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Life: Biological Principles and the Science of Zoology

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Mendelian heredity. Chromosomal theory of inheritance. Intro. Guiding principles ... principles of heredity, variation, and organic evolution. theory of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Life: Biological Principles and the Science of Zoology


1
Chapter 1
Life Biological Principles and the Science of
Zoology
2
Outline
  • Intro
  • Properties of life
  • Physical laws of life
  • Guiding principles in the biological sciences
  • The nature of science
  • Scientific method
  • Experimental vs. evolutionary sciences
  • Evolution and heredity
  • Darwin
  • Mendelian heredity
  • Chromosomal theory of inheritance

3
Intro
  • Guiding principles
  • laws of physics and chemistry
  • use of scientific method
  • principles of heredity, variation, and organic
    evolution
  • theory of evolution by natural selection
  • chromosomal theory of inheritance
  • Zoology scientific study of animals

4
What is Life?
  • No simple definition
  • General properties
  • chemical uniqueness
  • 4 building blocks confers biochemical unity
  • review
  • complex organization gives rise to great
    diversity
  • complexity and hierarchical organization
  • levels of hierarchy
  • macromolecule ? cell ? organism ? population ?
    species
  • cell is basic unit of life
  • reproduction
  • heredity transmission of traits from parents to
    offspring
  • variation differences among traits

5
What is Life?
  • possession of genetic program
  • encoded in nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)
  • review
  • genetic code arose early and same in bacteria
    though humans
  • highly conserved, alterations disruption of
    life
  • evidence of single origin of life
  • metabolism (interaction of catabolic and anabolic
    pathways)
  • acquire nutrients and S from environment
  • respiration, photosynthesis
  • development
  • pass through characteristic life cycle
  • change is size/shape and differentiation,
    metamorphosis in some
  • early stages similar among related organisms
  • environmental interaction

6
Physical Laws
  • Life obeys laws of chemistry and physics
  • Laws governing S and its transformation
  • 1st law of thermodynamics S is neither created
    nor destroyed but transformed from one form to
    another
  • sun ? plant ? animal ? heat
  • 2nd law of thermodynamics physical systems tend
    to proceed toward greater disorder (entropy)
  • living organisms are highly organized
  • life at cell and organismal level maintained only
    as long as S put in
  • no S input death, decomposition, heat loss

7
(No Transcript)
8
Zoology
  • Animals form distinct branch on tree of life
  • originated 600 MYA
  • part of eukaryotic branch (also includes
    plants/fungi)
  • characteristics
  • consume other organisms
  • cant undergo Ps, lack cell walls (plants)
  • lack hyphae (fungi)

9
What is Science?
  • Way of asking questions about natural world
  • modern science arose in last 200 yrs
  • characteristics of science as stated by Judge
    Overton in the Arkansas courts regarding
    creation-science
  • guided by natural laws (both chemical and
    physical)
  • explanatory by reference to natural law (not
    supernatural being or forces)
  • testable against observable world
  • conclusions are tentative and not necessarily the
    final word
  • it is falsifiable
  • while anybody is free to approach a scientific
    inquiry in any fashion they choose, they cannot
    properly describe the methodology as scientific
    if they start w/ a conclusion and refuse to
    change it regardless of the evidence developed
    during the course of the investigation

10
Scientific Method
  • a.k.a. hypothetico-deductive method
  • Steps
  • observation
  • generate hypothesis to explain observation that
    can be falsified
  • conduct experiment, analyze data, make
    conclusions, repeat
  • if very strong evidence supports hypothesis for
    explaining wide variety of related phenomena,
    then theory
  • theory in science is supported by massive
    evidence

11
Animal Rights Controversy
  • READ

12
Experimental vs. Evolutionary Sciences
  • 2 categories of questions in biology
  • questions that seek to understand proximate or
    immediate causes
  • how animals func. metabolically/physiologically/be
    haviorally at molecular/cellular/organismal/popula
    tion levels
  • addressed by experimental sciences using
    experimental method
  • make prediction of how system will respond to
    disturbance
  • make disturbance
  • compare observed results w/ preditions
  • replications
  • controls lack the disturbance
  • subfields
  • molecular biology, cell biology, endocrinology,
    developmental biology, community ecology,
    physiology

13
Experimental vs. Evolutionary Sciences
  • questions that seek to understand ultimate causes
  • what are the evolutionary facotrs that resulted
    in the characteristics of observed systems
  • addressed by evolutionary sciences using
    comparative method, not experimentation
  • characteristics are compared among related sp.
  • patterns of similarity and dissimilarity used to
    test relatedness
  • subfields
  • comparative biochemistry, molecular evolution,
    comparative cell biology, comparative anatomy,
    comparative physiology, phylogenetic systematics
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