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Ideas for Videoconferencing and the New Roles of Instructors and Students


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Title: Ideas for Videoconferencing and the New Roles of Instructors and Students

Ideas for Videoconferencing and the New Roles of
Instructors and Students
Dr. Curtis J. Bonk Indiana University CourseShare
.com http// cjbonk_at_indiana
How do you use videoconferencing?
  • __________________
  • __________________
  • __________________
  • __________________
  • __________________

Jim Seymour, PC Magazine, Nov 27, 2001
  • in the wake of the terrorist attacks,
    videoconferencing is suddenly hotvery hot. No
    one wants to get on planes now, least of all for
    a semi-meaningful two-hour meeting four hours
    away. But meet we must, so we're doing more and
    more of it via video. And I confess that I've
    found my dislike for videoconferencing softening.

Pacific Bells Education First Initiativehttp//w
  • Videoconferencing technology allows two or more
    people at different locations to see and hear
    each other at the same time.

Types of Systems (Pac Bell Videoconferencing
Guide, 1995-2002)
  • ISDN has standards, uses regular phone lines,
    bandwidth is connected to your call and can
    increase it from 112 kbps to 384
  • Desktop (e.g., CuSee-Me) is Internet-based, can
    be located anywhere, anytime, cheap, more
    informal and relaxed, typically has document
    sharing, equal participation, many to many.

Moving to IP Networks (Khan Hirata, Nov 2001,
e-learning mag)
  • many universitieshave a main campus and one or
    more satellite campuses that are connected
    through ISDN. However, only a limited number of
    dedicated conferencing rooms connect the two
    sites, enabling face-to-face meetings for faculty
    and board meetings, cross-campus lectures, and
    thesis defense meetings.

Moving to IP Networks (Khan Hirata, Nov 2001,
e-learning mag)
  • Problems with traditional methods
  • System controlled by university
  • Procedure is tedious and time-consuming
  • Have to call in and reserve the room
  • Room must be available
  • Room availability not promoted well and seldom

Carla Schutte, Tech Specialist, Nov. 1998
  • Desktop videoconferencing is synchronous two-way
    communication using real-time digitized video. It
    is also called "video chat" in some reference
    materials. Taking advantage of the internet and
    low-cost or free software, users can use their
    computers and a camera to connect to others.

Jim Seymour, PC Magazine, Nov 27, 2001
  • Polycom moved into videoconferencing three years
    ago through the acquisition of ViaVideo
    Communications the midprice Polycom ViewStation
    unit (under 4,000) now has more than 100,000
    installed systems. (Polycom also recently bought
    PictureTel, the leading "room" videoconferencing

Jim Seymour, PC Magazine, Nov 27, 2001
  • Compared with little videocams meant for PC use,
    the ViaVideo (from Polycom) delivers somewhat to
    much better pictures at faster frame rates in
    larger windows with clearer sound. This is not
    network televisionbut it is good enough.

Moving to IP Networks (Khan Hirata, Nov 2001,
e-learning mag)
  • Advantages to university for IP Systems
  • No cost of audio and video data transfer
  • Do not require large investments in equipment or
  • Easier to use and less training time (more focus
    on content and student interaction)
  • Do not need a specialist to maintain system

Moving to IP Networks (Khan Hirata, Nov 2001,
e-learning mag)
  • The big and overriding advantage is that
    (PC-based) systems are easy to set-up, easy to
    operate, and easy to maintain.
  • Software solution over network solution or
    telephone solutions.
  • Do not have to configure IP addresses or remember
    phone numbers.

Moving to IP Networks (Khan Hirata, Nov 2001,
e-learning mag)
  • Advantages to Users
  • Available to anyone with Internet access
  • (no longer have to be in the org on same network)
  • Collaborate on documents (with students around
    the world)
  • Online access detection (in newer systems)
  • Push Web pages to each other
  • Participate in voice and video chat (perhaps on

Moving to IP Networks (Khan Hirata, Nov 2001,
e-learning mag)
  • at ABC University, where students attend
    classes during the day on campus, students can
    collaborate in the evenings on group projects
    from their dorm rooms and homes. While working
    on papers, students can consult online with a
    professor face-to-face who may be in their office
    or at home.

