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Using ICT in Making Peasant Farmers More Knowledgeable

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Title: Using ICT in Making Peasant Farmers More Knowledgeable


1
  • Using ICT in Making Peasant Farmers More
    Knowledgeable
  • By
  • Theophilus E. Mlaki
  • Former Director of Information
  • Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology
  • TMlaki_at_costech.or.tz
  • tmlaki_at_gmail.com

2
CONTENTS
  • 1.0 INTRODUCTION AND PHILOSOPHY
  • 2.0 KNOWLEDGE
  • 3.0 POVERTY AND KNOWLEDGE
  • 4.0 KNOWLEDGE AND INNOVATION
  • 5.0 ICT AS TOOLS OF KNOWLEDGE ACCESS
  • 6.0 KNOWLEDGE ACCESS FOR RURAL
    COMMUNITIES
  • 7.0 CONCLUSION

3
1.0 INTRODUCTION AND PHILOSOPHY
  • Tanzania a rich country where poor people
    live
  • Maendeleo ni ya Watu siyo ya vitu (Julius
    Nyerere)
  • The concept of human development has become the
    leading alternative to the view of development
    equated exclusively with economic growth. Human
    development focuses on people (UNDP).

4
  • Human development implies that peoples
    capabilities are
  • enhanced and their lives enriched. It is a
    process of enlarging
  • peoples choices, which is achieved by expanding
    human
  • capabilities and functioning.
  • Essential capabilities for human development are
  • people to lead long and healthy lives
  • to be knowledgeable
  •  to have access to resources for decent living
  • participation
  • Making people knowledgeable is the only way of
    developing
  • people

5
2.0 KNOWLEDGE
  • 2.1 Knowledge and Human Needs
  • Maslow Pyramid
  • http//www.ruralhealth.utas.edu.au/comm-lead/lead
    ership/maslow-diagram.htm

6
2.2 MDGs and Knowledge
7
2.3 Social transformations
Half a hectare of land and one year of
labour were required to feed one person in 1900
whereas that same half-hectare now feeds 10
persons on the basis of just one and a half days
of labour.
Agricultural Society
8
2.4 UNESCOs concept of Knowledge Societies
Knowledge
Societies
Knowledge
Societies
Knowledge
Societies
Freedom Inclusiveness Diversity Empowerment
Pluralism
Pluralism
Pluralism
Human
Needs
and
Rights
Human
Needs
and
Rights
Human
Needs
and
Rights
9
3.0 POVERTY AND KNOWLEDGE
  • 3.1 What is Poverty
  • Poverty is more than lack of material well
  • being. It also reflects poor health and
    education,
  • deprivation in knowledge and communication,
    inability to exercise human and political rights
    and the absence of dignity, confidence and self
    respects.
  • 3.2 Stories on poverty and knowledge
  • Half of the number of children born in Sengerema
    District
  • in Western Tanzania are not vaccinated even
    though this
  • service is offered free.

10
  • Crop yields from ordinary farmers in Tanzania is
  • 25 of what is produced in a research
    environment
  • - Maize per hectare - 1.5 Tons vs. 8 tons
  • - Sweet Potatoes - 5 -10 tons vs. 30 40
    tons
  • - Beans per hectare - 0.4 tons vs. 2.5 tons
  • - Coffee - 400 Kgs vs. 2 tons
  • 43 out of every 100 patients receiving treatment
    at
  • Sengerema District Hospital in Tanzania suffer
    from
  • worms/hookworm.
  • 54 Women patients being treated of cervical
  • carcinoma at the Ocean Road Cancer Institute in
  • Dar es Salaam had no knowledge of the disease.
    It is first time they learn about this cancer.
    (Sr. Avelina Temba MD)

11
  • Announcements prepared and broadcasted by the
  • Community Radio in Sengerema in Tanzania
  • remanding mothers to send their children for
  • vaccination, has increased the number of
    vaccinated
  • children from 50 to 100. (Evaluation of
    Sengerema
  • Telecentre, IDRC, 2004).
  • A carpenter, Alphonse Chayi of Sengerama District
  • in Tanzania was able to make differently
    designed
  • furniture and earn more money after visiting the
    IKEA
  • website using Internet facilities at the
    Sengerema
  • Community Telecentre.
  • (http//www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,259319273
    3,00.html)

