pasture crop
performance is poor and production costs high.
2045 decline in crop yield
VSA score 15 (Moderate condition) 1015
decline in crop yields
VSA score gt20 (Good condition) Pasture crop
performance excellent, production costs low
(provided climatic conditions, soil moisture,
soil fertility, pest and plant diseases, etc. are
non-limiting.
15
Lessons for GAP work (9) Land degradation
Assessment - LADA
LADA Steps
1. Identification of Land Degradation Problems
and Users Needs Assessment
2. Establishment of a LADA Task Force
3. Stocktaking Preliminary Analysis
4. Stratification Sampling Strategy
5. Field Surveys Participatory Assessment
6. Information Integration
7. Monitoring Strategies Tools
16
BEST LAND MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL Example from Spain
  • Straw burning prohibition and contour tillage
    (COMPULSORY)
  • To keep crop residues over the soil during a
    minimum period (9 / ha)
  • Minimum tillage( 54/ ha)
  • No-till-direct seeding (103 /ha)

17
Conclusions How to promote adoption of GAP in
land management
  • Government organizations need to serve farmer
    clients in more interdisciplinary and
    participatory ways
  • Re-orient agriculture and rural development
    programmes to promote and nurture active
    participation of farmers and their organizations
  • Target the production chain GAP-LWM?
    productivity food quality ? markets ? health
    and nutrition
  • Participatory research and support services to
    facilitate transition from conventional
    agriculture to GAP-LWM
  • Restructure inappropriate macro-economic and
    agricultural policies
  • Adopt policies that promote and enforce
    sustainable and productive land and water use
    through GAP protocols
  • Protect the integrity of agricultural families
    land tenure, build on indigenous knowledge,
    promote youth in agriculture, reduce
    labour/drudgery
  • Adjust legislation to facilitate initiatives of
    local groups adopting GAP (help meet their
    needs)
About PowerShow.com