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EEC-484/584 Computer Networks

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(Part of the s are based on Drs. Kurose & Ross's s for their Computer Networking book) ... She visits a specific e-commerce site for first time ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: EEC-484/584 Computer Networks


1
EEC-484/584Computer Networks
  • Lecture 4
  • Wenbing Zhao
  • wenbing_at_ieee.org
  • (Part of the slides are based on Drs. Kurose
    Rosss slides for their Computer Networking book)

2
Second Session Issue
  • 17 students initially indicated the availability
    at MW 2-350 timeslot
  • 11 confirmed availability
  • 2 couldnt make it
  • 1 dropped the class
  • 3 not confirmed
  • Currently, we have 39 students
  • At least 25 students would stay in original
    session

3
Outline
  • Mock quiz
  • Web and HTTP

4
Large Scale Internet Application Architecture
http//img.microsoft.com/resources/documentation/w
ss/2/all/adminguide/en-us/stsb02b.gif
5
The World Wide Web
  • Creation of Tim Berners-Lee, in 1989 CERN nuclear
    physics research
  • Mosaic first graphical interface, creation of
    Marc Andersson (and others), precursor to
    Netscape
  • Uses a client-server architecture
  • Web server
  • Web browser
  • Runs on HTTP over TCP

6
Web and HTTP
  • Web page consists of objects
  • Object can be HTML file, JPEG image, Java applet,
    audio file,
  • Web page consists of base HTML-file which
    includes several referenced objects
  • Each object is addressable by a URL
  • The idea of having one page point to another is
    called hypertext
  • Invented by Vannevar Bush, a MIT EE professor, in
    1945

7
URL Uniform Resource Locater
  • Example URL
  • URL encodes three types of information
  • What is the page called local path name
    uniquely indicating the specific page
  • Where is the page located Host name of the
    server on which the page is located
  • How can the page be accessed protocol, e.g.,
    http, ftp

8
Some Common URLs
9
HTTP overview
  • HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol
  • Webs application layer protocol
  • client/server model
  • HTTP 1.0 RFC 1945
  • HTTP 1.1 RFC 2068

HTTP request
PC running Explorer
HTTP response
HTTP request
Server running Apache Web server
HTTP response
Mac running Navigator
10
HTTP Overview
  • Uses TCP
  • Client initiates TCP connection (creates socket)
    to server, port 80
  • Server accepts TCP connection from client
  • HTTP messages (application-layer protocol
    messages) exchanged between browser (HTTP client)
    and Web server (HTTP server)
  • TCP connection closed

11
HTTP Overview
  • HTTP is stateless
  • Server maintains no information about past client
    requests
  • Protocols that maintain state are complex!
  • Past history (state) must be maintained
  • If server/client crashes, their views of state
    may be inconsistent, must be reconciled

12
HTTP Connections
  • Nonpersistent HTTP
  • At most one object is sent over a TCP connection
  • HTTP/1.0 uses nonpersistent HTTP
  • Persistent HTTP
  • Multiple objects can be sent over single TCP
    connection between client and server
  • HTTP/1.1 uses persistent connections in default
    mode

13
Nonpersistent HTTP
(contains text, references to 10 jpeg images)
  • Suppose user enters URL http//www.someSchool.edu/
    someDept/home.index
  • 1a. HTTP client initiates TCP connection to HTTP
    server at www.someSchool.edu on port 80

1b. HTTP server at host www.someSchool.edu
waiting for TCP connection at port 80. accepts
connection, notifying client
2. HTTP client sends HTTP request message
(containing URL) into TCP connection socket.
Message indicates that client wants object
someDept/home.index
3. HTTP server receives request message, forms
response message containing requested object, and
sends message into its socket
time
14
Nonpersistent HTTP
4. HTTP server closes TCP connection.
  • 5. HTTP client receives response message
    containing html file, displays html. Parsing
    html file, finds 10 referenced jpeg objects

time
6. Steps 1-5 repeated for each of 10 jpeg objects
15
Non-Persistent HTTP Response Time
  • Definition of RTT time to send a small packet to
    travel from client to server and back (Round Trip
    Time)

