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Title: UAV Development and History at Northrop Grumman Corporation


1
SI4000 SUMMER 2004 UAV Brief
UAV Development and History at Northrop Grumman
Corporation Ryan Aeronautical Center
Norman S. Sakamoto norm.sakamoto_at_ngc.com 619.203.5
726
File Name.1 As of (date)
2
UAV Family Tree
Historically, no single, universally accepted
definition has adequately categorize the Unmanned
Air Vehicle.
Vehicle
Ballistic
Powered
Guided
Unguided
Unguided
Guided
Smart Bomb
Bullet Shell
Free Fall Bomb
ICBM
Simple Rocket
Manned
Unmanned
Recoverable
Recoverable
Expendable
Expendable
Conventional Aircraft
Kamikaze
Remote Control
Automatic Control
Remote Control
Automatic Control
Current Definition of a UAV
Guided Missile
Cruise Missile
RPV
Drone
3
Unmanned Air Vehicle Origins
Necessity, the mother of invention produced
flying bomb concepts during the First World War.
The armistice halted experiments on all but
targets.
  • 1917 French artillery officer, ReneLorin
    proposed flying bombs using gyroscopic and
    barometric stabilization and control.
  • 1918 Germany halts development of guided
    weapons.
  • 1918 Charles Kettering (USA) flies Liberty
    Eagle Kettering Bug and Army Air Corps
    orders 75 copies.
  • 1920 Elmer Sperry perfects the gyroscope and
    the first enabling technology makes flight
    control feasible
  • 1932 RAE Fairey Queen crashes, technology is
    still in its infancy.

Fairey Queen IIIF Mark IIIB, 1932
4
USA - Targets Become Successful
1935 - Reginald Denny develops the RP-1 and
launches the Radio Plane Company, later to become
the Northrop Ventura Division.
5
V-1 Debuts in 1943
Advanced technologies of the Forties provided
control, guidance and targeting.
Speed was determined by engine performance at
max. power
Azimuth Control by gyroscope governed by magnetic
compass
Aneroid barometer altitude control
Propeller driven air-log governed range
6
Launch Systems
A wide variety of launch systems have been
developed for UAV applications
Pneumatic Catapult
Air Launch
JATO/RATO Launch
Runway Launch
7
UAV Recovery Techniques
Recovery schemes are determined by application
and UAV size, the trend is toward autoland
capability
Parachute
ABIAS
Mid Air Retrieval System (MARS)
Conventional
Net
8
SI4000 SUMMER 2004 UAV Brief
Ryan Aeronautical UAV History
Norman S. Sakamoto norm.sakamoto_at_ngc.com 619.203.5
726
File Name.8 As of (date)
9
Ryan XAAM-A-1 Firebird
Firebird ushers in the missile age at Ryan in 1949
Speed was determined by engine performance at
max. power
7.5 without booster
Aneroid barometer altitude control
Early radar guidance was a forerunner to Sparrow
missiles
10
BQM-34 Firebee Subsonic Aerial Target
High Performance, Jet-powered UAV designed to
simulate hostile aircraft or missile threats
BQ-34 Firebee evolved from the Ryan KD-A
  • Primary Missions
  • Air defense weapons development, test
    evaluation
  • Air defense weapons training
  • Secondary Missions
  • Aerial reconnaissance
  • Experimental aerial platform
  • System Capabilities
  • Ground launch
  • Air launch from C-130
  • Recovery by parachute on land or at sea
  • 8-12 flights per vehicle
  • Flight Control and Navigation
  • Remotely piloted from airborne or ground control
    station
  • Preprogrammable Microprocessor Flight Control
    System ( MFCS) for autonomous flight

11
BQM-34E Firebee II Supersonic Aerial Target
Turbojet Powered UAV designed to simulate high
speed hostile aircraft and anti-ship missiles
  • Primary Missions
  • Air defense training
  • Aerial combat training
  • Weapons systems development
  • Secondary Missions
  • Test vehicle for advanced aerodynamic technology
    research (NASA)
  • System Capabilities
  • Ground Launch
  • Air launch from C-130
  • Recovery by parachute on land or at sea
  • 8-12 flights per vehicle

Firebee II with external fuel tank in subsonic
flight
12
AQM-91A Compass Arrow
Twenty plus vehicles built in the late 60s,
still holds the unmanned turbine powered altitude
record, 80,000 ft.
  • First large UAV specifically designed to survive
    by stealth.
  • Compass Arrow operated at altitudes in excess of
    80,000 ft. while traveling at subsonic speeds.
  • Incorporated several low observable features.
  • Significant reduction in the RCS features of the
    aircraft as seen from the ground.
  • Vertical tails and fuselage sides canted toward
    centerline to eliminate the specular reflections
    from the side aspect at or below the horizontal
    plane.
  • The engine inlet, located on top of the fuselage
    was lined with RAM, to conceal it from angles
    below the horizontal plane.
  • Exhaust nozzle was cooled to reduce IR signature,
    and like the inlet, was placed so as to be hidden
    by other airframe features at many aspects of
    observation. RAM was applied to the leading edges
    of the wing and to some portions of the
    fuselage.

