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SW Project Management Project Schedule and Budget

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Developing the project schedule and budget is the grand finale of the project ... Projects fill the time available (Parkinson's law) Resource contention. Chapter 7. 22 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SW Project Management Project Schedule and Budget


1
SW Project ManagementProject Schedule and Budget
  • INFO 420
  • Glenn Booker

2
Grand finale
  • Developing the project schedule and budget is the
    grand finale of the project planning process
    our ultimate goal
  • We just defined the tasks and estimated their
    duration (effort)
  • Now identify the sequence of tasks,
    interdependencies, and staffing needs

3
Project cost management
  • The budget is determined from the project
    schedule, the cost assigned to tasks, and other
    indirect costs or resources
  • Project cost management includes
  • Cost estimating for tasks and their resources
  • Cost budgeting for the whole project
  • Cost control define processes

4
Rolling up costs
  • Since our tasks were organized into phases and
    deliverables, we can roll up (summarize) costs to
    any level desired
  • Cost per deliverable
  • Cost per phase
  • Cost of the whole project
  • The sponsor needs to approve these costs

5
Developing project schedule
  • A key sanity check is that each of the estimates
    for each task is really reasonable according to
    the experts in that activity
  • GIGO applies here, not just to programming!

6
Project schedule tools
  • Tools to show a project schedule include
  • Gantt chart
  • Project network diagram
  • Activity On the Node (AON) diagram
  • Critical path analysis
  • PERT charts
  • Precedence diagramming method (PDM)
  • Critical chain project management (CCPM)

7
Gantt chart
  • The Gantt chart is probably the most widely used
    project management tool
  • Time is the X axis, from days to years
  • The current date is readily visible
  • Tasks are on the Y axis
  • Bars represent WBS tasks
  • Milestones are diamond shapes
  • An inset bar can show actual work progress

8
Basic Gantt chart
9
Project network diagram
  • Project network diagrams are also based on the
    WBS, but also show more info on task sequence or
    dependencies
  • Many also show when tasks must start or stop in
    order not to affect project completion date
  • This can help decide resource assignments needed
    for critical tasks

10
Activity On the Node
  • Activity On the Node (AON) diagrams represent the
    flow of tasks needed to complete the project
  • Tasks are nodes (boxes)
  • Arrows show the order in which they occur
  • The duration of tasks isnt directly visible
    under AON, only time order

11
Activity On the Node
  • Tasks can be predecessors, successors, or in
    parallel
  • Predecessor tasks must occur before another task
  • Successor tasks must occur after another task
  • Parallel tasks may occur at the same time as
    another task

12
Critical path analysis
  • Given an AON, critical path analysis determines
    which activities are directly connected to
    achieving the project schedule
  • They are the critical path, which can change
  • Analytically, find the duration of each path
    through the AON diagram

13
Critical path analysis
  • The path with the longest duration is the
    critical path (and the project duration)
  • If any tasks on the critical path are delayed,
    the overall project completion will be delayed
  • Tasks not on the critical path may have a
    non-zero amount of slack or float, which is the
    amount of duration they can slip without
    affecting the project

14
Critical path analysis
  • A manager might add resources to tasks on the
    critical path, if that will actually help finish
    them sooner
  • This technique can be called expediting or
    crashing the project
  • Fast tracking the project is done by making tasks
    parallel that werent

15
PERT charts
  • PERT is the program evaluation and review
    technique, developed in the 50s
  • Often seen with CPM, or critical path method
  • A PERT chart also uses the AON graphic notation,
    but uses a different approach for estimation

16
Styles of PERT nodes
17
PERT charts
  • For each task, estimate the lowest (optimistic),
    most likely, and highest (pessimistic) durations,
    then use
  • estimate (low high 4likely)/6
  • The critical path analysis can be done based on
    these estimates

18
Precedence diagramming method
  • The precedence diagramming method (PDM) adds to
    AON by showing the key sequence relationships
  • Finish to start (most common, sequential)
  • Start to start
  • Finish to finish
  • Start to finish

19
PDM node relationships
From Fig. 7.5
20
PDM
  • PDM can also show lead and lag times for
    activities
  • Lead time is an amount of time a task can start
    before the end of its predecessor
  • Lag time is the amount of time a task must start
    after the end of its predecessor
  • Hence lag time negative lead time

21
Critical chain project management
  • Critical chain project management (CCPM) is a
    newcomer (Goldratt, 1997)
  • It assumes that all estimates are inflated
  • We still finish projects late because
  • We wait until the last minute (student syndrome)
  • Projects fill the time available (Parkinsons
    law)
  • Resource contention

22
CCPM
  • CCPM takes that buffer from each task, and puts
    in in larger blocks where needed
  • How? Estimate tasks so that you only have a 50
    chance of completing them on time
  • Then take half of the difference in task time,
    and put that into a buffer at the end of the
    project

23
CCPM
  • Yes, you have to estimate each task twice
  • Once normally, and once for 50 chance completion
  • CCPM also accounts for resource limits, by
    identifying the resources for each task and
    buffers for each type of resource

24
PM software tools
  • There are several project management software
    tools for developing and managing schedules
  • Microsoft Project is the de facto standard
  • Planner and OpenWorkBench are open source tools
  • Ok, so Project doesnt have much competition

25
PM software tools
  • Often projects are planned in detail only a few
    months in the future, a rolling wave approach
  • Theres an outline of the rest of the project,
    particularly for planning long lead time items

26
Project budget
  • The budget is straightforward to develop, once
    the schedule has been determined
  • Determine the type of resource(s) needed for each
    task, and how many of them are needed for its
    duration (0.1, 2.5, whatever)
  • Find the cost of each resource type (/hr), and
    multiply that by how many and the duration cost
    per task

27
Project budget
  • Check for overuse of resources often not
    recommended to use 155 of a persons time
  • To find the cost of each resource, assess their
    typical annual salary, divide by 2000 (hours
    per work year), and multiply by 2.5 (to account
    for overhead expenses)

This is a heuristic. You could look for
salary surveys.
28
Project budget
  • So if a software engineer averages 60k/year,
    their hourly rate is about 30/hr
  • Actually, a normal work year is 4052 2080
    hours, but were just getting a rough estimate
  • Multiply by 2.5 to get a labor rate of 75/hr
  • This is the true cost in the text

29
Other costs
  • Labor is the biggest cost on most projects, but
    other costs should be considered
  • Indirect costs are admin assistants,
    facilities, insurance, etc. paid by the project,
    or from overhead?
  • Sunk costs from previous bad projects
  • Learning curve might be covered by prototypes

30
Other costs
  • Reserves most projects keep back a 10-15
    reserve from the total actual budget, in
    anticipation of some cost overruns
  • Project-specific hardware and software plan for
    infrastructure costs (servers, network equipment,
    software) which arent part of normal office
    facility environment
  • Travel, e.g. to the customer?

31
Resource allocation
  • Again, make sure that individuals arent
    scheduled for over 100 of their time
  • Also consider resource leveling
  • Are there times when people are needed, then not,
    then needed again?
  • What will those people do in the middle?

32
Baseline plan
  • Once all these issues have been identified and
    agreed upon, you have the baseline project
    schedule, which feeds the project plan
  • All measurements of planned versus actuals
    hinge upon this plan!
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