Moving to IP Networks (Khan Hirata, Nov 2001,
e-learning mag)
  • With online presence detection, they simply
    click on a conference session name or on their
    colleague or professors username to get
    connectedinstantly being able to exchange data,
    collaborate on documents, and participate in
    voice and video chat.

Moving to IP Networks (Khan Hirata, Nov 2001,
e-learning mag)
  • As people endeavor to keep up with changes in
    technology and advancements in their education,
    it is critical for corporations and academic
    institutions to provide globally open access to
    education over the Internet.

My History with Videoconferencing and DE
  • 1987-1988. Helped create a one-way telecourse
  • 1989-1996. Worked with computer conferencing and
    collab writing tools
  • 1995. Picture-Tel CU-SeeMe (Interactive TV)
  • 1997-1999. Videoconferencing to Finland
  • 1996-2000. Project Athena-Multicampus Tech Proj
  • 1998-Present. TICKIT project for rural teachers
  • 1995-Present. Guest Expert via Videoconferencing
  • 1995-Present. Various Online Classes

Videoconferencing Used to Support Web Class (or
live class)
Video Meant to Be Key, but Discussion Takes Over
(No Transcript)
Videoconferencing Advice
Videoconferencing is hard (Managerial Skills)
  • Plan for resources, syllabus, and books
  • Consider developing a Web support site
  • Visit remote sites (and announce it)
  • Call on students who are talking
  • Have an agenda, sequence materials
  • Contact site coordinator(s)

Focus on Managing Learning (Pac Bell
Videoconferencing Guide, 1995-2002)
  • Limit the number of sites to 3 or 4
  • Get phone or email of participants
  • Bring a cell phone to the event
  • Plan a practice session
  • Make sure sites call in 30 minutes early
  • A wireless mic can be passed around
  • Have back-up tech plan--conference call

Classroom Management (A Guide to
Vidoconferencing, The World Bank, 2002)
  • Vary speaking tempo
  • Avoid monotone and hasty presentations
  • Send background materials and slides to students
    to limit presentation time
  • Maintain low voice tone and enunciate clearly
  • Keep in mind that microphones are sensitive to

(No Transcript)
Focus on Managing Learning (Pac Bell
Videoconferencing Guide, 1995-2002)
  • All sites should mute their mics
  • Set ground rules on speaking protocols
  • Site facilitators preset camera settings
  • Main facilitator should start with purpose,
    agenda, protocols, etc.

Internet-Based Advice(Hazel Jobe, 1999)
  • Plan it for morning when there is less congestion
  • Decide on placement or students on camera as well
    as placement of mics
  • Plan for the worst. If server if down, postpone
  • Have students do research then share via video
  • Mentoring is a great option in videoconferencing
  • Beware of unexpected incoming hook-up requests

Videoconferencing is hard (Technological Skills)
  • Test out the equip 30 minutes prior to class
  • Test room 1-2 weeks b4 teaching in it.
  • Set camera presets
  • Assistant to help b4 teach and for admin (faxing,
  • Get some training

Videoconferencing is Fun(Social Hat)
  • Order pizza for remote site and see who is
    willing to pay.
  • Introduce students to each other who normally
    would never meet.
  • Wear tennis shoes and see if anyone notices.
  • Ask for mailbox, office space, and parking spot
    at remote site and do not go back to work.
  • Try stretching exercises.

Videoconferencing Requires Pedagogy (Pedagogical
  • Use document camera for sharing
  • Call on students at remote site first
  • Vary the activities
  • Change activity or break into small groups every
    15-30 minutes

Active Learning is Important!
Focus on Learning (Pac Bell Videoconferencing
Guide, 1995-2002)
  • Maintain interest with novel activities
  • Make materials and learning relevant
  • Explain differences from passive TV watching
  • Consider pace slow for new material
  • Alternate lecture and activities

Focus on Learning (Pac Bell Videoconferencing
Guide, 1995-2002)
  • Techniques
  • Participant presentations
  • Role play and debates
  • Case studies
  • Semantic maps to minimize text
  • Brief video clips with discussion

Focus on Learning (Pac Bell Videoconferencing
Guide, 1995-2002)
  • Maintain eye contact (look directly at camera,
    not TV or students in your room).
  • Use names
  • Repeat questions before answering
  • See if someone else has answer first

Why Select Videoconferencing?
  • Reel Em In!!! (new students)
  • Bring in a Dose of Reality (real world)
  • I always wanted to teach at XYZ.
  • It was requested!
  • It's Cool! Its New! Its a Challenge!
  • Can be in two places at one time.
  • My students count too!
  • 7-11/Village Pantry Thinking.