13
AQM-81A/N Firebolt
Rocket-powered target missile designed to
replicate high altitude and high speed threats.
  • Primary Mission
  • Provide a realistic threat simulation of advanced
    enemy threats that fly in the upper reaches of
    earths airspace for
  • Air defense training
  • Aerial combat training
  • Weapons systems development
  • Reusable Hybrid Rocket Powered Target Missile
  • Air Launch
  • Recovery by MARS over land or sea
  • 20 Flights per vehicle
  • Flight Control and Navigation
  • Pre-programmable Mission Logic Control Unit
    (MLCU)
  • Remotely piloted from Ground Control Station

14
YQM-98A Compass Cope
Two units built and flight tested in 1976, held
the unmanned turbine engine endurance record of
28 hr. 11 min. until surpassed by Global Hawk on
March 21, 2001
  • Primary Mission
  • High altitude endurance reconnaissance and
    surveillance
  • Minimum 24 hours of endurance
  • 750 lbs. payload capability
  • Triple redundant autoland system
  • Dual redundant avionics system
  • Quadruple redundant Command Control System
  • First major Use of GOTS/COTS hardware

15
Model 410 Long Endurance UAV
Economical aerial reconnaissance and surveillance
system for civilian or military customers
  • Primary Mission
  • Provide a long-range or long-endurance aerial
    platform for
  • Military reconnaissance
  • Electronic communications relay
  • Electronic warfare countermeasure
  • Law enforcement, drug interdiction
  • Border surveillance
  • Disaster area observation
  • Natural resources monitoring

16
Model 410 Long Endurance UAV (continued)
Economical aerial reconnaissance and surveillance
system for civilian or military customers
  • System Components
  • Long Endurance Aerial Vehicle
  • Composite construction
  • Modular design
  • Two-man assembly / disassembly
  • Short, unimproved runway capability
  • Ground Control Station
  • Self contained, transportable, fully integrated
  • Autonomous flight control mission programming
  • Remote manual flight sensor control
  • Real-time datalink
  • Image data processing
  • Onboard Flight Control Navigation
  • Central Flight Control Computer (CFCC)
  • Global Positioning System (GPS)
  • Auto takeoff and landing
  • Payload
  • 300 pound capacity
  • 24 cubic foot volume
  • Stabilized retractable sensor platform

17
Model 324 Medium Range
Mobile and transportable advanced technology
unmanned aerial reconnaissance system
  • Primary Mission
  • Conduct autonomous tactical aerial reconnaissance
    and surveillance
  • System Components
  • Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
  • Composite airframe
  • Ground launch from mobile transport trailer
  • Recovery by parachute with air-bag attenuation
    system
  • Onboard Flight Control Navigation
  • Mission Logic Control Unit (MLCU)
  • Inertial Navigation System (INS)
  • Global Positioning System (GPS)

18
Model 324 Medium Range (continued)
Mobile, and transportable advanced technology
unmanned aerial reconnaissance system
  • System Components (cont)
  • Mobile Launch Recovery Vehicle (LRV)
  • 8 wheel all-terrain tractor
  • 6 wheel trailer transport/launcher
  • Self-contained command 7 control shelter
  • Autonomous flight control mission programming
  • Remote manual flight control
  • Command tracking telemetry system
  • Payload
  • CAI/Recon Optical KS-153A camera
  • Loral IRLS D-500 Infrared line scanner

19
SI4000 SUMMER 2004 UAV Brief
Ryan Aeronautical Modern UAV Design Technology
Norman S. Sakamoto norm.sakamoto_at_ngc.com 619.203.5
726
File Name.19 As of (date)
20
Model 350 Medium Range UAV
Advanced technology tactical unmanned aerial
reconnaissance system
  • Mission
  • Provide near real-time optical and/or infrared
    images of heavily defended areas
  • Target detection
  • Target identification
  • Battle damage assessment
  • System Components
  • Onboard Flight Control Navigation
  • Mission Logic Control Unit (MLCU)
  • Inertial Navigation System (INS)
  • Global Positioning System (GPS)
  • Payload
  • Advanced Tactical Aerial Reconnaissance System
    (ATARS)

