70291: MCSE Guide to Managing a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network, Enhanced Chapter 12: Routing - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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70291: MCSE Guide to Managing a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network, Enhanced Chapter 12: Routing

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Title: 70291: MCSE Guide to Managing a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network, Enhanced Chapter 12: Routing


1
70-291 MCSE Guide to Managing a Microsoft
Windows Server 2003 Network, Enhanced Chapter
12 Routing
2
Objectives
  • Configure Windows Server 2003 as a router
  • Interpret and manage routing tables
  • Describe the function of dynamic routing
  • Implement a dynamic routing protocol on Windows
    Server 2003
  • Control traffic sent through a router using
    packet filters
  • Create and configure demand-dial connections for
    routing
  • Troubleshoot routing

3
Configure Routers
  • A router is a network device that moves packets
    from one network to another
  • TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, and AppleTalk can be routed
  • Windows Server 2003 can be used as a router
  • Windows Server 2003 does not support IPX/SPX
    routing
  • Cheaper to configure existing server as a router
    than buying a dedicated piece of hardware

4
Configuring Routers (continued)
5
Configuring Routers (continued)
6
Activity 12-1 Configuring RRAS as a Router
  • Objective Configure Windows Server 2003 as a
    router
  • Both network cards should be correctly configured
    with IP addresses
  • Use Routing and Remote Access tool
  • Use Configure and Enable Routing and Remote
    Access tool

7
Routing Tables
  • Responsible for making intelligent decisions
    about how to move packets from one network to
    another in the fastest way possible
  • List of networks known to the router
  • Each network entry called a route
  • Windows Server 2003 automatically configures
    default gateway route and routes to local
    networks from TCP/IP properties for each network
    interface
  • Static routing is used when security is required
    otherwise dynamic routing is used

8
Routing Tables (continued)
9
Routing Tables (continued)
10
Routing Tables (continued)
11
Activity 12-2 Configuring a Static Route
  • Objective Configure a static route to a remote
    network
  • Start ? Run ? cmd
  • Execute route print command
  • Execute route add command
  • Execute route print command

12
Routing Protocols
  • Responsible for calculating best path from one
    network to another and advertising routes for
    dynamic routing
  • Each routing protocol uses a different algorithm
  • Each protocol advertises different amounts of
    information and with a different frequency
  • Two protocols are used in Windows Server 2003 for
    IP routing
  • Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
  • Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)

13
RIP
  • Simplest of the two routing protocols and most
    popular
  • No configuration necessary under most
    circumstances
  • Distance-vector routing protocol
  • Does not differentiate between different link
    speeds
  • Each router sends broadcast packet every 30
    seconds

14
RIP (continued)
  • Many options that can be configured
  • Type of events to be logged can be configured
  • Configure from which IP addresses this router
    accepts updates
  • Can use broadcasts or multicasts when sending
    information to other RIP routers
  • Rip routers advertise the routes learned from
    other routers

15
RIP (continued)
16
RIP (continued)
17
RIP (continued)
  • Can force authentication between routers when
    announcements are sent
  • Password for authentication is plain text
  • Can configure which incoming and outgoing routes
    are accepted
  • Split-horizon processing stops information from
    going back in the direction it was received from
  • Poison-reverse processing marks a network as
    unreachable if it goes down

18
RIP (continued)
19
RIP (continued)
20
RIP (continued)
21
Activity 12-3 Installing and Using RIP
  • Objective Configure your server as a RIP router
  • Use Routing and Remote Access Tool
  • Create a new routing protocol
  • Create a new interface
  • See what routes are learned by the new router

22
OSPF
  • Link-state routing algorithm
  • Determines the best path from one network to
    another based on a configurable value called cost
  • More flexible than RIP
  • Not normally implemented on Windows Server 2003
  • An OSPF router sends only changes in its routing
    table when communicating with other routers

23
Filtering Router Traffic
  • Can control packets allowed to pass between
    routed networks using packet filters
  • Packet filters are directional
  • Packet filters are used to filter network traffic
    based on criteria such as
  • Protocol
  • Source address
  • Destination address
  • Port number

24
Filtering Router Traffic (continued)
25
Configuring Packet Filters
26
Configuring Packet Filters (continued)
27
Configuring Packet Filters (continued)
28
Activity 12-4 Creating a Packet Filter
  • Objective Create and test an unbounded packet
    filter to block ICMP request packets
  • Use the cmd utility
  • Use Routing and Remote Access Tool
  • Create a new inbound and outbound filter

29
Demand-dial Connections
  • Used to establish a connection between two
    routers only when there is data to send
  • Traditionally used to minimize the amount of
    phone time used on dial-up connections between
    routers
  • Can also be used to initiate VPN connections
    between Windows routers
  • Can be created for PPPoE connections

30
Creating Demand-dial Connections
  • For a demand-dial connection to function
    properly
  • Enable the server to perform demand-dial routing
  • Configure a port to allow demand-dial routing
  • Create a demand-dial interface
  • New demand-dial connections are created using the
    Demand-Dial Interface Wizard

31
Creating Demand-dial Connections (continued)
  • A user account with remote access permission is
    required to establish a demand-dial connection
  • Avoid sending plain-text passwords
  • At least one static route is required to trigger
    the demand-dial interface

32
Activity 12-5 Creating a Demand-dial Connection
  • Objective Create a demand-dial VPN connection
  • Add a new demand-dial interface
  • Complete the resulting Wizard tool

33
Configure Demand-dial Settings
  • Most options can be configured during creation,
    but some options can be configured only after
    creation
  • You can configure security settings and idle
    timeout
  • You can configure a set of dial-out hours

34
Configure Demand-dial Settings (continued)
35
Configure Demand-dial Settings (continued)
36
Demand-dial Filters
  • With the default configuration, a demand-dial
    connection is triggered by any IP traffic that
    needs to be routed
  • Filters control which types of network traffic
    trigger a demand-dial connection
  • Configured the same way as a firewall rule
  • Can be used with a dial-up Internet connection to
    ensure that the connection is not dialed except
    for allowed traffic

37
Demand-dial Filters (continued)
38
Demand-dial Filters (continued)
39
Activity 12-6 Configuring Demand-dial Filters
  • Objective Configure demand-dial filters to
    control the activation of demand-dial connections
  • Use Routing and Remote Access Utility
  • Create a new demand-dial filter
  • Test the new filter

40
Troubleshooting Routing
  • Most problems result from an incorrect
    configuration
  • First place to check for problems is the routing
    table
  • A remote router may prevent a packet from
    reaching its destination network
  • Can use the tracert command to see the path a
    packet takes from one router to another

41
Troubleshooting Routing (continued)
42
Summary
  • Windows Server 2003 can be configured as a
    low-cost router for TCP/IP and AppleTalk
  • Each router maintains a routing table that stores
    routes to local and remote networks
  • Entries in the routing table may be configured
    automatically, using the route command, using the
    Routing and Remote Access snap-in, or by using a
    dynamic routing protocol

43
Summary (continued)
  • RIP is a distance-vector routing algorithm that
    calculates paths based on hops
  • OSPF is a link-state routing algorithm that
    calculates paths based on a configurable metric
    called cost
  • Packet filters may be applied to network
    interfaces on a router to control the flow of IP
    packets
  • Demand-dial connections are activated only when
    network traffic requires them
  • The tracert command may be used to list the
    routers a packet crosses to reach a destination
    computer
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