What Worked?
  • Group Discussion
  • Small Group Activities
  • Experts
  • Final Presentations
  • Variety, Breaks, Acting, Zaniness
  • Food and drinks

Preparing to Teach With Videoconferencing (A
Guide to Vidoconferencing, The World Bank, 2002)
  • Consider learner prior knowledge
  • Consider learner technology resources
  • Incorporate charts and outlines
  • Use both audio and visuals to increase attention
  • Organize main points and present them

Preparing Slides for Videoconferencing (A Guide
to Vidoconferencing, The World Bank, 2002)
  • Leave 1.5 inch blank frame on edges
  • Create all page layouts in landscape or
    horizontal format
  • Font size 24 to 36
  • Max 9 lines and 35 characters/line
  • Minimum line thickness 2 pt.

Preparing Slides for Videoconferencing (A Guide
to Vidoconferencing, The World Bank, 2002)
  • Keep diagrams simple
  • Video makes all print hard to see, so make slides
    twice as large as think
  • Medium blue to light green backgrounds work best
  • Limit use of animation

The Presentation (tale of disco Jim)
  • Avoid intense colorsthey bleed on screen
  • Avoid bright green, orange, and busy patterns,
    striped clothes
  • Avoid all dark or all light clothing
  • Pastel colors look better than bright white
  • Blue and medium gray look good on camera

The Presentation
  • Image looks best from waste up
  • Be natural and maintain eye contact
  • Pause for delays in transmission
  • Do not move about too quickly
  • Avoid gum, rocking back and forth, chewing gum,
    dangling jewelry, overt hand gestures, tinted
    glass lenses

When using Document Camera (A Guide to
Vidoconferencing, The World Bank, 2002)
  • Convert all transparencies to paper copy with
  • Avoid touch or moving items under document camera
  • Use a pen or other type of pointing device
  • Again, print in landscape format
  • Print in light card stock, if possible

When using Control Panel (A Guide to
Vidoconferencing, The World Bank, 2002)
  • Become familiar with basic functions prior to
    first session
  • Ask questions of producers if present
  • Consider temporary labels for camera presets
  • Consider training a student as a helper
  • Contact student at remote sites to help

Atmosphere and Interaction Tips (A Guide to
Vidoconferencing, The World Bank, 2002)
  • Break lesson into segments and build in
    interaction sequences
  • Delegate part of presentation to others
  • Remind to ask questions
  • Perhaps have discussion at start of next session
    to recap last topic

Pedagogical StrategiesVideoconferencing
  • 1. Human Graphs, Stand and Share, Present
  • 2. Mock Trials with Occupational Roles
  • 3. Tell Tall Tales, Creative Writing
  • 4. Think-Pair-Share, Cooperative Scripts
  • 5. Phillips 66/Buzz Groups, Roundrobins
  • 6. Pruning the Tree, Bingo Quizzes
  • 7. Numbered Heads Together
  • 8. Three Stay, One Stray
  • 9. Swami Questions
  • 10. Double Fishbowl.

Pedagogical StrategiesVideoconferencing
  • 1. Human Graphs, Stand and Share, Present
  • Human Graph
  • Have students line up on a scale (e.g., 1 is low
    and 5 is high) on camera according to how they
    feel about something (e.g., topic, the book,
  • Debrief

Pedagogical StrategiesVideoconferencing
  • 1. Human Graphs, Stand and Share, Present
  • Stand and Share
  • Have students think about a topic or idea and
    stand when they have selected an answer or topic.
  • Call on students across sites and sit when speak.
  • Also, sit when you hear your answer or your ideas
    are all mentioned by someone else.

Pedagogical StrategiesVideoconferencing
  • 1. Human Graphs, Stand and Share, Present
  • Presentation
  • Assign a task for students to present on.
  • Have them create PowerPoint slides, bring
    videotapes or other media, and items for document
  • Consider have peer and instructor evaluation
    forms for each group and/or individual.

