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The Role of Mental Rotation and Age in Spatial PerspectiveTaking Tasks: When Age does not Impair Per

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Title: The Role of Mental Rotation and Age in Spatial PerspectiveTaking Tasks: When Age does not Impair Per


1
The Role of Mental Rotation and Age in
Spatial Perspective-Taking Tasks When Age does
not Impair Perspective-Taking Performance
  • ROSSANA DE BENI, FRANCESCA PAZZAGLIA and
  • SIMONA GARDINI
  • Appl. Cognit. Psychol. 20 807821 (2006)

Presenter Kuang-Chi Chen
2
Introduction
  • Spatial orientation, way-finding ability
    important functions for life
  • Numerous studies cognitive correlates,
    individual differences, development
  • Spatial orientation decreases with ageing??

3
Introduction
  • Spatial orientation
  • psychometric tests
    real-world tasks
  • (mental rotation test)
    (distance judgements,

  • way-finding,
  • spatial ability
    pointing direction,

  • map learning)
  • third set of cognitive abilities
  • (spatial sequential memory environmental
    learning
  • perspective-taking tasks)

4
Introduction
  • Age differences in psychometric test performance
    are a major factor in accounting for
    ageing-related decline in learning environmental
    layout

5
Decline of spatial ability
  • Mental Rotation Test decline with age
  • Slower and less accurate
  • Others remember the position, maintain and
    process visuo-spatial stimuli, recognize or
    reproduce

6
Less consistent in real-world tasks
  • Poor way-finding, route-learning, pointing,
  • perspective-taking test
  • Adequacy everyday tasks, familiar environment
  • Drop in more abstract and laboratory tests
  • Adequate in more everyday tasks
  • Self-evaluation their sense of direction higher
    than younger people

7
Aims
  • Relationship between self-rating scores of
    spatial abilities (SDSR) and objective
    performance in spatial tests (MRT) in older
    adults compared to younger
  • Relationship between spatial abilities measured
    by psychometric tests (MRT), ageing and
    performance in spatial perspective tasks
    (pointing test)

8
Study 1
  • Participants
  • 73 older (18 males, 55 females)
  • 79 younger (10 males, 64 females, 5 unknown)
  • SDSR (Scale on Sense of Direction and Spatial
  • Representation)
  • 11 items general sense of direction,
    knowledge and use of compass directions, outdoor
    and indoor navigation, preference for survey,
    route and landmark-centered representations of
    space

9
Study 1
  • MRT (Mental Rotation Test)
  • 20 drawings, 8 minutes

v
v
10
Results
  • Mental rotation performance within the group of
    older participants
  • Age-MRT, Age-SDSR no significant
  • Older people as part of a unique group

11
Results
  • MRT performance in the younger and older
    participants
  • 2x2 ANOVA

12
Results
  • SDSR Scale in the younger and older participants

v
v
v
13
Results
  • SDSR Scale in the male and female participants

v
14
Results
  • Relationship between MRT and SDSR Scale in
    younger and older people
  • Younger sample MRT---survey sub-scale
  • Older sample MRT---use of a survey spatial
    representation, MRT---general orientation

15
Discussion
  • Elderly disadvantage in mental rotation test but
    higher scores for the sense-of-direction scale
  • Self-rating are reliable in both, at least for
    survey scores
  • Basic spatial abilities (MRT) are correlated with
    the most complex strategy of spatial
    representation (survey representation) for both

16
Discussion
  • Older people are, and perceive themselves as,
    fully adequate in coping with everyday spatial
    tasks (long years of experience)
  • Older adults interpreted the questions
    differently
  • Our findings support that older adults base their
    ratings on an awareness of their real spatial
    abilities

17
Study 2
  • Memorization and reproduction of a simple map and
    a perspective-taking task
  • Two age groups were matched in mental rotation
    performance to evaluate age effect
  • MRT, SDSR memorize schematic map
  • locate the landmarks
    pointing tasks (aligned and counter-aligned
    versions)

18
Study 2
  • Participants
  • 24 older females
  • 22 younger females
  • Materials

19
Empty map
Annotated map
20
(No Transcript)
21
Study 2
  • Procedure
  • Study the written map for 5 minutes to memorize
    the position of each individual landmark
  • Fill in the first empty map with the names of the
    landmarks (5 minutes)
  • Second learning phase
  • Second empty map
  • Pointing test

22
Study 2
  • Instructions
  • Imagine you are at the drugstore, facing the
    church, point towards the flower shop
  • 4 tasks perspective aligned with the map
  • 4 tasks counter-aligned with the map
  • Objective error original map
  • Subjective error second empty map

23
Results
  • SDSR Scale in the younger and older participants
    No significant
  • Map memorization
  • Significant effect of the two main factors, age
    and learning phases, and of their interaction

24
Results
  • Pointing test
  • Alignment better in the aligned condition than
    in the counter-aligned case
  • Age older subjects performed better than younger
    (58.08 78.97)

25
Results
  • Correlation between MRT and counter-aligned
    pointing was statistically significant
  • Aligned pointing was not
  • Correlations between MRT and first and second
    phases of map learning were not statistically
    significant

26
Discussion
  • Matching the two age groups on MRT performance,
    the older performed better in the pointing test,
    but not in the map-learning task
  • Aligned pointing was easier than counter-aligned
    pointing
  • Mental rotation ability proved to be
    significantly related to counter-aligned pointing

27
General Discussion
  • Younger performed better in mental rotation test,
    confirmed previous findings
  • Self-evaluation of sense of direction seems to
    improve with age
  • Survey strategy score (both) and general sense of
    direction (older) are a valid indicator of mental
    rotation ability

28
General Discussion
  • The self-evaluation survey appears to be a
    suitable tool for assessing individuals spatial
    representation abilities, and is a good predictor
    of mental rotation abilities
  • MRT and perspective-taking tasks shared a common
    skill, probably due to mental rotation strategies
    used

29
General Discussion
  • At least one of the traditional components of
    spatial ability (mental rotation) is involved in
    pointing
  • Highlight the need to distinguish between
    different spatial abilities in relation to
    specific topological tasks

30
General Discussion
  • Why elderly perform better in pointing task?
  • The average MRT performance of younger people
    involved in the Study 2 was markedly lower than
    that of other people of their age
  • Positive approach to performing this type of task
    and a self-belief leading to good performance

31
Thanks For Your Attention!!
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