12
  • Mbonea Msuya who sells green bananas in Tanzania
  • uses his mobile phone to communicate with his
    agents at
  • Kariakoo Dar es Salaam Moshi Town Rombo Hai
  • District Marangu Moshi Mwika Moshi mainly
    on
  • issues related to prices. (http//quote.bloomberg.
    com/apps/news?)
  • Uzito wa mtu akili siyo mwili
  • Mtabakia labda labda

13
Peasant farmers at Lugoba village in Tanzania
are able to follow the contents of Knowledge CD
Rom produced by CABI International containing
information on crop pests and diseases.
14
  • Demand for mobile phone connection in the rural
    area
  • of Kaliua in Mpanda Tanzania jumped from the
  • researched 1000 lines to 5000 lines.

15
4.0 KNOWLEDGE AND INNOVATION
  • Poverty is incorrectly and heavily associated
    with
  • physiological needs. To get out of poverty we
    need to be
  • Innovative (Give a person a fish or teach him
    how to fish?)
  • Innovation is the key to the production and
  • processing of knowledge. An individual,
    organization, or a
  • nations ability to convert knowledge into
    wealth and social good through innovation
    determines its future.
  • Is Maslows pyramid still valid?
  • Can we change it? Try the pyramid upside down.

16
5.0 ICT AS TOOLS OF KNOWLEDGE ACCESS
  • Major advances towards convergence of computer,
  • broadcasting and telecommunication technologies
    is now
  • referred as Information and Communication
    Technologies
  • (ICT).
  • ICT are used to facilitate the processing,
    transmission
  • and management of information and knowledge. As
    an
  • intermediate good or product, the value of
    information and
  • knowledge in use varies dramatically depending
    upon the
  • context.
  • It would seem logical to conclude that better
    access to
  • a resource as basic as information and knowledge
    would
  • greatly improve standards of living of the
    people. However
  • it is very difficult to provide solid empirical
    evidence to
  • support this conclusion.

17
  • ICT play a prominent role in the broader
    conception of
  • poverty and food production. They offer new
    channels for the
  • diffusion of knowledge and create physical and
    virtual spaces
  • for social communication thus empowering people.
  • To try and prove that ICT can play a role in
    poverty
  • reduction, IDRC is supporting a three year
    research project
  • (Project No. 103876) titled Poverty and ICT
    System in Urban
  • and Rural Eastern Africa (PICTURE Africa) in
    four
  • countries including Tanzania (www.idrc.ca.)
  • All sectors and areas related to human activity
    and
  • development (education, health, agriculture,
    governance,
  • environment etc.) benefit a lot in the use and
    application of
  • ICT.

18
6.0 KNOWLEDGE ACCESS FOR RURAL
COMMUNITIES
  • To transform rural communities of which majority
  • are peasant farmers in Africa, we must ensure
  • that knowledge reaches the remote villages.
  • Availability of ICT is making this possible
    despite
  • numerous challenges.
  • Telecenters now act as knowledge access points
    for
  • rural communities.
  • Building Village ICT Infrastructure is also being
  • tried in Tanzania.

19
Rural Telecentre matrix
20
6.1 Sengerema Community Telecentre
  • Supported by COSTECH, TTCL, TCRA, Unesco,
  • ITU, IDRC and Sengerema Community.
  • Pilot Project from 2001 2004 More than 3000
    people ICT trained of which 40 are women Full
    Community participation Locally owned
    Cooperative Society.
  • Women managed Community Radio with relevant
    content on health, agriculture, fishing and
    culture.
  • Local content (www.sengerema.or.tz) and Local
    Video produced including agriculture
  • Distributed 400 refurbished computers in the last
    two years
  • Local Internet Service Provider for the area and
    District ICT base.