Pedagogical StrategiesVideoconferencing
  • 2. Mock Trials with Occupational Roles
  • Create a scenario (e.g., school reform in the
    community) and hand out to students to read.
  • Ask for volunteers for different roles (everyone
    must have a role).
  • Perhaps consider having one key person on the pro
    and con side of the issue make a statement.
  • Discuss issues from within role (instructor is
    the hired moderator or one to make opening
    statement he/she collects ideas on document
    camera or board).
  • Come to compromise.

Pedagogical StrategiesVideoconferencing
  • 3. Tell Tall Tales, Creative Writing
  • Start a topic of discussion perhaps with an
    interesting scenario or just imagine if this
    happened or an object obituary.
  • Pass on the story to a student to continue it at
    another location or have volunteers.
  • Continue with story.
  • Perhaps combine with a Stand and Share activity.

Pedagogical StrategiesVideoconferencing
  • 4. Think-Pair-Share, Cooperative Scripts
  • Think-Pair-Share
  • Assign a topic for reflection or writing.
  • Have share their responses with someone next to
  • Ask to share with class.
  • Alternatively, ask students to volunteer
    something they heard from a peer.

Pedagogical StrategiesVideoconferencing
  • 4. Think-Pair-Share, Cooperative Scripts
  • Cooperative Scripts
  • Assign a short reading passage and pairs of
  • Have one person summarize passage and the other
    listen and ask questions or add to it.
  • Share what learned with class (consider perhaps
    assigning a different passage to each group or to
    each individual).

Pedagogical StrategiesVideoconferencing
  • 4. Think-Pair-Share, Cooperative Scripts
  • Three Step Interview
  • Assign pairs of students who interview each
  • Pairs introduce each other to another group.
  • Then they introduce members or another group to
    entire videoconference.

Pedagogical StrategiesVideoconferencing
  • 5. Phillips 66/Buzz Groups, Roundrobins
  • Phillips 66/Buzz Groups
  • Assign a topic at the start or end of class.
  • Assign students to groups of 6 students to
    discuss that topic for 6 minutes.
  • Summarize that discussion with videoconferencing

Pedagogical StrategiesVideoconferencing
  • 5. Phillips 66/Buzz Groups, Roundrobins
  • Roundrobin
  • Select a topic
  • Respond to it
  • Pass answer(s) to next person in group
  • Keep passing until everyone contributes or ideas
    are exhausted
  • Summarize and/or report or findings

Pedagogical StrategiesVideoconferencing
  • 6. Pruning the Tree, Bingo Quizzes
  • Pruning the Tree
  • Have a recently learned concept or answer in your
  • Students can only ask yes/no types of questions.
  • If guess and wrong they are out and can no longer
  • The winner guesses correctly.

Pedagogical StrategiesVideoconferencing
  • 6. Pruning the Tree, Bingo Quizzes
  • Bingo Quizzes
  • Have questions with answers that complete a Bingo
    card. Put course related questions or statements
    on a slip of paper with each .
  • Pull numbers from a hat.
  • Read question and number and students have to put
    answer in that box if their Bingo card has it.
  • First one to think she has Bingo reads her card.
    If anything is incorrect, keep going.

Pedagogical StrategiesVideoconferencing
  • 7. Numbered Heads Together
  • Assign a task and divide into groups (perhaps
  • Perhaps assign group names across
    videoconferencing sites or perhaps some
    competition between them.
  • Count off from 1 to 4.
  • Discuss problem or issue assigned.
  • Instructor calls on groups numbers.

Pedagogical StrategiesVideoconferencing
  • 8. Three Stay, One Stray
  • Assign task.
  • Designate one person as a spy who from
    time-to-time travels about room and looks at
    solutions and answers of other groups.
  • Spy reports back to group.
  • Group reports to larger videoconferencing group.

Pedagogical StrategiesVideoconferencing
  • 8. One Stay, Three Stray
  • Assign task.
  • Once completed, post results on wall in a poster
    session (e.g., showcase model, list of questions,
    final product, etc.).
  • One person stays behind to present product and
    others tour the room.
  • Report back to videoconferencing group.

Pedagogical StrategiesVideoconferencing
  • 9. Swami Questions
  • Have all sites send in questions during break
  • At end of session go thru as many of them as you
    can in last 5-10 minutes.

Pedagogical StrategiesVideoconferencing
  • 9. Alternative Swami Questions
  • Tell them you are out of time today.
  • take questions home and come up with creative
    answers (put in sealed envelopes)
  • Next time start class dressed as a swami and put
    answers and answer questions before opening
  • Come to session in costume and have some fun.

