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BVD is a disease that diminishes production and in the individual impacts ... can cause a PI animal to become moribund or to die - though far less than 100% ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: BVD

  • Colorados Voluntary BVD Control Program

Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) review
  • BVD may infect cattle of any age.
  • BVD is a disease that diminishes production and
    in the individual impacts multiple body systems
    including the reproductive, respiratory,
    digestive and immune systems.
  • Clinical signs can vary from pneumonia,
    abortions, stunted calves, stillbirths, PI
    calves, weak calves, unthriftiness, increase
    disease susceptibility and full blown disease
    characterized by a watery diarrhea that
    frequently leads to death.

BVD types
  • The virus presents in different forms,
    cytopathic, noncytopathic, type 1, type 2, type
    1a, 1b, 2a, 2b..etc., etc., etc.
  • All of this makes for confusion when selecting
    vaccines and testing for the disease.
  • The virus may exist in multiple species and
    transmission from one to the other may occur

Transmission and Sources of BVD
  • Transmitted by, ingestion, inhalation, insects,
    carried on boots and vehicles
  • Sources
  • transient infected animals including wildlife
  • Persistently infected animals are the main source
    of infection. PIs shed viruses in high numbers
    and infect others, even if they are vaccinated.
  • PI calves result from the dam being exposed
    during the first third of pregnancy

congenital defects
repeat breeding
immune response
d 0
d 283
d 125
d 150
d 58
d 90
persistent infection
abortion, stillbirth
Keys to controlling BVD
  • Understand persistently infected (PI) animals
    as they relate to BVD.
  • Not be willing to live with one or more PI calves
    in a herd.
  • Not be willing to keep a PI calf as a replacement
    heifer or breeding bull. (dont sell them either)
  • Commit to finding BVD PI cattle in the herd

Can you pick out the PI calf?
BVD Review
  • BVD can cause a variety of clinical and
    subclinical reproductive, enteric, and
    respiratory syndromes and immune suppression.
  • BVD is unique in that a fetus that is infected
    from its transiently or persistently viremic dam
    prior to formation of a competent immune system
    can become persistently infected (PI) with the
  • PI animals will shed BVD from body secretions
    throughout their life.
  • PI animals are considered the primary reservoir
    for BVD in both cow herd and feedlot situations.

BVD Review (continued)
  • A current estimate is that about 10 of beef cow
    herds have at least 1 PI animal, and about 0.25
    to 1 of calves born are PI.
  • Veterinarians/Producers should have a
    surveillance strategy to determine level of herd
    risk for the presence of PI animals (High vs. Low
  • Herds that are considered high risk for
    containing PI animals should utilize laboratory
    tests to do whole-herd screening to find all PI
    animals and then remove them.

Financial impact of BVD
  • 10.00 to 24.00 per breeding animal
    (conservative estimate based on value of the cow
    and the lowered calf crop) a 200 head cow herd
    would lose 2000 to 4800 per year.
  • In the feedlot economic impact can be
    tremendous.21,000 to 100,000 have been lost in
    a few weeks by local feedlots.

Colorados BVD Program
  • Colorados BVD program is strictly voluntary
  • What will the program do
  • Improve reproductive performance
  • Improve calf performance
  • Lower treatment costs
  • Lower death loss
  • Provide a more marketable commodity

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BVD PI Myth 1
  • PI calves will be killed by MLV vaccination
  • Fact Controlled experiments have not been able
    to induce morbidity or mortality in PI calves
    following MLV vaccination. However, case reports
    indicate that MLV vaccination can cause a PI
    animal to become moribund or to die - though far
    less than 100 are negatively affected..

BVD PI Myth 2
  • PI calves will be thin, have a rough haircoat,
    and be a poor-doer
  • Fact While many PI animals are unthrifty,
    reports have indicated up to 50 will appear
    normal and may enter the breeding herd or feedlot
    pen in excellent condition. PI calves cannot be
    identified visually.

BVD PI Myth 3
  • Calves are PI because their dam is PI
  • Fact Recent research has shown that 7 of PI
    calves dams were PI, the other 93 of calves
    have dams with a normal immune response to BVDv
    and are not persistently infected.

BVD PI Myth 4
  • The greatest cost associated with a PI calf is
    the death of that calf
  • Fact The reproductive loss associated with
    lower pregnancy proportions, more abortions, and
    higher calf mortality are the greatest economic
    costs of exposure to PI animals. In addition,
    increased morbidity, treatment costs, treatment
    failure, and reduced gain in feedlot or stocker
    pen mates greatly exceed the cost of PI death in
    feeder cattle.

BVD PI Myth 5
  • BVDv problems will always be obvious
  • Fact If BVDv was introduced into the herd via a
    PI animal several years previously, after an
    initial period of noticeable losses, the herd may
    currently experience only low reproductive loss
    and BVDv-associated morbidity. This low loss
    however, may not be compatible with economic

BVD PI Myth 6
  • BVD wont affect my herd because I vaccinate
  • Fact The tremendous amount of virus secreted by
    a PI calf can overwhelm a level of immunity that
    is protective under less severe exposure. There
    are documented cases of herds with vaccination
    protocols in place for several years that have
    endemic BVDv because of the presence of PI

Thats all Ive got to say!!!