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70291: MCSE Guide to Managing a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network, Enhanced Chapter 3: TCPIP Arc

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Password: Your e-mail address. Guide to MCSE 70-291, Enhanced. 10. Telnet ... ARP uses a two-packet process to find the MAC address of the destination computer ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 70291: MCSE Guide to Managing a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network, Enhanced Chapter 3: TCPIP Arc


1
70-291 MCSE Guide to Managing a Microsoft
Windows Server 2003 Network, Enhanced Chapter
3TCP/IP Architecture
2
Objectives
  • Describe the overall architecture of TCP/IP
  • Identify application layer protocols in the
    TCP/IP protocol suite
  • Compare and contrast TCP/IP and UDP transport
    layer protocols
  • Understand the role of various Internet layer
    protocols including IP, ICMP, and ARP
  • Describe different network layer interface
    protocols

3
TCP/IP Architecture Overview
  • TCP/IP varies slightly from the standard OSI
    model
  • Represented by a four-layer model
  • Layers include
  • Application
  • Transport
  • Internet
  • Network Interface

4
TCP/IP Architecture Overview (continued)
5
TCP/IP Architecture Overview (continued)
  • Application layer provides access to network
    resources
  • Transport layer is responsible for preparing data
    to be sent over the network
  • Internet layer is responsible for logical
    addressing and routing
  • Network Interface layer consists of the network
    card driver and the network card circuitry itself

6
Application Layer Protocols
  • Application layer accepts data from software and
    sends it to the network
  • There are many application layer protocols that
    are only available on TCP/IP networks
  • Each of these protocols is associated with a
    client application and service

7
HTTP
  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol
  • Most common protocol used on the Internet today
  • Used by Web browsers and Web servers
  • HTTP defines the commands that Web browsers can
    send and how Web servers are capable of
    responding
  • CGI, ISAPI, and NSAPI can be used to pass data
    from a Web server to an application

8
FTP
  • File Transfer Protocol
  • Simple file-sharing protocol
  • Slowly becoming obsolete as HTTP can be used for
    downloading/uploading files
  • Protocol first introduced in the 1980s for UNIX
    systems

9
Activity 3-1 Using FTP to Download a File
  • Objective Use FTP to download a utility
  • Use the command line FTP utility to access
    Microsofts FTP site ftp.microsoft.com
  • User Name anonymous
  • Password Your e-mail address

10
Telnet
  • Terminal emulation program
  • Primarily used to connect remotely to UNIX and
    Linux machines
  • Does not support a graphical user interface
  • Many telnet clients can be connected to a server
    concurrently
  • Useful for administering UNIX and Linux systems

11
SMTP
  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
  • Used to send and receive e-mail messages between
    e-mail servers
  • Protocol also used by e-mail client software such
    as Microsoft Outlook

12
Activity 3-2 Using Telnet to Verify SMTP
  • Objective Use telnet to verify the functionality
    of an SMTP server
  • Connect to maila.microsoft.com on port 25 using
    telnet
  • Issue the help command to see the commands
    supported by the server

13
POP3
  • Post Office Protocol version 3
  • Most commonly used protocol for reading e-mail
    messages
  • Has commands to download and delete messages from
    e-mail servers
  • Does not support the sending of messages
  • POP3 supports only a single inbox
  • Does not support multiple folders for storage on
    the server

14
IMAP4
  • Internet Message Access Protocol version 4
  • Another protocol used to read e-mail messages
  • Has abilities beyond those of POP3
  • Can download message headers only
  • Allows multiple folders on the server side

15
Transport Layer Protocols
  • These protocols are responsible for preparing
    data to be sent over the network
  • The most common task is to break information up
    into packets
  • Each transport layer protocol has its own set of
    ports
  • An IP address and port number collectively form a
    socket
  • The port number ensures that a packet is
    delivered to the correct service

16
Transport Layer Protocols (continued)
17
Activity 3-3 Using Port Numbers
  • Objective Connect to resources using TCP and UDP
    port numbers
  • In this activity, you will be trying to connect
    to both HTTP and FTP using different port numbers

18
TCP
  • Transmission Control Protocol is the most
    commonly used transport layer protocol
  • Connection oriented a connection must be
    established before data is transferred between
    computers
  • Connection is established using a three-way
    handshake
  • TCP tracks each packet to ensure it was
    successfully delivered
  • Packets are delivered using a sliding window

19
Activity 3-4 Installing Network Monitor
  • Objective Install network monitor to enable
    packet capturing
  • In this activity, you will be using network
    monitor to see exactly how some of the data
    packets in your network are addressed

20
Activity 3-5 Viewing a TCP Connection in Network
Monitor
  • Objective Capture and view TCP connection
    packets in Network Monitor
  • In this exercise, you will be using Network
    Monitor to view packets used when a TCP
    connection is created with HTTP