Pedagogical StrategiesVideoconferencing
  • 10. Double Fishbowl.
  • Assign groups via 1s and 2s. The 1s are
    considered inside the fishbowl 2s are outside.
  • Give a topic to discuss.
  • Only 1s are allowed to talk.
  • After 5-10 minutes 1s find a 2s at their site
    to talk to about the conversation.
  • Switch roles and only 2s are allowed to talk.
  • All talk and come to compromise.

Pedagogical Ideas (Carla Schutte, 1998)
  • Multiple locations work on a project or research
  • Learn customs of another country
  • Sharing or informal chats on writing or articles
  • Show current events as they happen (cyberevents,
    NASA flights, etc.)
  • Plan events (conferences, work, lessons,
    workshops, interviews)

Pedagogical Ideas (Carla Schutte, 1998)
  • Guest experts (e.g., scientists, politicians) for
    mtg or panel
  • Guest visitors (costumed as historical or
    literary figures) thru presentation QA
  • Training in software or techniques
  • Virtual field trips (e.g., zoos, hospitals, etc.)
  • Team teaching and learning
  • Student competitions across sites

Videoconferencing Benefits(Hazel Jobe, 1999)
  • Appeals to diff learning styles
  • Allows multiple classrooms to collaborate
  • Improves presentation, communication, graphing,
    and research skills
  • University and other feedback
  • Cheaper

To Cope with the Explosion, We Need Instructor
E-Learning Support!!!
Survey Finds Concern on Administrative
ComputingChronicle of Higher Ed, June 22, 2001,
A33, Jeffrey R. Young
  • Campus-technology leaders say they worry more
    about administrative-computing systems than about
    anything else related to their jobs.
  • (survey by Educausean academic-technology

Problems Faced
  • Administrative
  • Lack of admin vision.
  • Lack of incentive from admin and the fact that
    they do not understand the time needed.
  • Lack of system support.
  • Little recognition that this is valuable.
  • Rapacious U intellectual property policy.
  • Unclear univ. policies concerning int property.
  • Pedagogical
  • Difficulty in performing lab experiments
  • Lack of appropriate models for pedagogy.
  • Time-related
  • More ideas than time to implement.
  • Not enough time to correct online assign.
  • People need sleep Web spins forever.

TrainingOutside Support
  • Training (
  • Courses Certificates (JIU, e-education)
  • Reports, Newsletters, Pubs
  • Aggregators of Info (CourseShare, Merlot)
  • Global Forums ( GEN)
  • Resources, Guides/Tips, Link Collections, Online
    Journals, Library Resources

Certified Online Instructor Program
  • Walden Institute12 Week Online Certification
    (Cost 995)
  • 2 tracks one for higher ed and one for online
    corporate trainer
  • Online tools and purpose
  • Instructional design theory techniques
  • Distance ed evaluation
  • Quality assurance
  • Collab learning communities

http// http//
Inside Support
  • Instructional Consulting
  • Mentoring (strategic planning )
  • Small Pots of Funding
  • Help desks, institutes, 11, tutorials
  • Summer and Year Round Workshops
  • Office of Distributed Learning
  • Colloquiums, Tech Showcases, Guest Speakers
  • Newsletters, guides, active learning grants,
    annual reports, faculty development, brown bags,
    other professional development

Technology Professional Development workshop
participants practice their new skills.
Four Key Hats of Instructors
  • Technicaldo students have basics? Does their
    equipment work? Passwords work?
  • ManagerialDo students understand the assignments
    and course structure?
  • PedagogicalHow are students interacting,
    summarizing, debating, thinking?
  • SocialWhat is the general tone? Is there a
    human side to this course? Joking allowed?

Study of Four Classes(Bonk, Kirkley, Hara,
Dennen, 2001)
  • TechnicalTrain, early tasks, be flexible,
    orientation task
  • ManagerialInitial meeting, FAQs, detailed
    syllabus, calendar, post administrivia, assign
    e-mail pals, gradebooks, email updates
  • PedagogicalPeer feedback, debates, PBL, cases,
    structured controversy, field reflections,
    portfolios, teams, inquiry, portfolios
  • SocialCafé, humor, interactivity, profiles,
    foreign guests, digital pics, conversations,

How to Combine these Roles?
  • Refers to online teaching and facilitation role.
    Moderating used to mean to preside over a meeting
    or a discussion, but in the electronic world, it
    means more than that. It is all roles
    combinedto hold meetings, to encourage, to
    provide information, to question, to summarize,
    etc. (Collins Berge, 1997 Gilly Salmon, 2000)
    see http//

Other Hats
Personal Learning Trainer
  • Learners need a personal trainer to lead them
    through materials and networks, identify relevant
    materials and advisors and ways to move forward
    (Mason, 1998 Salmon, 2000).