21
  • Self Financing - US 50,000 per year.
  • Researching on District Television, District
    Telephony, and District Knowledge Center.
  • Every District a Telecentre Private and Public
    Partnership

22
6.2 Lugoba Village ICT Project
  • Conceived and supported by COSTECH, COMNET.IT and
    Unesco
  • At first was aimed at Village governance
    information processing and data management at
    village level in the sectors of health,
    education, agriculture and commerce. Some
    processed and analysed data, helped in decision
    making (Malaria data). Later became knowledge
    and communication centre of the village
  • Started with ICT training for 35 village
    officials. Later trained other villagers but not
    yet exhaustive.
  • Hardware, Software, and Applications provided
  • Internet access via VSAT provided.

23
  • Website www.lungalugoba.go.tz created as
    local content. More needs to be done to create
    an Information and Knowledge Society.
  • 100 Email users. Though users are paying for
    such services, sustainability is a major issue.
  • Beside being a village ICT and Knowledge Centre,
    this telecentre is now the ICT base for 9 other
    village centres where a bigger ICT for Rural
    Development Project (ICT4RD) funded by SIDA
    Sweden, is scaling up the present model using the
    90 km Optic Fibre cable of the Chalinze/Wami
    Water Project. The cable has been split,
    wireless access towers have been constructed to
    create a rural communication and knowledge access
    network.

24
6.3 ICT 4 RD Project.
  • The ICT for Rural Development Project in
    Tanzania is a research project funded by SIDA
    Sweden. (www.ict4rd.ne.tz)
  • 6.3.1 Objectives
  • - To design an approach to
    ICT-based rural development in Tanzania to be the
    basis for a development program
  • - To identify end-users needs and
    ability to pay for their services
  • - To identify and test different
    business models for sustainability
  • - To propose and test methods that
    can be scaled up on a national level

25
  • 6.3.2 Expected Results
  • - Improved Broadband Service delivery to
    district offices, schools, farmers centers,
    health institutions and public access centers
  • - To make knowledge available over the
    internet accessible to rural communities in
    Tanzania.
  • - Existence of broadband pilot sites
  • - A proposal for national broadband
    connectivity plan for the rural area.

26
  • 6.3.3 Milestones
  • - Network infrastructure is completed and now
  • in use
  • - Health, Education, Local government as well
  • as private people connected.
  • - ICT awareness workshops conducted
  • - Local ownership in place
  • - Running Services includes file
    transfer and
  • knowledge sharing, Emails, Voice, Local
    content production and Telemedicine.

27
  • 6.3.4 Challenges
  • - Understanding knowledge and innovation as key
    to success
  • - Getting agreement with infrastructure owners
  • - Government involvement
  • - Strong Public-Private-Partnerships (PPP)?
  • - Trying new types of businesses
  • - Availability and reliability of power supply
  • - Purchasing power, computer literacy and
    business motivation are very low in rural areas.
  • - Moving from Digital Immigrants to Digital
    Citizens

28
SERENGETI AND WAMI PILOT AREAS
  • Population (2002- census)
  • Mara1,369,000
  • Bunda260,000
  • Serengeti177,000
  • Coast 900,000
  • Bmoyo230,000

29
Map Wami
30
Map Serengeti
31
(No Transcript)
32
(No Transcript)
33
  • The Boxes are for Active Passive Equipments

34
7.0 CONCLUSION
  • What should we do-
  • be advocates and crusaders of knowledge access
  • think more and explore new areas and methods of
    creating knowledge societies especially among
    rural farmers
  • love the poor and help fight poverty in an
    appropriate way
  • be realistic and look at issues from grassroot
    level.
  • promote bottom up approaches
  • In the years to come, the difference will not be
    rich
  • and poor nations, but rather nations with high or
    low
  • levels of knowledge (Smartest Nations).

35
  • In the continent of Africa, our focus should be
    to make
  • people more knowledgeable through the use of ICT.
  • More food production requires more knowledge.
  • Innovation and change is necessary
  • Do not go where the path may
    lead. Go instead
  • where there is no path and leave a trail
    (Ralph Waldo
  • Emerson)
  • Society participation and involvement absolutely
  • essential

36
  • THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
  • TMlaki_at_costech.or.tz
  • tmlaki_at_gmail.com
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