21
UDP
  • User Datagram Protocol
  • Not as common as TCP/IP
  • UDP is connectionless and unreliable
  • Streaming audio and video use this protocol
  • Resolution of a DNS name is done via UDP

22
Activity 3-6 Capturing UDP Packets in Network
Monitor
  • Objective Capture and view UDP packets in
    Network Monitor
  • This activity involves viewing DNS packets

23
TCP versus UDP
  • TCP is connection-oriented and reliable
  • UDP is connectionless and unreliable

24
Internet Layer Protocols
  • Responsible for all tasks related to logical
    addressing
  • An IP address is a logical address
  • Protocols in this layer include IP, RIP, OSPF,
    ICMP, IGMP, and ARP
  • Protocols in this layer are aware of other
    networks

25
IP
  • Internet Protocol is responsible for the logical
    addressing of each packet created by the
    Transport layer
  • As each packet is sent out, IP attaches the
    source and destination address to the packet
  • IP verifies that, once the machine receives a
    packet over the network, that packet has the same
    destination address as the IP address of the
    computer

26
RIP and OSPF
  • Routing Information Protocol and Open Shortest
    Path First
  • Both are routing protocols
  • Responsible for defining how paths are chosen
    through the internetwork from one computer to
    another
  • Define how routers can share information about
    the networks of which they are aware

27
ICMP
  • Internet Control Messaging Protocol
  • Used to send IP error and control messages
    between routers and hosts
  • Most common use is the ping utility
  • Ping is used to help determine if a computer is
    functional and able to communicate over the
    network
  • Internet Assigned Numbers Authority maintains a
    complete list of ICMP packet types

28
ICMP (continued)
29
Activity 3-7 Testing Host Functionality
  • Objective Test the functionality of a host using
    the ping command
  • You will be using the ping command to test
    Internet connectivity
  • Ping www.hotmail.com

30
Activity 3-8 Viewing TTL
  • Objective View the TTL of a ping packet
  • The ping utility shows the TTL of the packet,
    giving an approximation for the speed of the
    connection

31
IGMP
  • Internet Group Management Protocol
  • Used for the management of multicast groups
  • Hosts use IGMP to inform routers of their
    membership in multicast groups
  • Routers use IGMP to announce that their networks
    have members in particular multicast groups
  • IGMP allows multicast packets to be distributed
    only to routers that have interested hosts
    connected

32
ARP
  • Address Resolution Protocol
  • Used to convert logical IP addresses to physical
    MAC addresses
  • Network cards use a MAC address to filter
    irrelevant packets
  • Data packets have four addresses source IP
    address, destination IP address, source MAC
    address, and destination MAC address
  • ARP uses a two-packet process to find the MAC
    address of the destination computer

33
ARP (continued)
34
ARP (continued)
  • ARP request
  • First packet
  • Broadcast to all computers on a local network,
    asking for the MAC address of the computer with
    the destination IP address
  • Destination computer sees this packet and replies
    with the address
  • The communication process then proceeds

35
ARP (continued)
36
ARP (continued)
37
ARP (continued)
38
Activity 3-9 Viewing the ARP Cache
  • Objective View the contents of the ARP cache
  • In this exercise, the cache will be viewed and
    then cleared to force the rebuilding of cache
    information
  • Use the arp command to complete this activity

39
Network Interface Layer Protocols
  • Most of the common Network Interface layer
    protocols are defined by IEEE
  • Ethernet is the most common Network Interface
    layer protocol used in corporate networks today
  • All varieties of Ethernet use Carrier Sense
    Multiple Access/Collision Detection for access
    control

40
Network Interface Layer Protocols (continued)
41
Network Interface Layer Protocols (continued)
42
Network Interface Layer Protocols (continued)
  • Token Ring is an older technology created by IBM
  • Token Ring was commonly implemented with
    mainframe computers
  • Wireless LAN is one of the fastest growing
    network types
  • 802.11b defines the most common wireless standard
  • Bluetooth is a short-range wireless
    communications system

43
Summary
  • The TCP/IP model is composed of four layers
    Application, Transport, Internet, and Network
    Interface
  • Many Application layer protocols, each of which
    is associated with a client application and
    service
  • HTTP most common protocol used on the Internet
  • FTP is used for transferring files across the
    Internet
  • Telnet remote connect to UNIX and Linux systems

44
Summary (continued)
  • SMTP is used to send and receive e-mail messages
    between e-mail servers
  • POP3 most common protocol used for reading
    e-mail messages
  • IMAP4 another protocol used for reading e-mail
  • The two Transport layer protocols are TCP and UDP
  • TCP is connection-oriented and reliable
  • UDP is connectionless and unreliable

45
Summary (continued)
  • Internet layer protocols
  • Responsible for tasks related to logical
    addressing
  • All very specialized
  • IP, RIP, OSPF, ICMP, IGMP, and ARP
  • Ethernet most common Network Interface layer
    protocol used in corporate networks today
  • Wireless LANs are one of the fastest growing
    network types
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