  • While one hopes you will not call yourself this
    nor find the need to make laws and enforce them,
    you will need some Code of Practice or set
    procedures, and protocols for e-moderators (Gilly
    Salmon, 2000).

Other Hats
  • Weaverlinking comments/threads
  • Tutorindividualized attention
  • Participantjoint learner
  • Provocateurstir the pot ( calm flames)
  • Observerwatch ideas and events unfold
  • Mentorpersonally apprentice students
  • Community Organizerkeep system going

Still More Hats
  • Assistant
  • Devils advocate
  • Editor
  • Expert
  • Filter
  • Firefighter
  • Facilitator
  • Gardener
  • Helper
  • Lecturer
  • Marketer
  • Mediator
  • Priest
  • Promoter

Surebut Cat Herder???
Activity Pick a Online Instruction Metaphor from
40 Options
  • Reality
  • ___________
  • ___________
  • ___________
  • ___________
  • ___________
  • Ideal World
  • ___________
  • ___________
  • ___________
  • ___________
  • ___________

Web Facilitation???Berge Collins
AssociatesMauri Collins and Zane L.
Online Mentoring and Assistance Online
Twelve forms of electronic learning mentoring and
assistance(Bonk Kim, 1998 Tharp, 1993 Bonk
et al., 2001)
(No Transcript)
1. Social (and cognitive) Acknowledgement
"Hello...," "I agree with everything said so
far...," "Wow, what a case," "This case certainly
has provoked a lot of discussion...," "Glad you
could join us..."
2. Questioning "Another reason for this might
be...?," "An example of this is...," "In contrast
to this might be...,""What else might be
important here...?," "How might the teacher..?."
"What is the real problem here...?," "How is this
related to...?,, "Can you justify this?"
5. Feedback/Praise "Wow, I'm impressed...,"
"That shows real insight into...," "Are you sure
you have considered...," "Thanks for responding
to X...," "I have yet to see you or anyone
6. Cognitive Task Structuring "You know, the
task asks you to do...," "Ok, as was required,
you should now summarize the peer responses that
you have received...," "How might the textbook
authors have solved this case."
8. Push to Explore "You might want to write to
Dr. XYZ for...," "You might want to do an ERIC
search on this topic...," "Perhaps there is a URL
on the Web that addresses this topic..."
Which of these 12 do you think are the most
prevalent on the Web?___________________________
What About Student Roles???
Participant Categories
  • Web Resource Finder
  • Starter-Wrapper
  • Researcher
  • Online Journal Editor
  • Expert Resource Gatherer
  • Technology Reviewer
  • Mentor/Expert
  • Instructor
  • Seeker/Questioner

Role 1 Starter/MediatorReporter/Commentator
  • Summarizes the key terms, ideas, and issues in
    the chapters, supplemental instructor notes,
    journal articles, and other assigned readings and
    asks thought provoking questions typically before
    ones peers read or discuss the concepts and
    ideas. In effect, he/she points out what to
    expect in the upcoming readings or activities.
    Once the start is posted, this student acts as
    a mediator or facilitator of discussion for the

Role 2 Wrapper/SummarizerSynthesizer/Connector/R
  • Connects ideas, synthesizes discussion,
    interrelates comments, and links both explicit
    and implicit ideas posed in online discussion or
    other activities. The learner looks for themes
    in online coursework while weaving information
    together. The wrapping or summarizing is done at
    least at the end of the week or unit, but
    preferably two or more times depending on the
    length of activity.

Role 3 Conqueror or Debater/Arguer/Bloodletter
  • Takes ideas into action, debates with others,
    persists in arguments and never surrenders or
    compromises nomatter what the casualties are when
    addressing any problem or issue.

Role 4 Devil's Advocate or Critic/Censor/Confeder
  • Takes opposite points of view for the sake of an
    argument and is an antagonist when addressing any
    problem posed. This might be a weekly role that
    is secretly assigned.