16
Non-Persistent HTTP Response Time
  • Response time
  • one RTT to initiate TCP connection
  • one RTT for HTTP request and first few bytes of
    HTTP response to return
  • file transmission time
  • Total 2RTTtransmit time

17
Non-Persistent HTTP Issues
  • Requires 2 RTTs per object
  • OS overhead for each TCP connection
  • Browsers often open parallel TCP connections to
    fetch referenced objects (to reduce response
    time)

18
Persistent HTTP
  • Server leaves connection open after sending
    response
  • Subsequent HTTP messages between same
    client/server sent over open connection

19
Persistent HTTP
  • Persistent without pipelining
  • Client issues new request only when previous
    response has been received
  • One RTT for each referenced object
  • Persistent with pipelining
  • Default in HTTP/1.1
  • Client sends requests as soon as it encounters a
    referenced object
  • As little as one RTT for all the referenced
    objects

20
HTTP Request Message
  • Two types of HTTP messages request, response
  • HTTP request message
  • ASCII (human-readable format)

21
HTTP Request Message General Format
22
Uploading Form Input
  • Post method
  • Web page often includes form input
  • Input is uploaded to server in entity body
  • URL method
  • Uses GET method
  • Input is uploaded in URL field of request line

http//www.somesite.com/animalsearch?monkeysbanan
a
23
Method types
  • HTTP/1.0
  • GET
  • POST
  • HEAD
  • Asks server to include only the header part in
    response
  • HTTP/1.1
  • GET, POST, HEAD
  • PUT
  • Uploads file in entity body to path specified in
    URL field
  • DELETE
  • Deletes file specified in the URL field

24
HTTP Response Message
status line (protocol status code status phrase)
HTTP/1.1 200 OK Connection close Date Thu, 06
Aug 1998 120015 GMT Server Apache/1.3.0
(Unix) Last-Modified Mon, 22 Jun 1998 ...
Content-Length 6821 Content-Type text/html
data data data data data ...
header lines
data, e.g., requested HTML file
25
HTTP Response Status Codes
Status code is in first line of the response
message
  • 200 OK
  • request succeeded, requested object later in this
    message
  • 301 Moved Permanently
  • requested object moved, new location specified
    later in this message (Location)
  • 400 Bad Request
  • request message not understood by server
  • 404 Not Found
  • requested document not found on this server
  • 505 HTTP Version Not Supported

26
Trying out HTTP
  • 1. Telnet to your favorite Web server

Opens TCP connection to port 80 (default HTTP
server port) at cis.poly.edu. Anything typed in
sent to port 80 at cis.poly.edu
telnet cis.poly.edu 80
2. Type in a GET HTTP request
By typing this in (hit carriage return twice),
you send this minimal (but complete) GET request
to HTTP server
GET /ross/ HTTP/1.1 Host cis.poly.edu
3. Look at response message sent by HTTP server!
27
User-Server State Cookies
  • Many major Web sites use cookies
  • Four components
  • 1) cookie header line in HTTP response message
  • 2) cookie header line in HTTP request message
  • 3) cookie file kept on users host, managed by
    users browser
  • 4) back-end database at Web site

28
User-Server State Cookies
  • Example
  • Susan access Internet always from same PC
  • She visits a specific e-commerce site for first
    time
  • When initial HTTP requests arrives at site, site
    creates a unique ID and creates an entry in
    backend database for ID

29
Cookies Keeping State
server creates ID 1678 for user
entry in backend database
access
access
one week later
30
Cookies
  • What cookies can bring
  • authorization
  • shopping carts
  • recommendations
  • user session state (Web e-mail)
  • How to keep state
  • Protocol endpoints maintain state at
    sender/receiver over multiple transactions
  • cookies http messages carry state

31
Performance Enhancement
  • Caching
  • Save pages that have been requested in case they
    are used again
  • Client-side technique
  • Server replication
  • Replicate servers contents at multiple locations
  • Sometimes called mirroring
  • Content delivery networks
  • Deliver contents for their providers to end users
    efficiently for a fee