21
Model 350 Medium Range UAV
Advanced technology tactical unmanned aerial
reconnaissance system
  • System Components
  • Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
  • Ground launch
  • Air launch ( from F/A-18 and F-16R)
  • Soft landing recovery by parachute or by
    Mid-Air Recovery System (MARS)
  • Local Control Monitoring Station (LCMS)
  • Self-contained, transportable
  • Autonomous flight control mission programming
  • Remote manual flight control
  • Command, tracking, telemetry image data
    link systems
  • Image data processing system

22
Global Hawk HAE UAV
High Altitude Endurance Unmanned Aerial
Reconnaissance System
  • Mission
  • Provide continuous day / night, high altitude,
    all weather surveillance and reconnaissance in
    direct support of allied ground and air forces
    across the spectrum of conflict
  • Increase the reach of existing and future
    surveillance systems
  • Extraordinary range and endurance
  • Fewer number of systems required to maintain
    global ISR coverage

23
Global Hawk HAE UAV
The Global Hawk is an Integrated System
Speed(n.miles/hour)
24
Global Hawk System Overview
25
Global Hawk Vehicle Size
26
Global Hawk Integrated Sensor Suite
27
SI4000 SUMMER 2004 UAV Brief
Ryan Aeronautical Future UAV Technology
Norman S. Sakamoto norm.sakamoto_at_ngc.com 619.203.5
726
File Name.27 As of (date)
28
Telepresence
Telepresence, also called virtual presences, is
participation in an environment from a remote
location
  • A subset of virtual reality, telepresence uses
    external mechanics to view the environment,
  • Lethal UAV weapons delivery systems of the 1970s
    put the shooter out of harms way.
  • Ryan developed systems to launch a variety of
    guided standoff weapons from BGM-34C UAVs.
  • Virtual Reality software today contains the
    following features
  • Object database - descriptions of virtual objects
    or environments
  • Attribute database - color, texture, orientation
  • Sensor driver- monitors tracking devices to know
    actual position
  • display driver- reality engine updates object for
    display
  • Simulation manager - coordinates entire system
    maintaing proper perspective between objects

29
Virtual Reality Web sites
Commercial VR packages are available from many
houses on the web.
  • World Tool Kit Sense8 www.sense8.com
  • VR Development Systems VREAM www.vream.com
  • Walk Through Virtus www.virtus.com
  • Virtual Reality Studio Danmark Software WWW.domark
    .com
  • Cyberspace Development Kit Autodesk www.autodesk.c
    om
  • Recent check of the links, Red are no longer
    pertinent or active.

30
Fuzzy Logic / Neural Nets
The development of an adaptive control system to
enhance engine performance is on the horizon
  • Fuzzy logic algorithms and hardware have enjoyed
    a recent development frenzy
  • The technology is ready for transition to UAV
    class engine controllers when the need is great
    enough
  • Current F/A-18 Fuzzy logic engine control work is
    funded and ongoing

31
Voice Directed UAV
Speech recognition could replace some navigation
logic allowing mixed use of UAVs and manned
aircraft
  • Neural Network computing methods could be applied
    to artificial speech recognition and UAV command
    language
  • This will increase asset interoperability for a
    force commander or commercial air traffic
    controller
  • Minimizes ground control station assets

32
Damage Detection / Failure Prediction
UAV Mission Failure rate can improve airframe
monitoring and failure prediction.
  • In high threat areas, damage may occur due to
    hostile action.
  • With proper sensors, a UAV could decide to
    return to base if damage or failures were
    detected prior to catastrophic failure.
  • Smart structure technologies will detect damage,
    predict useful life, continue operation at
    optimal flight conditions.
  • The UAV will react by reducing speed, flying
    minimum G profile or dumping fuel and returning
    to base

33
SI4000 SUMMER 2004 UAV Brief
UAVs - Where Weve Been and Where Were Going
Norman S. Sakamoto norm.sakamoto_at_ngc.com 619.203.5
726
File Name.33 As of (date)
34
Customers
  • NATO
  • DEA
  • DNA
  • DOT
  • CIA
  • FBI
  • NSA
  • INS
  • Sandia
  • Los Alamos
  • LLL
  • NASA
  • DARPA
  • DARO
  • MDA
  • USAF
  • USA
  • USN
  • USCG
  • RCAF
  • JDF
  • GOI
  • GOE