Role 5 Idea Squelcher/Biased/Preconceiver
  • Squelches good and bad ideas of others and
    submits your own prejudiced or biased ideas
    during online discussions and other situations.
    Forces others to think. Is that person you
    really hate to work with.

Role 6 Optimist/Open-minded/Idealist
  • In this role, the student notes what appears to
    be feasible, profitable, ideal, and "sunny" ideas
    when addressing this problem. Always sees the
    bright or positive side of the situation.

Role 7 Emotional/Sensitive/Intuitive
  • Comments with the fire and warmth of emotions,
    feelings, hunches, and intuitions when
    interacting with others, posting comments, or
    addressing problems.

Role 8 Idea Generator Creative Energy/Inventor
  • Brings endless energy to online conversations
    and generates lots of fresh ideas and new
    perspectives to the conference when addressing
    issues and problems.

Who do you think invented the Internet???
Alt Role Connector/Relator/Linker/Synthesizer
Funny thing is that Al thinks he invented
e-learning as well!!!
(No Transcript)
IS TEACHING a distance-education course on the
role of families in discussions about community
development.    Videotapes of the two-semester
course, made this past year, are available for
other institutions to use.   SEE
Role 9 Questioner/Ponderer/Protester
  • Role is to question, ponder, and protest the
    ideas of others and the problem presented itself.
    Might assume a radical or ultra-liberal tone.

Role 10 Coach Facilitator/Inspirer/Trainer
  • Offers hints, clues, supports, and highly
    motivational speeches to get everyone fired-up or
    at least one lost individual back on track when
    addressing a problem or situation.

Role 11 Controller/Executive Director/CEO/Leader
  • In this role, the student oversees the process,
    reports overall findings and opinions, and
    attempts to control the flow of information,
    findings, suggestions, and general problem

Role 12 Slacker/Slough/Slug/Surfer Dude
  • In this role, the student does little or nothing
    to help him/herself or his/her peers learn.
    Here, one can only sit back quietly and listen,
    make others do all the work for you, and
    generally have a laid back attitude (i.e., go to
    the beach) when addressing this problem.

Activity Pick a Role Or Role Taking TaskName a
role missing from this sheet and discuss how you
might use it(see Bonks 28 roles)
So What Happens to Instructors and Students in
the Future???
  • We are evolving out of the era of the Lone
    Rangersfaculty members can choose to be involved
    in the design, development, content expertise,
    delivery, or distribution of course (Richard T.
  • Sarah Carr, (Dec 15, 2000, A47), A Day in the
    Life of a New Type of Professor, The Chronicle of
    Higher Education

Track 1 Technical Specialist
  • Help critique technical aspects of media and
    materials built into online courses. Here one
    would be part of a course development team or
    instructional design unit. Freelance learning
    object evaluator. Here one would likely operate
    alone or as part of a consulting company.

Track 2 Personal Guide
  • Provide program or course guidance to students on
    demand or preplanned. Becomes more of a
    generalist across university offerings. For
    example, one might help students see how
    different learning objects or modules fit
    together into a degree.

Track 3 Online Facilitator
  • Offers timely and informed support to students
    struggling to complete an online course or
    inserting questions and nudging development of
    students who are successfully completing
    different modules. This is the most similar to
    college teaching positions today.

Track 4 Course Developer
  • Help develop specific courses or topic areas for
    one or more universities. In many institutions,
    this will move beyond a course royalty system to
    a paid position.

Track 5 Course or Program Manager
  • Supervisor or manager of an entire new program or
    courses, most often leading to certificates or
    masters degrees. Similar in stature to a
    development head or chairperson.

Track 6 Work for Hire Online Lecturer
  • Is a freelance instructor for one course or a
    range of course. May work on just one campus or
    on a range of campuses around the world. While
    this will be highly popular and rejuvenate
    careers, institutional policies are yet to be
    sorted out.

Track 7 High School Teacher
  • As universities begin to offer secondary degrees,
    some college faculty with online teaching
    experience and teaching degrees will find
    positions in those classes. Some may view such
    positions as being demoted to the minor leagues.

Track 8 Unemployed
  • If one does not find a niche in one or more of
    the above tracks or roles, he or she will likely
    be unemployed or highly unsuccessful.

So, which track is Australia on?