32
Web Caching
Goal satisfy client request without involving
origin server
  • user sets browser Web accesses via proxy server
  • browser sends all HTTP requests to proxy server
  • object in cache returns cached object
  • else cache requests object from origin server,
    then returns object to client

origin server
Proxy server
HTTP request
HTTP request
client
HTTP response
HTTP response
HTTP request
HTTP response
client
origin server
33
More about Web Caching
  • Proxy server acts as both client and server
  • Typically proxy server is installed by ISP
    (university, company, residential ISP)
  • Why Web caching?
  • Reduce response time for client request
  • Reduce traffic on an institutions access link
  • Internet dense with caches enables poor
    content providers to effectively deliver content

34
Non-Caching Example
origin servers
  • Assumptions
  • Average object size 100,000 bits
  • Avg. request rate from institutions browsers to
    origin servers 15/sec
  • Delay from institutional router to any origin
    server and back to router 2 sec

public Internet
1.5 Mbps access link
institutional network
10 Mbps LAN
35
Non-Caching Example
origin servers
  • Consequences
  • Utilization on LAN 15
  • Utilization on access link 100
  • Total delay Internet delay access delay
    LAN delay
  • 2 sec minutes milliseconds

public Internet
1.5 Mbps access link
institutional network
10 Mbps LAN
36
Non-Caching Example
origin servers
  • Possible solution
  • Increase bandwidth of access link to, say, 10
    Mbps
  • Consequences
  • Utilization on LAN 15
  • Utilization on access link 15
  • Total delay Internet delay access delay
    LAN delay
  • 2 sec msecs msecs
  • Often a costly upgrade

public Internet
10 Mbps access link
institutional network
10 Mbps LAN
37
Caching Example
origin servers
  • Install proxy server
  • Suppose hit rate is 0.4
  • Consequence
  • 40 requests will be satisfied almost immediately
  • 60 requests satisfied by origin server
  • Utilization of access link reduced to 60,
    resulting in negligible delays (say 10 msec)
  • Total avg delay Internet delay access delay
    LAN delay .6(2.01) secs
    .4milliseconds lt 1.4 secs

public Internet
1.5 Mbps access link
institutional network
10 Mbps LAN
Institutional Proxy server
38
Conditional GET
Origin Server
Proxy server
  • Goal dont send object if cache is up-to-date
  • Proxy server specify date of cached copy in HTTP
    request
  • If-modified-since ltdategt
  • Origin server response contains no object if
    cached copy is up-to-date
  • HTTP/1.0 304 Not Modified

HTTP request msg If-modified-since ltdategt
object not modified
HTTP request msg If-modified-since ltdategt
object modified
HTTP response HTTP/1.0 200 OK ltdatagt
39
Content Delivery Networks
  • Starts with URL replacement so all contents point
    to a CDN server
  • On receiving clients request, the request is
    redirected to the closest proxy server

40
Content Delivery NetworksURL Replacement
Original Web page
After transformation
41
Content Delivery NetworksRequest Redirection
42
HTTP Methods
  • The built-in HTTP request methods
  • Method names are case sensitive!

43
HTTP Methods
  • The status code response groups

44
Internet Transport Protocols Services
  • TCP service
  • connection-oriented setup required between
    client and server processes
  • reliable transport between sending and receiving
    process
  • flow control sender wont overwhelm receiver
  • congestion control throttle sender when network
    overloaded
  • does not provide timing, minimum bandwidth
    guarantees

45
Internet Transport Protocols Services
  • UDP service
  • unreliable data transfer between sending and
    receiving process
  • does not provide connection setup, reliability,
    flow control, congestion control, timing, or
    bandwidth guarantee

46
Internet Applications
Application layer protocol SMTP RFC
2821 Telnet RFC 854 HTTP RFC 2616 FTP RFC
959 proprietary (e.g. RealNetworks) proprietary (
e.g., Vonage,Dialpad)
Underlying transport protocol TCP TCP TCP TCP TCP
or UDP typically UDP
Application e-mail remote terminal access Web
file transfer streaming multimedia Internet
telephony
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