35
Performance
  • Altitude 7 Ft to 100,000 Ft
  • Velocity 60 Kts to Mach 4
  • Endurance 7 Minutes to 40 hours
  • Range 25 NMi to 14,000 Nmi
  • Take-Off Gross Weight 200 Lb to 34,500 Lb
  • Payload Weight 25 Lb to 3,000 Lb

36
Missions
  • IMINT
  • SIGINT
  • GPS Pseudolite
  • Air Sampling
  • Strike
  • EW/ESM
  • Decoy
  • BPI/BPLI
  • Target
  • Cargo / Logistics
  • ACN

37
Aerodynamics
  • Twin Verticals
  • V - Tails
  • Canards
  • V/STOL
  • Non Atmospheric
  • Hypersonic
  • Conventional Airfoil
  • Rogallo Wing
  • Laminar Flow
  • SuperCritical
  • Ailerons, Elevators, Rudders, Ruddervators,
    Spoilers, Speed Brakes, Flaps, Elevons
  • BLC

38
Airframe
  • Metallic
  • Aluminum
  • Steel
  • Titanium
  • Magnesium
  • Composite
  • Fiberglass
  • Graphite
  • Molded
  • Sheet Molded Compound

39
Low Observables
  • Radar
  • Acoustic
  • Visual
  • IR

40
Propulsion
  • Reciprocating ( Aircraft)
  • 2 Cylinder 2 Cycle
  • Turbo Prop
  • Turbo Jet
  • Turbo Fan
  • Ramjet
  • Pulse Jet
  • Rocket
  • Electric Motors

41
Payload Sensors
  • Cameras
  • Still
  • Motion
  • Panoramic
  • Electro-Optical
  • FLIR
  • IRLS
  • SAR
  • ISAR
  • IFSAR
  • Chaff
  • Active EW Jammers
  • COMINT
  • ELINT
  • ESM
  • Ordnance
  • Leaflets/Propaganda

42
Navigation
  • Dead Reckoning
  • Doppler
  • LORAN / Omega
  • INS
  • GPS/DGPS
  • INMARSAT

43
Flight Controls
  • AHRS (Gyros)
  • Inertial
  • Formation Flight
  • Autonomous Flight
  • Active Real-Time
  • Re-Planning
  • Re-Tasking
  • Analog
  • Digital
  • Hybrid
  • Duplex
  • Triplex
  • Electrostatic

44
Secondary Power
  • Batteries
  • Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)
  • Solar
  • Generator

45
Actuation System
  • Hydraulic
  • Pnuematic
  • Electro-Mechanical
  • Linear/Rotary
  • Push/Pull
  • Cables/Pulleys

46
UAVs - Current Development and Emerging Uses
47
The Networked Vision of the Future
UAVs Are A Major Part of the Vision
48
Warfighters Challenge Future Combat
  • Regional Global Asymmetric Warfare
  • Proliferation of Ballistic Missile/Cruise Missile
    Threats
  • Proliferation of WMD Capabilities /Systems and
    the Will To Use Them
  • Uncertainty In Situational Awareness/Decisions
  • Non-Traditional Roles Missions With Force
    Structure Pressures
  • Acquisition of Advanced Technology Force
    Structures
  • Technologies, Applications, Systems Insertion
    Sequencing
  • Force Mix, Postures, Basing, CONOPS Employment
    Concepts
  • Sustaining Capability in the Transition/Transforma
    tion
  • Establishing Sustaining Affordability - No
    Immunity To Budget Constraints

Understanding Integrating UAVs Is A Significant
Part of the Challenge
49
Some of the Emerging Concepts RequirementsThat
UAVs Can Meet
Military BM/C4ISR BPLI - Theater Ballistic
Missile Defense Cruise Missile Defense - BM/C4ISR
Intercept Battlespace Infosphere Comms
Reach-Back Kinetic Non-Kinetic Combat
Operations PSYOPs SOF Operations SBIRS Low
Adjunct Tactical Surrogate Satellite / Sensor
Test Bed Space Sensing Space Surveillance Space
Tracking Space Comms/Data Relay Military
Science Military RD Augmentation of GPS
These Lists Are By No Means Comprehensive
Civil Authority Commercial Applications Communic
ations Law Enforcement Drug Interdiction Disaster
Preparedness Management Global Meteorological
(NOAA) Forest Fire Surveillance Environmental
Monitoring, Management Enforcement Agricultural
Resource Surveillance Management Natural
Resource Surveillance Management Scientific
Research
50
Questions?
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